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466-493. The poet seems to have in mind a series of eight pictures, which we must imagine to be painted under the portico on the outer wall of the temple: (1) the victory of the Trojans under Hector; (2) the victory of the Greeks under Achilles; (3) the death of Rhesus; (4) the death of Troilus; (5) the Trojan matrons before the statue of Minerva; (6) Priam as a suppliant before Achilles; (7) Memnon in battle; and (8) the battle of the Amazons with the Greeks.
467, 468. Hac (sc. parte): ‘here,''in this part '; i.e. on this panel : Here the Greeks were flying, (while) the Trojan youth pursued; here on the next panel) the Trojans (were flying, while) the crested Achilles in his chariot pressed on.' curru: an ablative of the instrument.
469. Nec procul hinc: ‘and not far hence'; from that part of the series of paintings mentioned in the preceding verses. Rhesi: ‘Rhesus,’ a Thracian prince, who had come to the aid of Priam, and encamped on the night of his arrival outside of the city. According to some post-Homeric accounts, it was fated that Troy should not fall unless the horses of Rhesus should come into the possession of the Greeks before they had tasted of the pasturage of Troy and drunk of the river Xanthus. In the Iliad, X, 433, Ulysses and Diomedes penetrate into the camp of Rhesus, slay the chief himself and twelve of his followers, and convey the horses to the Grecian camp. niveis velis : ‘with snowy coverings ’; ablative of description. Virgil is thinking of his own times. Huts of twigs and turf were used in the heroic age.
470. primo prodita somno : ‘betrayed in their first (and therefore soundest) sleep.' Others understand by “first sleep'the sleep of the first night of their arrival.
471. vastabat: was (just before) devastating. He was not represented in the painting as actually engaged in slaughter, but the bodies of the slain, scattered around in the picture, suggest this idea. multa caede: better with vastabat than cruentus.
472. avertit : 'is leading away,' «driving away.' This is the immediate subject, or, so to speak, the action of the picture.
473. gustassent: the pluperfect is used here after an historical present. For the mood, see 11. 605, 2; LM. 880; A. 327; B. 292; G. 577; (H. 520, II).
474. Troilus: the youngest son of Priam.
476. curru: see note on 1. 226. resupinus : 'thrown backward.' The war chariot was very short and low, and open behind. Two warriors usually rode together, one to fight and the other to drive. The chariot in this case is empty, because Troilus is thrown out, and the charioteer, perhaps, has been slain.
477. tamen: “yet (though he has been thrown out of the chariot).'
478. versa hasta : 'with his inverted spear,' which being held in the right hand, and thrown backward over his shoulder, trails in the dust as he is
dragged along. See Fig. 17. pulvis: the last syllable is lengthened by the ictus. See note on l. 308.
479. Interea : “in the meanwhile.' The paintings seem like a narrative, and hence suggest the narrative term. In the Iliad, VI, 269–312, the Trojan matrons, by the request of Hector, bear a peplum in procession to the temple of Minerva, in the hope of propitiating the angry goddess. non aequae : “unpropitious.' Minerva was under the same provocation to anger as Juno; namely, the judgment of Paris. See l. 27 and note.
480. Crinibus passis : the hair was unbound in token of woe, according to the practice of females in ancient times. Cf. III, 65.
481. Suppliciter : ‘as suppliants'; join with tristes. tunsae — pectora : “beating their breasts.' The accusative is used with the perfect participle having a middle or reflexive use. H. 407; LM. 510; A. 240, (, N.; B. 180; G. 338, N. 2; (H. 377). The perfect participle is used as comitatus, l. 312.
482. solo: the ablative with fixos. aversa : ‘turned away'; to be taken literally; not 'hostile,' though it implies that. The statue is represented in the painting with the head averted and the eyes cast toward the ground.
484. vendebat: this is the incident represented in the picture. Achilles listens to the entreaties of the aged Priam, who kneels before him and begs the body of Hector; while near by is seen the chariot of Achilles with the body fastened to it by leather thongs. The scene is described in the Iliad, XXIV, 478, sqq.
486. spolia : refers to the arms of Hector, lying near the tent of Achilles. Ut: H. 666, 1; LM. 1148; A. 386, anaphora ; B. 350, 11, b; G. 682; (H. 636, III, 3).
487. inermes : in its literal signification, unarmed'; for he came to Achilles as a suppliant.
488. Se quoque : Aeneas, as one of the most distinguished among the Trojan heroes, must also appear in these paintings; but the particular scenes are not specified. For the government of principibus, see note on dextrae, 1. 408.
489. Eoas : 'eastern.' Memnon, the son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came with both Oriental and Aethiopian forces to the succor of Troy, and was slain by Achilles. His arms were made by Vulcan at the solicitation of Aurora. See VIII, 384.
490. Amazonidum : the Amazons, a race of female warriors, were said to dwell near the river Thermodon, in the northern part of Asia Minor. According to the post-Homeric poets, they came to the help of Priam under their queen, Penthesilea, who was killed in battle by Achilles. lunatis - peltis : an ablative of description, limiting agmina.
492. exsertae: uncovered.' subnectens : = gerens subnexa, "wearing a girdle bound,' etc.
493. Bellatrix: 'a warlike heroine'; in apposition with Penthesilea. Observe the emphasis given to this appellative by its position in the verse, like
venatrix, l. 319. audetque, etc.: ‘and (though) a virgin,' etc. Fig. 8, copied from a statue in the Vatican, represents an Amazon in the Greek style. The half-moon shield is seen at her side. An Amazon in the Phrygian costume is represented in vase paintings.
494-612. Aeneas is lost in the contemplation of the Ilian pictures, when Queen Dido enters the temple, attended by a numerous train, and proceeds to give audience to her people. While Aeneas and Achates, still invisible, are watching the proceedings, they behold Ilioneus and the other Trojan chiefs belonging to the missing ships entering the temple, followed by a tumul. tuous crowd of the Carthaginians. lliuneus, as the eldest of the party, addresses the Queen, and makes known their name, nation, and recent mishap, complaining of the hostile disposition of her subjects, who have attempted to oppose the landing of the Trojans. He mentions Aeneas and his uncertain fate, and entreats
the Queen to aid the remnant of the Trojans to Fig. 8. -An Amazon
resume their voyage to Italy. Dido makes a
friendly reply, and apologizes for the harsh conduct of her subjects. She offers to give them the desired aid, or to receive them as subjects into her new state. While she is expressing the wish that Aeneas himself were present, and her determination to send messengers everywhere in search of him, the cloud which enveloped him is suddenly dispelled, and he thus appears unexpectedly in the presence of the Queen and his Trojan friends.
494. dum : is joined with a present, though the events are past, the regular construction. H. 553, 4; LM.917; A. 276, e; B. 293, 1; G. 570; (H. 467, III, 4). Aeneae: limits videntur as a dative of the agent. Cf. ulli, l. 440. Videri is used as above in l. 326, in its literal sense; while Aeneas is looking at these objects deserving of wonder, ‘marvels to see.'
497. Incessit : advanced.' See note on 1.46. iuvenum : 'of youthful followers '; men and women in the prime and vigor of life. stipante: as comitante, II, 40; V, 76.
498. Qualis - Exercet Diana choros: such as Diana when she leads her
dancing trains.' Talis, correlative to qualis, is expressed below, l. 503. The first syllable of Diana here is long. Eurotae, Cynthi: Diana, as the goddess of the chase, and therefore the patron goddess of Sparta, a city devoted to war and the chase, frequented the banks of the Eurotas, the principal river flowing through Sparta. Like her brother, Apollo, she was also believed to resort at times, with her nymphs, to Mount Cynthus. Cf. IV, 147.
499. quam secutae : 'following whom '; the perfect participle as above in
500. Hinc atque hinc: 'on either side.' See note on l. 162. illa - pectus: is parenthetical. Latona delights in the beauty of her children.
504. Per medios: as in l. 440. Instare is followed either by the dative or accusative. Cf. VIII, 433.
505. foribus : in'or • within the doors’; so near the portal as to appear to the spectator to be in it. The Queen had been advancing with her train toward (ad) the temple. She has now ascended the flight of steps, crossed the broad platform or colonnade in front, passed through the door, and taken her seat on a high throne placed directly in the rear of the wide portal. media testudine templi: within the vault of the temple.' Virgil has in mind, as before, Roman temples, in which extensive use was made of the arch and dome. Media is here very nearly equivalent to the preposition in; as any point within an inclosure is medius.
506. Saepta armis : «surrounded by men at arms.' solio subnixa: 'seated (i.e. supported by) upon a throne.' Cf. III, 402.
507. Iura dabat legesque viris : she was administering justice and giving laws to her people.' lura are 'rights,' decisions,'' usages'; leges are ‘forms of law,' 'statutes.' operum laborem : 'the execution of (public) works.' She was assigning the charge of these to various overseers, either directly, according to her own judgment, or else by drawing (trahebat) lots from an urn. The act of drawing the lots' is transferred, by a poetic turn of expression, to the ‘labor' which was to be determined by lots.
509. concursu: is the multitude of Carthaginians accompanying the Trojans.
512. penitus oras: ‘and had conveyed far away to other shores '; i.e. other than those near Carthage, where Aeneas had landed.
513. Obstipuit: is understood with Achates, and percussus, with ipse. For the adjective, see H. 395, 1; LM. 485; A. 187, a; B. 235, 1; G. 290; (H. 439, 1); for the verb, H. 392; LM. 471; A. 205, d; B. 255, 2; G. 285, 1; (H. 463, 1).
515. res incognita: i.e. the unknown circumstances of their friends. See 11. 517-519.
516. Dissimulant: 'they remain concealed.' Not wholly of their own choice, it is true, for they have no power to dispel the cloud; but they would
not wish to emerge, at this moment, if they could; and hence they connive, as it were, with the divinity that is concealing them. speculantur : “look out,'' watch to ascertain what fortune, etc.
517. Quae fortuna viris : sc. sit; “what fate attends the men. The present is substituted for the perfect, because the action is conceived as scarcely yet finished.
518. Quid: 'why?' lit. 'as to what'; adverbial accusative. cunctis navibus : ‘chosen from all the ships.' See note on Italiam, 1. 2.
519. Orantes veniam: to sue for favor '; i.e. here, 'for protection.' See 1. 526. The present participle is used to denote purpose. H. 638, 3; 533, 2; LM. 1017; A. 290, a, 3; 293, 6, 2; B. 337, 4; (H. 549, 3).
520. introgressi: for the auxiliary to be supplied here, see note on 1. 216. coram : sc. regina ; before the queen.'
521. Maximus : sc. natu. placido : "calm,' though like Neptune, l. 126, graviter commotus.
522. condere: for the infinitive, see note on 1. 66.
523. gentes superbas: ‘proud nations'; refers to the neighboring barbarians, not to the Carthaginians.
524. Observe the emphatic position of Troes. maria : an extension of the cognate accusative with vecti, “having traversed all seas.' Cf. aequora curre, V, 235. A similar use is that with navigat, 1. 67.
526. generi: H. 426, 2; LM. 531; A. 227; B. 187, II; G. 346, 2; (H. 385, II). pio: "righteous '; obedient to the gods; hence, deserving to be received in a friendly manner. propius : render literally, more closely '; implying that their real character and circumstances have been misunderstood.
527. Non: is rendered emphatic by its position. nos: H. 387, I; LM. 456; A. 194, a; B. 242, 1; G. 207; (H. 368, 2, N.). Libycos : see note on 1. 446. populare: the infinitive, after the Greek idiom, to denote a purpose, H. 608; LM. 950; A. 318; B. 326, N.; G. 421, N. 1, (a); (H. 533, II). Penates: by metonymy for 'hearths' or 'homes.''
528. raptas — vertere : “to seize and drive away. See note on 1. 69. Ver. tere is for avertere (cf. VIII, 208), and refers especially to the captives and the cattle, which would form the most valuable part of the booty.
529. ea : 'such. animo, victis : sc. est.
530. Hesperiam: 410; LM. H 521; A. 239; B. 177; G. 340; (H. 373). The other accusative here is quam understood.
532. Oenotri: these people were said to be kindred with the Pelasgi of Greece, and also with the Siculi, and to have occupied Bruttium and Lucania, in the south of the Italian peninsula. Italia was originally another designation for the same part of the peninsula, but was gradually extended in its application, until it came to signify, as now, the whole country south of the Alps. See note on primus, l. 1. fama : sc. est, of which the following clause