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387. Quisquis es. H. 525, 3; LM. 833; A. 309, C; B. 312; G. 254, 4; (H. 476, 3). haud — caelestibus : 'not odious to the gods.'

388. qui adveneris : H. 592; LM. 839; A. 320, e; B. 283, 3; 6. 633; (H. 517).

389. te perfer: convey thyself,” ‘proceed.' The common form is confer; but per denotes the completion of the walk which he has begun. limina : for domum, the palace of Dido. H. 752, 4; A. 386, synecdoche ; G. 695; (H. 637, IV).

390. reduces : 'brought back to land.' classem refers to the twelve missing ships.

391. tutum: "safety,' 'a place of safety.' versis aquilonibus : 'the winds having shifted.' Aquilonibus, as quite often, for the general term. ventis. Cf. V, 2.

392. vani: 'false'; pretending to have a knowledge they did not possess, docuere : for the indicative, see note on Vidistis, l. 322.

393-400. Aspice, etc.: she calls his attention to a Aock of twelve swans, corresponding in number to that of the missing ships, which during the conversation have been pursued by an eagle (lovis ales), but which are just settling safely on the ground. “Behold Alying joyfully in orderly array twice six swans, which the bird of Jove, swooping from the upper air, was (even now) scattering in the open heaven. Now you see them in a long line either settling on the ground (capere terras), or looking down upon the ground already occupied (by their companions). As rallying (reduces) they sport with flapping wings, after wheeling swiftly through the air (cinxere polum), and uttering notes of joy: not otherwise do your ships and the manly band (pubes) of your countrymen either

Fig. 7.–Venus (Kaufmann) held the harbor, or enter its mouth

(Profile view of the head facing p. 106.) with full sail.' Large birds of this kind often Ay in a long line, and those in advance alight first, while the others continue a little while hovering above, and circling swiftly round in the air, before they settle down with their companions. The points of resemblance between the birds and the ships are these : the swans have been scattered by the eagle, the ships by the tempest; both swans and ships have come together (reduces) again; a part of the swans are actually alighting,


while the rest are on the point of alighting : so some of the ships are already furling their sails, or discharging their crews upon the shore, while the rest are coming into the harbor under full sail. Perhaps the poet has in mind that the swan was one of the birds sacred to Venus.

399. tuorum: not a partitive genitive, but a limiting noun denoting that which goes to make up pubes.

400. portum tenet: ‘holds,' is in a harbor.' For the singular number, see above note on 1. 212.

401. qua: see note on l. 83.
402. avertens : sc. se. Cf. note on I. 104.
403. vertice: ‘from her head.'

404. vestis defluxit: her dress had been girded up like that of a huntress, but now suddenly fell in folds around her person.

405. incessu patuit: “was evident by her walk.' Cf. Gray's words (Prog. ress of Poesy, 39): –

'In gliding state she wins her easy way.'

The gliding movement of a god is compared by Homer (Iliad 5, 778) to that of a dove skimming along on motionless wings. Cf. V, 649. In this verse the final vowel of dea is not elided.

407. crudelis tu quoque : as well as Juno and the other unfriendly powers.

408. dextrae : iungere and miscere are followed by the dative, by the ablative with cum, or by the ablative without a preposition. For the government of iungere, see H. 615; LM. 971; A. 270; B. 327; G. 422; (H. 538).

409. datur: for the quantity, see H. 711, 1; LM. 330; A. 351, exc.; B. 127, 1; (H. 586, I). veras: sincere,' without disguise. Cf. VI, 689.

410. moenia: the walls of Carthage, of which Venus has just spoken. 411. Obscuro — saepsit: this fancy is not unfrequent in the ancient epies.

412. A poetic repetition of the idea contained in the foregoing verse. The compound circum fudit is separated by tmesis. LM. 1117; A. 385, imesis; B. 367, 7; G. 720; (H. 636, V, 3). For the construction of the cases after circum fundo, see H. 426, 6; LM. 535; A. 225, d; B. 187, I, a; G. 348; (H. 384, II, 2). 413. neu: for neve,

or lest.' 415. Ipsa : contrasted with Aeneas. 416. Laeta: no longer tristis (see l. 228) since the interview with Jupiter.

417. Ture: no victims were slain at the shrines of Venus; she was worshiped with incense and flowers. 'sertis : see Fig. 63. The ancients were accustomed to hang festoons of leaves and flowers around the temples from pillar to pillar, and also about the altars. Cf. Milton, Par. Lost, 2, 244:


His altar breathes
Ambrosial odors and ambrosial flowers.'

418-493. Aeneas soon comes in sight of rising Carthage, and wonders at the energy of the colonists, who are rapidly constructing fortified walls, public and private edifices, streets, arsenals, and docks. He enters the newly erected temple of Juno, and is both surprised and consoled on discovering there, painted on the walls of the temple, the principal incidents of the siege of Troy, including the battles in which he himself had been conspicuous.

418. Corripuere : ‘speed on, lit. "seized. Cf. V, 145. qua: cf. l. 401.

419. plurimus: "very high.' On the position of the adjective, see H. 510, 4; LM. 829; A. 200, d; B. 251, 4, c; G. 616, 3; (H. 453, 5). Cf. II, 278; V, 728.

421. molem : 'the massive structures' or “mass of buildings.' magalia quondam: “formerly huts'; i.e. where huts formerly stood. Perhaps the words are thrown in by the poet, and not to be regarded as the thought of Aeneas.

422. strata viarum: for stratas vias, 'the paved streets.' The genitive here is partitive in form, but not in sense.

423. With our punctuation, ducere and the following infinitives depend on instant; a construction which occurs again II, 628, and X, 118. See H. 607; LM. 954; A. 271, N.; B. 328, 1; G. 423, N. 2; (H. 533). The infinitives may, however, be regarded as historic. See H. 610; LM. 708; A. 275; B. 335; G. 647; (H. 536, 1). pars : in apposition with Tyrii. I. 393, 4; A. 184, b; B. 169, 5; G. 323; (H. 364).

425. concludere sulco : sc. eum; “to inclose (the place chosen) with a furrow'; i.e. a plowed line marking, according to the Roman custom, the limits of the estate. Some, however, understand here a 'trench' for the foundation wall of a building.

426. Iura, etc.: 'Make laws and choose magistrates'; legunt is an example of zeugma. H. 751, 2, N.; A. 385, zeugma; B. 374, 2, a; G. 690; (H. 636, II, 1). It is not necessary to suppose that everything mentioned here is actually seen by Aeneas.

427. alta : “deep’; repeated below in l. 429 in a different meaning.

429. Rupibus : ‘from the quarries.' The African marbles were celebrated. Theaters did not exist at the period of the foundation of Carthage; but Virgil seems here, as well as in the account of the paintings below (11. 466-493), and not infrequently elsewhere, to have had his own times in view. scaenis : the dative limits excidunt, the force of which is continued by the appositive decora; or, perhaps, in such instances there may be an ellipsis of a relative with some form of esse; here, quae sint. alta : “lofty. This word means “extending vertically, up or down,' according to the point of view. The rear wall of the stage was usually decorated with columns.

430. Qualis: see note on 1. 316. The antecedent being supplied, the

sentence will be talis labor eos exercebat qualis apes - exercet. The English idiom omits the noun, labor, in the second clause. Milton expresses the same figure in Par. Lost, I, 768:

• As bees
In springtime, when the sun with Taurus rides,
Pour forth their populous youth about the hive
In clusters.'

432. liquentia : from liquor, not liqueo.
434. venientum: for venientium.
436. Fervet opus : 'the work glows hot'; 'is briskly pursued.'

437. iam : 'even now.' In contrast with the fortune of Aeneas, whose promised walls of Lavinium (1. 258) are not yet begun.

438. suspicit : looks up to’; having descended the hill. See l. 419.
439. dictu : see note on visu, l. 11.
440. medios: sc. viros.

miscet: sc. se.

viris : see note on dextrae, 1. 408. ulli: for ab ullo. See note on l. 326.

441. laetissimus umbra : ‘very abundant in shade.' So the best Mss. A very plausible emendation is umbrae, with which cf. the genitive opum, l. 14.

442. Quo : join with loco. primum : 'in the beginning'; or on their first arrival.

443. signum : 'the token.'

444. Monstrarat: 'had indicated.' She had foretold to them, through some vision or oracle, that from the ground where she desired them to plant their new city, they would dig up as a sign the head of a horse. sic: i.e. by such a token as this. fore: depends on monstrarat understood; *for she had thus shown that the nation would be renowned in war and easily sus. tained for ages ’; lit. "easy in living,' “easy to be nourished. The supine victu is from vivo. See note on visu, I. III.

446. Sidonia : see above note on l. 12.

447. donis - divae : ‘rich with offerings (valuable treasures given by devotees) and with the powerful manifestation (i.e. presence, numine) of the goddess.'

448. Aerea : the costly material of the door indicates the splendor of the temple. The idea is still more impressed by its repetition in aere and aënis, as well as by the position of the terms at the beginning and end of the verse. Cf. a similar repetition of aureus in IV, 138, 139, and VII, 278, 279. cui: limiting surgebant, is equivalent to cuius limiting gradibus. See note on Ascanio, 1. 691. nexae Aere trabes : 'timbers bound with bronze,' describes the ‘bronze doorposts,' which were timbers cased or covered over with bronze; nexae aere being nearly equal to aeratae. We, may render freely: From whose steps arose a threshold of bronze, and doorposts overlaid with bronze, bronze were the doors with their creaking hinges.' Virgil perhaps had in

mind the sumptuous temples erected in Rome in his own time; one of which, the Pantheon, with its lofty portal of bronze folding doors (fores), bronze jambs (trabes), threshold and lintel, is still in use. See Fig. 19. foribus : dative with stridebat instead of a genitive with cardo; rendering aënis more emphatic by throwing it into the predicate. The hinges or pivots creaked in their sockets in turning the ponderous doors of bronze. -que : in 1. 448, is joined to the next verse in scanning. See note on l. 332.

452. rebus : H. 476, 3; LM. 629; A. 254, 6; B. 219, 1; G. 346, 2; (H. 425, 1), N.).

454. quae -- urbi: 'the prosperity which the city enjoys. Quae is the relative, not the interrogative. H. 643; LM. 1026; A. 340; B. 314, 1; G.

650; (H. 524).

with artificum

455. Artificum manus : “the skill of the artists.' inter se : *(comparing them) with each other.' Conington translates the rival skill.; operum laborem: 'the efforts of their skill.' These words refer to the building itself, i.e. the labor bestowed upon the construction of the temple, in contrast

manus, which refers to the works of art. The paintings were in honor of Juno, who had been victorious in the Trojan war.

456. ex ordine: \in their (historical) order.' 458. ambobus : “to both parties.' Achilles was cruel to the sons of Atreus (Agamemnon and Menelaus) in refusing so long to aid in the defense of the

and to Priam in slaying so many of his sons and particularly


camp; Hector.

460. laboris, etc.: «filled with. (the story of) our misfortune.' See note

on l. 14.

461. En Priamus: H. 421, 3; LM. 490; A. 241, c; (H. 381, N. 3, 2)). Sunt — laudi: «glory (i.e. praiseworthy conduct) has even here its own reward,' i.e. even in this remote part of the world. sua: 11. 503, 4; LM. 1043; A. 196, 4; B. 244, 4; G. 309, 2; (H. 449, 2). praemia: the reward in the case is fame and present human sympathy, as expressed in the following beautisul line.

462. rerum: an objective genitive. H. 440, 2; LM. 571; A. 217; B. 200; G. 363, 2; (H. 393, N.). Cf. II, 784.

463. haec fama : “this renown.' The knowledge of our history which the Carthaginians show in these pictures.

464. pictura : “painting”; in its general sense, referring to the whole collection.

465. Multa: H. 416, 2; LM. 505; A. 238, b; B. 176, 2, b; G. 333, 1; (H. 378, 2).

466. uti: interrogative, 'how.' For the mood following, cf. note on videat, 1. 181. Pergama: means properly the citadel of Troy, but is sometimes put, as here, for the whole city. circum: see note on l. 32.

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