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To my noble Friend Sir John Wraye,' Knight and Baronet: Present these. "" SIR,

'Eastern Association,' 30th July 1643. The particular respects I have received at your hands do much oblige me, but the great affection you bear to the Public. much more: for that cause I am bold to acquaint you with some late Passages wherein it hath pleased God to favour us; - which, I am assured, will be welcome to you.

After Burleigh House was taken, we went towards Gainsborough to a general rendezvous, where met us Lincolnshire

Troops; so that we were Nineteen or Twenty Troops, when we were together, of Horse and Foot, and about Three or Four Troops of Dragooners. Wemarched with this force to Gainsborough. Upon Friday morning, being the 28th of July, we met with a forlorn-hope of the Enemy, and with ourmen brake it in. We marched on to * the Town's end. The Enemy being upon the top of a very steep Hill over our heads, some of our men attempted to march up that Hill; the Enemy opposed; our men drove them up, and forced their passage. By the time ** we came up, we saw the Enemy well set in two bodies: the foremost a large fair body, the other a reserve consisting of six or seven brave Troops. Before we could get our force into order, the great body of the Enemy advanced; they were within musket-shot of us when we came to the pitch ofthe Hill: we advanced likewise towards them; and both charged, each upon the other: Thus advancing, we came to pistol and sword's point, both in that close order that it was disputed very strongly who should break the other. But our men pressing a little heavily upon them, they began to give back; which our men perceiving, instantly forced them,- brake that whole body; some of them flying on this side, some on the other side, of the reserve. Our men, pursuing them in great disorder, had the execution about four, or some say six miles. With much ado this done, and all their force being gone, not one man standing, but all beaten out of the field, --- we drew up our body together, and kept the field, — the half of our men being well 'worn in the chase of the Enemy. * Means “towards”,

** “that time," in orig.

1. Upon this we endeavoured the Business we came for; which wat the relief of the Town with Ammunition. We sent-in some Powder, which was the great want of that Town. Which done, word was brought us that the Enemy bad about Six Troops of Horse, and Three-hundred Foot, a little on the other side of the Town. Upon this we drew some musketeers out of the Town, and with our body of horse marched towards them. We saw two Troops towards the Mill; which my men drove down into a little village at the bottom of the Hill: when we (we emphatic came with our horse to the top of that Hill, we saw in the bottom a whole regiment of Foot, after that another and another, — and, as some counted, about Fifty Colours of Foot. Which indeed was my Lord Newcastle's Army; — with which he now besieges Gainsborough.

My Lord Willoughby commanded me to bring off the Foot and Horse: which I endeavoured; but the Foot (the Enemy pressing on with the Army) retreated in some disorder into the Town, being of that Garrison. Our Horse also, being wearied, and unexpectedly pressed by this new force, so great, - gave off, not being able to brave the charge. But, with some difficulty, we got our Horse into a body, and with them faced the Enemy; and retreated in such order that though the Enemy followed hard, they were not able to disorder us, but we got them off safe, to Lincoln, from this fresh force, and lost not one man. The honour of this retreat, equal to any of late times, is due to Major Whalley and Captain Ayscough, next under God.

This Relation I offer you for the honour of God (to whom be all the praise); as also to let you know you have some servants faithful to you, to incite to action. I beseech you let this good success quicken your continuing to this Engagement! It's great evidence of God's favour. Let not your business be starved. I know, if all be of your mind, we shall have an honourable return. It's your own business: – a reasonable strength now raised speedily, may do that which much more will not do after some time. Undoubtedly, if they succeed here, you will see them in the bowels of your Association! As' for the time, you will hear it from your noble Kinsman and Colonel Palgrave: if we be not able in ten days to relieve Gainsborough, a noble Lord will be lost, many good Foot, and a considerable Pass over Trent in these parts. – The Lord prosper your endeavours and ours. I beseech you present my humble service to the high honourable Lady. Sir, I am

. Your faithful servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL. P.S. - I stayed, 'from the chase after our first encounter,' two of my own Troops, and my Major stayed his; in all three. There were in front of the Enemy's reserve, three or four of the Lincoln Troops yet unbroken: the Enemy charged those Troops; utterly broke and chased them; so that none of the Troops on our part stood, but my three. Whilst the Enemy was following our flying Troops, I charged him on the rear with my three Troops; drove him down the Hill, brake him all to pieces; forced Lieutenant-General Cavendish into a Bog, who fought in this reserve: one Officer cut him on the head; and, as he lay, my Captain-Lieutenant Berry thrust him into the short ribs, of which he died, about two hours after, in Gainsborough. §

By this Postscript is at last settled the question, Who killed Charles Cavendish? It was “my Captain-Lieutenant Berry;" he and no other, if any one still wish to know. Richard Baxter's friend once; and otherwise a known man.

No. 6. LETTER TO FAIRFAX, ON THE ACTION AT ISLIP-BRIDGE AND

BLETCHINGTON. "

(Vol. i. p. 203.] WRITTEN the night before that in the Text, on the same subject. . For the Right Honourable Sir Thomas Fairfax, General of the Army:

These.
Right HONOURABLE, Bletchington,' 24th April 1645.
I met at my rendezvous at Watlington, on Wednesday

& Original in the possession of Dawson Turner, Esq., Great Yarmouth; printed in Papers of Norfolk Archæological Society (Norwich, Jan. 1848), pp. 45-50.

last; where I stayed somewhat long for the coming-up of the Body of Horse, which your Honour was pleased to give me the command of. After the coming whereof, I marched with all expedition to Wheatley-Bridge; having sent before to MajorGeneral Browne, for what intelligence he could afford me of the state of affairs in Oxford (I being not so well acquainted in those parts), - of the condition, and number, of the Enemy in Oxford. Who himself informed me by letters, That Prince Maurice his forces were not in Oxford, as I supposed; and that, -as he was informed by four very honest and faithful Gentlemen that came out of Oxford to him a little before the receipt of my letter, – there were Twelve pieces of Ordnance with their carriages and wagons, ready for their march; and in another place Five more pieces with their carriages, ready to advance with their Convoy.

After I received this satisfaction from Major-General Browne, I advanced this morning, – being Thursday, the twenty-fourth of April, – near to Oxford. There I lay before the Enemy; who perceiving it at Oxford, and being in readiness to advance, sent out a party of Horse against me: part of the Queen's Regiment, part of the Earl of Northampton's Regiment, and part of the Lord Wilmot's Regiment;- who made an infall upon me.

Whereupon, I drew forth your Honour's Regiment, lately mine own, – against the Enemy (who had drawn themselves into several Squadrons, to be ready for action); — and commanded your Honour's own Troop, therein, to charge a Squadron of the Enemy. Who performed it so gallantly that, after a short firing, they entered the whole Squadron, and put them to a confusion. And the rest of my Horse presently entering after them, they made a total rout of the Enemy; and had the chase of them three or four miles; – and killed Twohundred; took as many prisoners, and about Four-hundred horses. Also'the Queen's colours, richly embroidered, with the Crown in the midst, and eighteen flower-de-luces wrought all about in gold, with a golden cross on the top. – Many escaped to Oxford, and divers were drowned.

Part of them likewise betook themselves to a strong House in Bletchington; where Colonel Windebank kept a Garrison, with near Two-hundred horse and foot therein. Which, after surrounding it, I summoned: — but they seemed very dilatory in their answer. At last, they sent out Articles to me of Surrender, - which I have sent your Honour enclosed: * -- and after a large treaty thereupon, the Surrender was agreed upon between us. They left behind them between Two and Three hundred muskets, Seventy horses; besides other arms and ammunition. I humbly rest,

Your honour's humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELLS

No. 7. . BATTLE OF NASEBY. BURIAL OF COLONEL PICKERING. Two

LETTERS CONCERNING ELY.

(Vol. i. p. 212, 336.] (a.) THE following very rough Notes of a studious Tourist will perhaps be acceptable to some readers. Notes dashed down evidently in the most rough-and-ready manner, but with a vigilant eye both on the Old Books and on the actual Ground of Naseby; taken, as appears, in the year 1842.

Battle of Naseby, 14th June 1645: From Sprigge (London, “1647); Rushworth, vi. (London, 1701); Old Pamphlets; and "the Ground.

" Fairfax's Stages towards Naseby (Sprigge, p. 30 et seqq.). Wednesday, 11th June, a rainy day: Marched from Stony " Stratford to Wootton,' - three miles south of Northampton. "Bad quarters there: "but the Mayor came,' &c. - Thursday, "12th June: From Wootton to (not Guilsborough four miles 6 west of Northampton,'. as Sprigge writes, but evidently) 6 Kislingbury and the Farmsteads round. The King 'lies eno camped on Burrough Hill' (five miles off); has been hunting,' " this day: ‘his horses all at grass.' The night again wet;

Fairfax, riding about, all night, on the spy is stopped by one 66 of his own sentries, &c.; "at Flower' (near Weedon), sees the "King's Forces all astir on the Burrough Hill, about four in the "morning; 'firing their huts;' rapidly making off, — North

* Given in Rushworth, vi. 24. & Ring's Pamphlets, small 4to, no. 203, 8 7. . ; '

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