Page images
PDF
EPUB

630. Fecerat et: ‘he had also represented.' In this sense facere takes the infinitive. 635. sine more: contrary to the usage of nations; “lawlessly.'

636. Consessu caveae: 'in the assembly of the circus.'
643: maneres : = debebas manere.
644. Tullus: Tullus Hostilius, the third king of Rome.
647. Accipere: sc. illos (= Romanos), as the subject.

630. Aspiceres: you might see.' auderet: indirect discourse after verb of mental action implied in indignanti, minanti.

652. In summo: 'on the top of the shield'; on the upper part of the orb as it stood, or as it would appear

when held up before the warrior in battle. Fig. 69. - Sistrum

654. recens regia : 'the palace (always) fresh. The (1. 696)

hut of Romulus, built in the first days of Rome, was always renewed by the Romans whenever its thatch had decayed, and therefore it was recens, as represented on the shield.

660. Virgatis: the small cloaks of the Gauls were 'striped' or checked, like the plaids of their modern kinsmen, the Scottish highlanders.

664. Lanigeros: the peak on the cap of the Salian priest, or priest of Mars, was encircled at the base by a tuft of wool.

670. Secretos: 'set apart' from the wicked.

671. Haec inter, etc. : the battle of Actium, perhaps, filled

up

the center of the shield. 673. argento: join with clari. Cf. III, 464.

676. erat: it was possible' to see. See note on VI, 596.

678. Hinc: contrasted with Hinc, l. 685.

680, 681. tempora flammas vomunt: referring to the ornaments on his helmet. patrium vertice sidus: a star appears in the bas-relief work just over the head of Augustus. This is the lulium, here patrium sidus, termed also in the Eclogues, IX, 47, Caesaris astrum, a comet which Fig. 70.

Anubis appeared while Augustus was celebrating the funeral

(1. 698) games in honor of Caesar. Augustus was the adopted son of Caesar.

688. coniunx: Cleopatra, the paramour of Antony. 689. reductis : cf. adductis, V, 141.

696. sistro: the sistrum was a small musical instrument of iron, used in the worship of Isis.

697. angues: there is a reference here to the asps which Cleopatra is said to have used as the instruments of her death.

698. monstra : the Egyptian gods had the heads of beasts; Anubis, that

of a dog; hence, latrator. These are represented as fighting against the gods of Rome.

704. Augustus dedicated to Apollo a temple on the Actian promontory in honor of his victory.

710. lapyge ferri: “to be carried by the lapyx '; or northwest wind.

712. tota veste vocantem : 'inviting with all his (unfolded) mantle.' The god of the Nile is represented as opening his ample robes to receive the fugitives.

714. Augustus, on his return to Rome in 29 B.C., celebrated three triumphs for his victories respectively in Dalmatia, at Actium, and at Alexandria.

725. Lelegas Carasque: the early inhabitants of the west coast of Asia Minor; put here for the people of Asia Minor in general.

726 sqq. In Roman triumphs it was customary to carry representations of the rivers that flowed through the subjugated territory.

727. bicornis: perhaps with reference to the two principal outlets of the Rhine, the Vahalis and Rhenus. See note on l. 77.

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

The attack of Turnus on the Trojan camp.

1–76. Iris, as the agent of Juno, encourages Turnus to attack the Trojan camp in the absence of Aeneas. On the approach of Turnus, the Trojans determine to follow the parting directions of Aeneas, to act only on the defensive. Turnus, exasperated at their inaction, prepares to set fire to their ships. 1. diversa parte: 'in a different quarter '; referring to the negotiations of Aeneas at the court of Evander and at the camp of the Etrurians.

3. parentis : ‘of his ancestor.' According to X, 619, Pilumnus was the abavus, or great-great-grandfather, of Turnus.

8. urbe: the fortified camp at the landing place at the mouth of the Tiber.

9. Palatini: the name in historical times of the early settlement, Pallanteum, of Evander. petit: the last syllable is long under the ictus.

10. Corythi: see note on III, 167. 11. Lydorum : for l'uscorum. See note on II, 781, and VIII, 479. agres

tes: in apposition with manum.

18. nubibus actam: 'conveyed by the clouds'; well said of Iris.

20. discedere caelum : Iris in her descent seems to make the sky open like a curtain, so that the stars come into view.

23. hausit: Turnus drew water, to wash his hands before making his prayer. Cf. VIII, 69.

26. pictai: cf. aulai, III, 354; aurai,

[graphic]

VI, 747

27. Messapus: see VII, 691.
28. Tyrrhidae: see VII, 484.

29. This verse seems to have been introduced by some copyist who took it from VII, 784.

30-32. The calm and regular march of Fig. 72. – Juno of Naples the army over the plains is likened to the

quiet current of a great river. surgens: 'swelling with its seven calm (tributary) streams.'

31. Per tacitum : 'in silence.' Per is often thus used to denote manner. 32. alveo: a dissyllable here.

39. Condunt se, etc.: 'the Trojans rush through all the gates for protection.' Those who happen to be on the outside of the camp, when the alarm is given by Caïcus from the battlement, hasten through the gates, and thus secure themselves from the enemy.

53. Principium pugnae: in apposition with the sentence, iaculum - auras.

55, 56. mirantur, etc.: they (Turnus and his followers) wonder at the unwarlike spirit of the Trojans, (and) that they do not present themselves on the open plain.'

64. Ex longo: sc. tempore ; long,' “for a long time'; join with collecta. sanguine: ablative of separation. See H. 465; LM. 604; A. 243, d; B. 214, 1, d); G. 390; (H. 414, III).

68. in aequum : 'to the open field’; as opposed to the closed camp.

70. The ships, drawn up on the bank of the river, have one side of the camp in their rear and ramparts inclosing them on the flanks, while the river protects them in front. Turnus approaches them on one flank, near the Tiber.

76-167. Aster invoking the Muses, the poet describes the interview of Cy. bele and Jupiter, which occurred at the time when the ships of Aeneas were built near Phrygian Ida, when Jupiter promised that these ships, after their arrival in Italy, should be transformed into nymphs. This promise is now fulfilled in the sight of the Rutuli. Turnus, however, nothing daunted, regards the omen as favorable to his own cause, and his troops encamp for the night on the plain.

79. Prisca fides facto, etc. : .credit was given of old to the story, but its fame endures for ever.' The event received full credit in ancient times, but is more and more believed as time advances. The adversative idea (sed) in the second member is due to Priscae.

86. arce: the summit of Mount Ida is meant.

88. iuveni: Aeneas. classis : genitive. 11.458, 2; LM. 594; A. 223; B. 212, 1; G. 383, 1; (H. 410, V. 1).

94. istis: either dative, 'for those' (ships of thine); or ablative, .by those (prayers) of thine.'

95, 96. immortale Fas: 'the privilege of immortality' certus : 'assured' of safety, 'safe.' habeant, lustret: see H. 559, 4; LM. 723; A. 268; B. 277; G. 265; (H. 484, V).

98. defunctae : i.e. having fulfilled their destiny.
100. arva: for ad arva. See note on I, 2.
104. Stygii fratris : Pluto.

105. pice torrentes : ‘boiling with pitch.' The banks were washed by the boiling pitchy flood. Per: governs ripas.

III. ab Aurora: ‘from the east.' 112. Idaei chori : 'the Idaean trains'; the attendants of the goddess Cybele. 118. puppes: the sterns are toward the land. See VI, 3-5.

121. Reddunt se: the ships have plunged into the river and disappeared for a moment, and now again appear on the surface transformed into nymphs.

122. Probably an interpolation; occurs also X, 223.

125. ab alto: ‘from the sea.' The river god withholds his waters a moment from the sea.

129, 130. non – Rutulos : “they (the Trojans) await not for Rutulian darts and firebrands'; i.e. to destroy them. Since the gods have already destroyed them by depriving them of their ships. The adjective Kutulos belongs to both substantives, but is attracted into the gender of the latter.

131. rerum pars altera : 'the one part of the world,' the sea. That final refuge which they had on the sea is cut off. They have now to take their chance on land, which is the other part.

132. gentes : in apposition with milia.

139. dolor : the wrong of Turnus in being robbed of his betrothed Lavinia is similar to that which the Atridae suffered in the loss of Helen. -que: continues the force of the negation: Nor is it the lot of Mycenae alone to take arms for the recovery of a ravished wife.

140. Sed — est : ‘but (some one may say) it is enough that they (the Trojans) have perished once'; have perished as a nation.

140-142. peccare — Femineum: Turnus answers the supposed objection by saying: “Yes, indeed; but to have committed the crime once before (the crime, namely, of robbing men of wives) should have been enough for them hating utterly (after their first calamity) almost (* only not' =all but') all womankind.” Any other race of men would have been deterred by one punishment; but the Trojans, who ought to detest the whole race of women as the cause of their downfall, even after losing their country, repeat the same offense.

141. perosos: agrees with cos, the subject (understood) of peccare.

154. faxo: for fecero, ‘I will have caused '; followed by the subjunctive (ut) ferant, that they think.' Trans., “I will teach them not to say,' etc.

157. Quod superest: sc. diei ; during that portion of the day which remains.'

159-161. portas, moenia, muros : refer to the Trojan camp. The Rutulians bivouac for the night, and detach fourteen companies to keep watch fires around the enemy's ramparts.

168–313. The Trojans having stationed their guards, Nisus and Euryalus, who are on duty together as sentinels, agree to undertake a journey by night in search of Aeneas, and they proceed to the council of chiefs, in order to lay their plan before them. The assembled princes approve the design and applaud the heroism of the two youths. They receive presents, and with the prayers and good wishes of the Trojans set out on their adventure.

170. pontes: perhaps footways of plank connecting different parts of the walls with the towers.

176. For an earlier reference to Nisus and Euryalus, see V, 294 sq9.
177. Ida: a nymph, mother of Nisus.
185. dira : “strong,' • wild '; a poetic use of the word.

187. mihi: the indirect object of agitat; the infinitive being the direct object; my mind impels me (urges upon me) to venture upon hight,' etc.

194. Si, etc. : if they (the fathers) promise the things which I ask for thee.' I will demand that some recompense for my undertaking shall be bestowed on thee, and content myself with the glory, whether I come back or perish.

« PreviousContinue »