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they might have three parts in four of Scotland at their backs, to raise men, and to enable themselves to carry on their : designs. They were about 5,000 Foot, and 2,500 Horse. The Earl of Leven, who is chosen General; the Marquis of Argyle, with the Honest Lords and Gentlemen, David Lesley being the Lieutenant-General: “these," having about 7,000 Foot, but very weak in Horse, - lie about six miles this side the Enemy. I hear that their Infantry consists of men who come to them out of conscience; and are generally of the Godly People of that Nation, which they express by their piety and devotion in their quarters; and indeed I hear they are a very goldly and honest body of men. '

I think it is not unknown to your Lordships what directions I have received from you for the prosecution of our late Victory. Whereof I shall be bold to remember a clause of your Letter; which was, " That I should prosecute the re

maining Party in the North, and not leave any of them, "wheresoever they go, to be a beginning of a new Army; nor "cease to pursue the Victory till I finish and fully complete it " with the rendition of those Towns of Berwick and Carlisle, "which most unjustly, and against all obligations, and the “ Treaties then in force, they surprised and garrisoned "against us."

In order whereunto, I marched to the Borders of Scotland: where I found the whole Country so harassed and impoverished by Monro and the Forces with him, that the Country was no way able to bear us on the English side; but we must necessarily have ruined both your Army and the Subjects of this Kingdom, who would not have had bread for a day if we had continued among them. In prosecution of your Orders, and in answer to the necessities of your friends in Scotland, and their desires; and considering the necessity of marching into Scotland, to prevent the Governor of Berwick from putting of provisions into his Garrisons on the Scots side, whereof he is at present in some want, as we are informed, -I marched a good part of the Army over Tweed yesterday about noon, the residue being to come after as conveniently as we may.

. Thus have I given your Lordships an account of our present condition and engagement. And having done so, I must discharge my duty in remembering to your Lordships the Desires formerly expressed in my Letters to Sir William Armyn and Sir John Evelyn, for supplies; and in particular for that of Shipping to be upon these Coasts, who may furnish us with Ammunition or other necessaries wheresoever God shall lead us; there being extreme difficulty to supply us by land, without great and strong convoys, which will weary-out and destroy our Horse, and cannot well come to us if the Tweed be up, without going very far about. Having laid these things before you, I rest, . .. Your Lordships' most humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL. ; P.S. Whilst we are here, I wish there be no neglect of the Business in Cumberland and Westmoreland. I have sent Orders both into Lancashire and to the Horse before Pontefract. I should be glad your Lordships would second them, and those other considerations expressed in 'my Desires to Sir William Armyn thereabouts.


(Vol. i. p. 329.] · WRITTEN on the march from Carlisle to Pontefract.. . Do the Ilonourable William Lenthall, Esquire, Speaker of the House of

Commons: Ehese. ' 1. SIR,

Boroughbridge, 28th October 1648. I do not often trouble you in particular businesses; but I shall be bold now, upon the desire of a worthy Gentleman,' Lieutenant-Colonel Cholmely, to entreat your favour in his behalf.

The case stands thus. His son Major Cholmely, who was bold in the Fight against the Scots fat Berwick, * was Custom.

$ Old Pamphlet: in Parliamentary History, xvii. 481. ' * Against Munro, I suppose, when he ended bis maraudings in that quarter (vol. 1. p. 304). 17

master at Carlisle; - the Gentleman "had” merited well from you. Since his death, his aged Father, having lost this his Eldest Son in your service, did resolve to use his endeavours to procure the place for a Younger Son, who had likewise been in your service. And resolving to obtain my Letter to some friends about it, did acquaint an undertenant of the place for his Son with this his purpose To come to me to the borders of Scotland to obtain the said Letter; — which the . said servant "or undertenant" did say, Was very well. · And when the said Lieutenant-Colonel was come for my Letter, this tenant immediately hastens away to London; where he, in a very circumventing and deceitful way, prefers a Petition to the House of Commons; gets a reference to the Committee of the Navy; who approve of the said man, “the undertenant,” by the mediation of some gentlemen: - but I hear there is a stop of it in the House. i

My humble suit to you is, That if Colonel Morgan do wait upon you about this business, - I having given you this true information of the state of it, as I have received it, - you would be pleased to further his desire concerning LieutenantColonel Cholmely's youngest Son, that he may have the place. conferred upon him; and that you would acquaint some of my friends herewith. By which you will very much oblige,

Your most humble servant,



[Vol. ii, p. 89.] 1. PRESERVED in the anonymous Fragment of a Narrative, more than once referred to, are these Letters and Replies:

LETTER 1. Eo the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Waterford.
GENTLEMEN, Kilbarry, near Waterford, 21st November 1649.

I have received information that you hitherto refuse a Garrison of the Enemy to be imposed upon you; as also that some

.§ Tanner M88. (in Cary, il. 46.)

Factions in the Town are very active still, notwithstanding your refusal, to persuade you to the contrary.

Being come into these parts, not to destroy people and places, but to save them, that men may live comfortably and happily by their trade, if the fault be not in themselves; and purposing also, by God's assistance, to reduce this City of Waterford to its due obedience, as He shall dispose the matter, by Force, or by Agreement with you upon Terms wherein your own good and happiness, and that of your wives, children and families may consist, notwithstanding "what" some busy-beaded persons may pretend to the contrary; "and" knowing that if after all this you shall receive a Garrison, it will probably put you out of a capacity to make any such Accord for yourselves, which was the cause of the ruin of the Town and people of Wexford, I thought fit to lay these things before you; leaving you to use your own judgment therein.

And if any shall have so much power upon you as to persuade you that these are the counsels of an enemy, I doubt it will hardly prove, in the end, that they gave you better. You did once live flourishingly under the power (sic) and in commerce with England. It shall be your own faults if you do not so again. I send these intimations timeously to you: weigh them well; it so behoves you. I rest,

Your loving friend,


REPLY 1. “For General Cromwell, General of the Parliament Forces in

: Ireland.

“Waterford, 230 November 1649. “MY LORD, - Your Letter of the 21st, directed to me and “my Aldermen, we have, by your Trumpet, received. Your “Lordship's advice, as we do all others, we weigh with the con“dition of our safety; and so far shall, make use thereof as it contributes to the same.

"For your intentions of reducing this City, by Force or “Agreement: - as we will by all possible means endeavour our "natural defence against the first, so happily will we not be "averse to the latter, - if we shall find it not dishonourable nor "destructive. And for that purpose 'we' do desire your Lord“ship will grant us a Cessation, for fifteen days, from all acts of "hostility; and send us Safe-conducts, with blanks for the men "we shall employ, to treat with your Lordship; and in the in“terim bring your Army no nearer this City than now it is.

“We have learned not to slight advice, if we find it whole"some, even from an enemy's hands; nor to deny him such “thanks as it merits. And if your Lordship should deny us the “time we look for, we doubt not, - with the men we have "already in Town, though we 'should receive no more, - to “make good this Place, till the Power of the Kingdom re"lieves us.

“To signify which to your Lordship, the Council and Com“mons have laid their commands on me,

"My Lord,
; "Your very loving friend, .

"JOHN LYVETT, Mayor of Waterford.”

LETTER 2. For the Mayor, Aldermen, or other Governor or Governors of

the City of Waterford.

From iny Camp before Waterford, GENTLEMEN,

24th November 1649. I expected to have heard from you before this, by my Trumpet; but he not coming to me, I thought fit to send, That I might have an account given me, how you have disposed of him. And to save farther trouble, I have thought fit

Hereby to summon you To surrender the City and Fort into my hands, to the use of the State of England. I expect to receive your answer to these things, and rest,"

Your servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL. REPLY 2. “For the Lieutenant-General Cromwell.

“Waterford, 24th November 1649. “MY LORD, – Your Letter of the 24th I have received even "now; in which you desire an account of your Lordship's Trum“peter, sent with a former Letter to us; and summon us to de“liver your Lordship this City and Fort.

"Your Lordship's former Letter by your Trumpeter we have "answered yesterday morning; and do doubt, by the Trum

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