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158. Molitur locum : builds the place up'; i.e. he builds houses, erects dwellings, in the place. Cf. 1.90. Others trans., “breaks (prepares) the ground.'

160. Latinorum : elides with Ardua of the next line; i.e. the line is hyper. metric. In such lines the syllable elided is usually .que or -ve. 167. ingentes : ‘mighty'; `of noble aspect.' The men are of heroic stature.

168. tecta : here, the temple; according to the Roman custom of receiving envoys in temples.

169. medius: 'in the midst of his attendants. 171. Urbe summa: i.e. on the Acropolis.

174. omen: 'auspicious beginning'; a solemn usage ominous of good to the reign of the new king.

176. Perpetuis mensis: at continuous tables';

the tables arranged in one unbroken line. Fig. 61.- Janus (1. 180)

178. cedro : the final letter is not elided. 180. Janus was an old Italian deity, who presided over the beginnings of things, and over gates and gateways. From the latter conception, he is rep. resented in works of art as having two faces (bifrons). See Fig. 61.

186. -que in spiculaque is long under the ictus.

187-189. Ipse - gerebat: the image of Picus, to whom the temple is dedicated, is represented in a sitting posture, and was in a conspicuous place, perhaps at one end of the court. It held the lituus, or augur's staff, and was clothed in a trabea, or striped toga. The lituus is called Quirinalis (= of Quirinus, i.e. Romulus), since Romulus was the first augur at Rome. With lituo, sc. some such word as instructus, easily suggested by the following succinctus.

Fig. 62. – The Lituus 190. Aurea : here pronounced in two syllables,

(1. 187) au-rya.

191. avem: Circe, the lover (coniunx) of Picus, transformed him into a woodpecker.

192. intus: adverb. templo: ablative of place.

195-285. Latinus gives the envoys a kind teception, and Ilioneus, on their part, makes known the condition and wants of the Trojans, and presents the gifts sent by Aeneas. The king promises them a peaceful home in Latium, and, in obedience to the oracle, offers his daughter in marriage to Aeneas. The envoys are dismissed with presents for themselves and Aeneas, and return to the camp.

196. auditique — cursum: ‘and no stranger to fame do you turn your course hither on the sea.'

197. egentes: by metonymy is transferred from the voyagers to the ships. 203. Saturni gentem: in the time of Saturn, the golden age, men acted


uprightly, not by compulsion, but from goodness of heart, Sponte sua, and by habit inherited from that ancient deity.

206. Auruncos senes: the Auruncan fathers.' The Aurunci were an ancient tribe of Italians, situated between Latium and Campania. ut: interrogative; *(namely) how.'

207. Dardanus : for the tradition, see III, 107 sqq., and note.

208. Threïciam Samon: the island of Samothrace, in the upper part of the Aegean.

209. Hinc - ab sede : "hence (namely) from the Tyrrhenian abode.' Cf. huc, II, 18. Corythi: the Etruscan Cortona.

211. auget: by receiving Dardanus as a god to be worshiped, the golden palace of Olympus increases (by one) the number of the altars of the gods.

215. regione viae : 'in respect to the direction of our voyage.' 219. Ab love: cf. note on I, 28.

225. et si quem, etc.: 'both if the farthest land holds any one afar where Ocean turns again, and if the belt of the torrid zone stretched between (in the midst of) four zones separates any one (from our part of the world), he (such an one) has heard how great, etc. Refuso Oceano, in the extreme north, where the ocean, which was supposed to surround the earth, “turns back again. The last vowel of Oceano is not elided.

232. -que: continues the negation.

237. vittas: i.e. the fillets attached to the olive branches borne in their hands. Cf. l. 154, and note. precantia : pronounced here pre-can-tya.

241. Huc repetit: 'calls (us) back hither.' The subject is Apollo.
243. Dat: Aeneas is the subject.
246. gestamen: 'the array '; explained by sceptrum, etc.
253. Moratur : broods,' is absorbed in.'
254. sortem : 'the oracle.'

255. Meditatur, or some similar verb suggested by volvit, is understood upon which the infinitives depend; "that this was that son-in-law,' etc.

258. quae occupet: ‘which is destined to possess '; such that it is des. tined to possess.

261. rege Latino: “as long as Latinus shall be king.'

271. Hoc Latio restare canunt: 'they predict that this destiny awaits Latium.'

274. numero omni: ‘for the whole number'; i.e. for every Trojan envoy (one hundred in number). ,277. ostro: the coverings of the horses are of purple cloth embroidered with gold.

282–284. patri - creavit: the cunning (daedala) Circe had bred these bastard horses by secretly putting a common mare to one of the horses of her father, the Sun-god. Thus she stole them from her father. The dative as in V, 845. 286–340. Juno, enraged that she can not ultimately prevent the success of the Trojans, determines, at least for the present, to visit them with her wrath. She summons the fury Allecto from the lower world to forward her plan of kindling strife between the Trojans and Latins.

286. Inachiis: Argos is termed Inachian from Inachus, its ancient king and founder.

294, 295. Num potuere: could they?' was it possible that they should fall? etc. No! they found a way through the midst of battalions and flames.

297. credo: 'I suppose, forsooth'; in bitter irony.

300. Ausa (sum): 'I have dared'; i.e. even against the known decrees of fate.

304, 305. Mars — valuit: Pirithoüs, king of the Lapithae, invited all the gods to his wedding feast, excepting only Mars. On account of this slight, Mars stirred up the Centaurs to make war on the Lapithae.

305, 306. concessit Calydona Dianae : Calydon, an ancient state of Aetolia, had neglected the worship of Diana, who therefore punished its king, Oeneus, and his people, by sending a fierce wild boar to ravage their land.

307. scelus : for poenam sceleris. The accusatives Lapithas and Caly. dona are in apposition with gentem and Calydona in the foregoing clause. 310. Quod si : .but is.'

suorum : ‘at this sacrifice (mercede, 'reward,''price') of their people let the son-in-law and father-in-law consummate their alliance.'

320. Cisseis: the daughter of Cisseus '; Hecuba. The allusion is to the dream of Hecuba before the birth of Paris. As she dreamed that her offspring would be a fire-brand, and the cause of the destruction of Troy, so has Venus brought forth in Aeneas a like offspring (idem) - one attended with the same destiny, who shall in like manner, by becoming betrothed to a foreign princess, occasion disaster to the new or restored Troy (Pergama recidiva), and thus he shall be a second Paris.

326. cordi: "(are) a pleasure'; probably originally a locative.

329. atra: dark' and 'black' are common appellations of all objects connected with the lower world, including both the ghosts, the gods, and mun. sters, and even Proserpine. The Romans conceived the hair of the furies to be composed wholly of serpents.

336. versare: 'to involve in,' . distract with.'

339. crimina belli: i.e. crimina, ex quibus bella oriantur : mutual wrongs and accusations which may lead to war.

341-405. The fury Allecto takes possession of the mind of Amata, and stimulates her to resist the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia. Unable to dissuade Latinus from his purpose, Amata conveys Lavinia to the woods, under the pretext of celebrating the rites of Bacchus.

317. Hac

348. Quo monstro : = ut eo monstro.

350. fallit furentem: •beguiles her in her frenzy'; as in her excitement she does not perceive the serpent.

354. lues: 'the pest.' Before she feels the full power of the serpent's spirit (l'ipeream animam), she has recourse to gentle entreaties.

360. O genitor: 'O (thou her) father.'
365. Quid : “what of your solemn pledge (to Turnus).'.
367. Latinis : ‘for the Latins.'

370. reor: Amata judges that since Ardea, the city of Turnus and the Rutuli, is separate from (Dissidet, laken literally) and independent (libera) of the kingdom of Latinus, Turnus is a foreigner (externus), and that the gods so pronounce (dicere). The queen seeks to show how the oracle may apply to Turnus as well as to Aeneas.

372. Inachus Acrisiusque : according to the tradition which Virgil follows, Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, and granddaughter of Inachus, landed in Italy, and married the prince of the Rutuli, Pilumnus. Thus her descendant, Turnus, is of Argive extraction.

377. Immensam : in its whole extent.' She roamed wildly (lymphata) throughout the city, in every street and hy-way, unrestrained by any sense of decorum, and therefore not keeping within the limited circle of her palace and royal walks.

383. Dant animos: 'give life,'• velocity'; i.e. to the top.
385. numine : 'the divine command.'
389. Euhoe: dissyllable.

389, 390. solum – Vociferans: exclaiming that thou (Bacchus) alone art worthy of the virgin.'

390. molles : the thyisi are wreathed with vine and ivy leaves; hence, soft or pliant, with reference only to the leaves. sumere: the subject is eam, referring to Lavinia.

391. Te lustrare: ‘moves around thee'; i.e. in the dances around thy altar. sacrum pascere crinem: 'grows the sacred lock'; referring to the custom in the worship of Bacchus, of growing a sacred lock in honor of the god.

405. stimulis - Bacchi: ‘on every side pursues with the goads of Bac. chus '; i.e. with a power equal to the real influence of Bacchus.

406–474. Allecto now proceeds to Ardea, the city of Turnus, and appears to him in his sleep under he form of an aged priestess. Failing at first to rouse his spirit against Aeneas, she assumes her real form. Turnus awakes full of fury, and summons his followers to war against the Trojans.

412. avis : dative.
413. fuit: 'has been'; and so 'has ceased to be.' Cf. II, 325.

418. innectit: sc. crinibus.

421-426. The whole passage implies that Turnus has been the principal defender of Latium against its enemies, especially against the Tyrrhenians.

427. adeo : 'even '; join with haec. So important is the occasion that Juno herself has directed me to say this.

428. Saturnia : see note on I, 23.
429. The two infinitives depend on para, in the following line.

430. in arma: join with laetus ; eager for arms '; with a mind joyful in the expectation of war. Others take laetus with para, equivalent to an adverb.

432. magna: may be the accusative plural neuter with iubet ; 'the power of the gods demands great achievements (of thee) '; or may be joined with vis.

433. dicto parere fatetur: consents to fulfill (obey) his promise.' See above, l. 366.

446. oranti: while still speaking. Orare is used also in its etymological sense in X, 96.

447. tot hydris : cf. I. 329.

450. geminos: two serpents were made conspicuous on the heads of furies and of the Gorgons.

459. proruptus: with a middle force, breaking forth.' corpore: for ex corpore.

460. toro, etc.: he seeks for his arms on the couch and in his dwelling; his sword especially on the couch. Heroes kept weapons by them, even when in bed.

462. Ira super : '(and) anger still more '; anger on account of the prefer. ence of Aeneas as suitor for Lavinia.

464, 465. aquai amnis : “the bubbling stream of water.'

467. polluta pace : ‘since the peace (between Latinus and Turnus) has been violated'; i.e. by Latinus in now promising Lavinia to Aeneas.

470. Se — Latinisque : '(he declares) that he comes (to the contest) a match (satis) for Trojans and Latins both.'

473. Hunc -- iuventae: 'the wonderful grace of his beauty and youth moves one'; admiration, i.e. of Turnus, who is young and beautiful. Others are stimulated by the renown of his regal ancestors (atavi reges), and still others by the memory of his former deeds in war.

See VI, 524.

475-571. Allecto turns now to the Trojans, and finding Ascanius engaged in the chase, she causes his hounds to attack a stag which is the favorite of the family of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of King Latinus. The wounded stag flees to the house of Tyrrheus for shelter. The herdsmen call to arms; Asca. nius is succored by his countrymen, and the first blood is shed. Allecto is

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