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Aeneid. It is adorned with interesting miniatures. Of nearly equal value are the more complete Codex Palatinus, and the fragmentary Schedae Rescriptae Veronenses, the Verona palimpsest. Slightly inferior is the Codex Mediceus, preserved in the Laurentian Library of Florence. From a subscriptio, or note appended to the Eclogues, we learn that this manuscript cannot be later than A.D. 494. Of less importance still is the Codex Romanus. Of the seven leading manuscripts, the two remaining are so incomplete that they have little value in determining the text of the poems. They are the Schedae Rescriptae Sangallenses, another palimpsest which has but ten leaves preserved, and the Schedae Berolinenses or Puteanae, which has but seven leaves containing each forty lines. The later manuscripts of Virgil are numerous, thus attesting the popularity of the poet during the Middle Ages. But few of them, however, are worthy of any independent consideration when they vary from the readings of the older capital manuscripts. Ribbeck derives all existing manuscripts of Virgil from one common original called an archetypus,' written with but little regard for calligraphy in the cursive style, and filled with numerous conjectures, glosses, and interpolations.

extensively than Virgil by Nearly every line may be

No Latin author was quoted more ancient scholars and grammarians. found somewhere in the works of later Roman writers, cited word for word. These quotations are not always of value in emending the text as we receive it in the manuscripts, for in such citations the memory was relied upon largely, and no need was felt of confirming the reading by reference to a reliable manuscript. We know that Virgil's Aeneid was used as a text book in Roman schools also. An interesting confirmation of this are the scratchings upon the walls of ancient Pompeii of the opening lines of both the first and second books, Arma virumque cano and Conticuere omnes, lessons that the school children were conning on their way to or from school.

Some writers, as Aulus Gellius (second century A.D.), Nonius Marcellus (third century), and Macrobius (fourth century), often

not merely quoted passages from Virgil, but discussed them as well from the standpoint of the textual critic. These discussions are exceedingly interesting, and the emendations thus upheld are sometimes adopted by modern textual critics against the united. testimony of the manuscripts. The most important grammarians who commentated on Virgil's poems are M. Valerius Probus (latter part of the first century A.D.), Aelius Donatus (fourth century), and Servius (fourth century), the most famous of the Virgilian



The first printed edition of Virgil, the editio princeps,' was published in Rome about 1469. The first edition from the Aldine press appeared in 1501, and during the sixteenth century a large number of editions were printed. Not until the seventeenth century, however, do the really critical texts and commentaries appear.

Some of the early editions are those of Ruaeus (1675, with numerous later reprints), Heinsius (1676), Burmann (1746), Heyne (1767-1775), the same revised and edited by Wagner (1830-1841), Lemaire (1819-1822), and Hofmann-Peerlkamp (1843).

Later and recent editions1 are:

(a) Of the entire works:

F. Dübner, Paris, 1858.

O. Ribbeck, Leipzig, 1859-1868.

Later edition of text only

with Mss. readings, 1894-1895. This is the great critical edition.

A. Forbiger, Leipzig, ed. 4, 1872-1875.

*J. Conington and H. Nettleship, London, 1872-1875. Bell. $9.75.

1 Books recommended for a High School library are marked with an asterisk. The names of the publishers and the list prices are also added.

E. Benoist, Paris, ed. 2, 1876.

Th. Ladewig, revised by K. Schaper, Berlin, 1882-1886.

* A. Sidgwick, Cambridge, 1894-1897.


Cambridge Univ. Press.

* T. L. Papillon and A. E. Haigh, Oxford, 1892. Clarendon Press.


B. H. Kennedy, New York, new ed. 1895.

T. E. Page, 1894-1900. Macmillan. $2.00.

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E. W. Howson, Books II and III only (the narrative of Aeneas), London, 1881.

(c) Of Servius, the ancient commentator on Virgil:

G. Thilo and H. Hagen, Leipzig, 1881-1887.

(d) Special vocabulary:

G. A. Koch, Wörterbuch zu Vergilius, Hannover, ed. 6, 1885. (e) Translations :

Besides the well known translations of Dryden (published in his works), and of Pitt (published in Anderson's "British Poets," vol. XII), the following may be cited :

F. Bowen, Boston, 1843.

C. P. Cranch, Boston, 1872.

* J. Conington. An excellent prose translation, published in the author's "Miscellaneous Writings," vol. II, London, 1872. Longmans, Green & Co. $2.00.

Also a poetical translation, London, 1873. Longmans, Green &Co. $2.00.

J. M. King, London, 1875.

* W. Morris, Boston, ed. 2, 1876. Roberts. $2.50.

O. Crane, New York, 1888. Translated into English dactylic hex


J. D. Long, Boston, 1895. Estes. $1.75.

A review of the translators of Virgil will be found in the Quar

terly Review, vol. 110, no. 219, pp. 38-60, 73-114, and in Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, pp. 295, fol.

The following books will be found useful in the study of Virgil: — *W. Y. Sellar, Roman Poets of the Augustan Age, Virgil. Oxford, ed. 3, 1897. Clarendon Press. $2.25.

* F. W. H. Myers, Essays Classical, pp. 106-176. London, 1897. Macmillan. $1.25.

* R. Y. Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, pp. 126-161.

Houghton, Mifflin and Co. $1.50.

New York, 1895.

*H. Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, pp. 97-142. Oxford, 1885. Clarendon Press. $1.90.

H. Nettleship, Ancient Lives of Virgil. Oxford, 1879.

J. Henry, A Voyage of Discovery in the Aeneid, I-VI. Dresden,


J. Henry, Aeneidea, or critical and other remarks on the Aeneid, 2 vols. London, 1873-1879.

* Boissier, Country of Horace and Virgil. New York, 1896. Putnam. $ 2.00.

*Collins, Virgil, in "Ancient Classics for English Readers." Philadelphia, 1878. Lippincott. $0.50.

C. A. Sainte-Beuve, Étude sur Virgile. Paris, ed. 2, 1870.

* D. Comparetti, Vergil in the Middle Ages. London, 1895. Sonnenschein. $2.25.

J. S. Tunison, Master Virgil. The author of the Aeneid as he seemed in the Middle Ages. Cincinnati, 1888. Leland, Legends of Virgil.

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New York, 1900. Macmillan.

Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations.

F. J. Miller and J. R. Nelson, Dido, An Epic Tragedy, a drama

tization from the Aeneid of Virgil.

J. W. Clough, The Hexameter of Virgil.

London, 1891.

Chicago, 1900.

Boston, 1880.

1 For other helps on the prosody see footnote to pp. 23. 24.

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