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then dismissed by Juno to the infernal regions, by the way of Lake Ampsanctus..

477. Arte nova: “with new device'; with the intention of devising a stratagem of mischief additional to those already executed.

quo litore : "where on the shore.'

483. cornibus ingens: lofty with his horns '; the prose form would be cornibus ingentibus. 492. Ipse : "himsell'; of his own accord.

sera, etc. : 'in the night, however late.'

494, 495. fluvio secundo Deflueret: ‘was floating on the downward current.' 495. ripa : 'on the bank'; at times resting on the shore.

498. erranti deus: unaided, his hand might have erred, but a superior power (Allecto is meant) directed the arrow. For the use of deus, see note on II, 632.

504. conclamat: = - clamore convocat.

505. pestis: the 'scourge'; Allecto. She has already made the rustics aware of the outrage.

509. Quadrifidam: proleptic.
514. intendit vocem : 'swells the blast.'

516, 517. The lake of Diana on the Alban mount, far to the southeast of the Tiber, and the river Nar and lake Velinus far to the northeast; i.e. the whole country far around heard the sound. The lake of Diana, now called Lago di Nemi, is near Aricia, fifteen miles south of Rome. The river Nar runs between Umbria and the Saline country, and falls into the Tiber. The lake Velinus was produced by the overflow of the river Velinus, and was led into the Var by an artificial channel.

523. Non certamine agresti agitur: 'the contest is carried on not in the rustic manner.'

528. primo: = primum.

532. fuerat maximus : "had been the oldest '; until now, when his life ends; when he is struck by the fatal arrow.

533. vulnus: as in II, 529, for the weapon itself. udae Vocis iter: of the moist passage of the voice.' Udae limits iter logically.

535. Corpora: sc. sternuntur.

541. Promissi facta potens: “having fulfilled her promise ’; lit. . having been made mistress of her promise.' dea : i.e. Allecto.

546. Ironical.
569. rupto Acheronte : 'where Acheron breaks forth.'
571. levabat:, 'relieved' by her disappearance.

572-640. The strife is continued by Juno. The shepherds hasten to Lauren. tum, and Turnus with them urges Latinus to war. The king, resisting in vain, leaves the control of things to other hands. On the refusal of Latinus, Juno her. self opens the Temple of Janus, as the signal of war. The Italians now make preparations for war, and their principal cities and nations are described.

572, 573. extremam manum : 'the finishing hand.' 574. ex acie : 'from the battleground.' 577. igni: 'fiery passion '; as in II, 575. 578 sqq. The infinitives depend on an idea of saying implied in ingeminant. 580. attonitae Baccho: “maddened by Bacchus.'

581. Insultant: "rush through'; here a transitive verb. The husbands and sons of the Bacchanals, influenced by the name of Amata, importune (fatigant) war.

591. ubi, etc. : 'when no power is given (the king) to overcome their mad purpose.'

593. auras inanes : 'the empty air’; the air that can not answer his prayers.

595. has poenas: “punishment for this.' 597. seris : too late.'

598. omnis — portus: the port in which I am seeking my refuge is so near that it is all (omnis) open before me (in limine); the passage may be translated, “ my haven of rest is all in view.' 601. protinus : 'perpetually'; continuously from that time.

601, 602. urbes Albanae: Alba, the mother of Latium, together with its colonies grouped about it in the Alban hills.

605 899. The deeds of Augustus are re. ferred to. The Getae were a Thracian people, conquered about 25 B.C. The Hyr. canians were a Caspian tribe. See note on IV, 367. Augustus sent an army against the Arabs in B.C. 24. The Indi sent envoys to Augustus to sue for peace, at the time

of his threatened invasion of the Parthians. Fig. 63. – Temple of Janus (11. 607

The latter people, or rather their king sqq.)

Phraates, daunted by the preparations of

Augustus, B.C. 20, voluntarily sent back the standards which they had captured from Crassus. This event is often mentioned by the poets as one of the most brilliant successes of Augustus.

607. Belli portae: see note on I, 294. 609. aerei : here a dissyllable, ae-rei.

612. cinctu Gabino : with the Gabinian cincture '; a peculiar mode of adjusting the toga.


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613. stridentia limina: in apposition with Has (portas), 'these gates, harshly creaking portals.'

620 sqq. Only the king or consul (cf. I. 613) could open these gates to declare war; and since Latinus refused to, Juno performed this formality.

624. arduus: agrees with the gender of the individuals included in pars, but the singular for the plural is anomalous.

629. adeo : 'even'; in addition to what is already declared, what is still more, five cities, etc.

631. The verse is spondaic, and the final syllable of turrigerae is not elided. 632. The alliteration of 't? "suggests the sound of forging."

634. Spondaic. “The rhythm suggests the sustained effort of fattening the plates of silver.”

635. huc: i.e. to this employment. 639. trilicem : see note on III, 467.

641-817. After an invocation to the muses, the poet enumerates the Italian forces which assembled to the war, describing their chiefs and the several localities and towns from which they were gathered.

643. iam tum : 'even then.'

652. nequiquam: because both father and son perished in the war. See X, 820, 908.

657, 658. clipeo, etc. : ‘and on his shield he bears his father's symbol, the hundred snakes.' Hydram : is explanatory of angues.

662. Geryone : a giant monster of Gades in Spain, the keeper of beautiful cattle. He was slain by Hercules, who conveyed his cattle across the Alps to the valley of the Tiber ( Tyrrheno in flumine).

664. gerunt: the followers of Aventinus are meant. 665. veru: a dart in the form of a spit.

666. torquens: 'throwing around himself,' or 'around his body.' Cf. VIII, 460.

668. Indutus capiti: supply the acc. illud = tegumen, 'having put this on his head. For the use of the participle, cf. note on 11. 74, 75.

669. umeros: Greek accusative.

671. gentem: for urbem, in apposition with moenia. Tibur was said to have been founded by three brothers from Argos; and the town to have been named after Tiburtus, the oldest of the brothers.

681. Caeculus: Cato says that some virgins, going for water, found Caeculus in the fire, and therefore called him the son of Vulcan. He was named Caeculus on account of imperfect eyes. late : ‘from far around.'

682. Praeneste was situated on a lofty hill at the entrance of the Campagna on the southeast. quique: both the men who,' etc. All the other places here mentioned are in the vicinity of Praeneste.


685. Quos, Amasene : sc. tu pascis. The head waters of the Amasenus were in the Volscian highlands, not far from Praenestc.

691. Messapus : a Tyrrhenian chief. His followers are from Fescenniuin and other places on the right bank of the Tiber, in southern Etruria.

695, 696. Hi — Hi: two different divi. Fig. 64. — Glans Flumbi (1. 686) sions of his troops. Faliscos: the people

of the town of Falerii. 695. aequos: “just,' 'equitable.' Others regard it as a proper adjective and join with the noun - the Aequi Falisci. With acies and Faliscos, sc. ducuni from habent — a case of zeugma.

698. aequati numero: in equal ranks '; arranged so as to be equal in number, rank after rank, in the column of march. Others understand, ‘moving with regular step (numero).'

701. amnis: the river Cayster is meant.

703. Nec quisquam, etc. : 'nor would any one suppose that brazen-armed battalions were being massed out of such an immense host '; i.e. 'composed this mighty host.' It seemed more like a countless multitude of sea birds.

707. Clausus: the poet fancies the Claudian family, gens Claudia, so cele. brated in Roman history, to be descended from the hero Clausus.

710. prisci Quirites: the early inhabitants of Cures, an ancient Sabine town, which by popular etymology was the origin of the name of the Quirites, or Roman citizens.

716. Ortinae classes : 'the troops of Orta.' Classis is here used in its original sense (cf. kalów, 'call'). Later its meaning was restricted to naval forces.

717. The Allia was an ill-starred name on account of the great defeat sustained by the Romans there in the battle with the Gauls, led by Brennus, 390 B.C.

720. Vel :'or (as many) as.' sole novo : ‘by the early summer's sun.'

721. Hermi: the Hermus, a river in Lydia. 724. Halaesus: formerly under Agamemnon

Fig. 65. - Warrior advancat Troy; hence Agamemnonius.

ing to Battle carrying Spu 725. felicia Baccho : fruitful in the vine.'

cula Bina (1. 687) 726. Massica : the Massic fields, on the southern border of Latium. The other places mentioned in this passage are in the same general region, the country of the Aurunci and Oscans.

728. Aequora : ‘plains '; subject of misere, supplied from the foregoing clause. Iuxta is an adverb.

730. aclydes: the aclys was a javelin which, after being hurled, could be re covered by means of a thong attached to the shaft.

732. comminus: ‘for the close encounter.'

734. Oebale : Oebalus was the son of Telon by the nymph Sebethis, daughter of the river god Sebethus in Campania. Telon had emigrated with his Teleboans from the island of Taphos, near Acarnania, to the island of Capreae, opposite Naples. Oebalus, dissatished with his small dominion, secured additional possessions on the mainland in Campania.

742. Tegmina - cortex: the coverings of whose heads were (made of) the bark,' etc. quis : quibus, sc. erant, of which Tegmina is subject and cortex predicate. H. p. 71, footnote 3; LM. 288; A. 104, d; B. 89 (footnote 2); G. 105, N. 2; (H. p. 74, footnote 5).

746. cui gens, etc.: 'whose nation, the Aequiculan, is most savage.' 747. duris glaebis : ablative of description.

761. bello: better taken with pulcherrima, 'most glorious in war.' The story of Hippolytus or Virbius is partly of Greek and partly of Italian origin.

762. mater Aricia : his mother (land) Aricia.' Cf. X, 172. 763. Egeriae lucis: in the neighborhood of Aricia.

764. Litora : the shores of the Arician lake. placabilis : 'gentle,' used in a general sense, with no specific contrast with the altar of the goddess in Taurus.

765. povercae: Phaedra.

769. Paeoniis herbis : 'with the drugs of Apollo'; from Ilalór, 'the healer, an epithet of Apollo. Pronounce here Pae-o-nyis.

772. repertorem: Aesculapius, son of Apollo.

777. Virbius: this name was borne both by the restored Hippolytus and by his son, the leader here described as coming to the war.

784. Vertitur : *moves,' in a middle sense.
786. Aetnaeos ignes : i.e. flames as fierce as those of Aetna.

787. Tam magis, etc.: ‘so much the more it was raging.' illa : refers to Chimaeram. With fremens and effera suppiy erat.

790. This device was appropriate to Turnus, as the descendant of Inachus.

796. picti scuta: pictis scutis ; ' with painted shields. For scuta, see nole on l. 74. The Labici were from Labicum, south of Rome.

803. Camilla : this heroine, leader of the Volsci, is more particularly described in XI, 532-596.

806. manus : see note on l. 74.
807. pati and praevertere: sc. adsueta from preceding line.

808. intactae segetis: she could Ay over the summit of the blades of standing grain without seeming to touch them. Violaret, ferret, ti ngeret (1. 811) are potential subjunctives.

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