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ing well that Jesus Christ, of whose diocese both they and you are, expects it. Who, when He comes to gather His People, and to make Himself “a name and "praise amongst all the people of the earth," -"He "will save her that halteth, and gather her that was "driven out, and will get them praise and fame in "every land, where they have been put to shame,"* And such “lame ones" and "driven-out ones” were not the Independents only, and Presbyterians, a few years since, by the Popish and Prelatical Party in these Nations; but such are and have been the Protestants in all lands, - persecuted, and faring alike with you, in all the Reformed Churches. And therefore, knowing your charity to be as large as all the Flock of Christ who are of the same Hope and Faith of the Gospel with you; I thought fit to commend these few words to you; - being well assured it is written in your heart, So to do with this that I shall stand by you in the maintaining of all your just privileges to the uttermost.

And committing you to the blessing of the Lord, I rest,

... Your loving friend,


LETTER CcXVl. .. CARDINAL MAZARIN, the governing Minister of France in

those days, is full of compliance for the Lord Protector; · whom, both for the sake of France and for the Cardinal's sake, it is very, requisite to keep in good humour. On France's score, there is Treaty with France, and War with its enemy Spain; on the Cardinal's are obscure Court-intrigues, Queen

• Zephaniah, iii. 19, 20.
& Thurloe, v. 714: in şecretary Thurloe's hand.

mothers, and one knows not what: in brief, the subtle Cardinal has found, after trial of the opposite course too, that friendship, or even at times obedient-servantship to Cromwell, will be essentially advantageous to him.

Some obscure quarrel has fallen -out between Charles Stuart and the Duke of York his Brother. Quarrel compli. cated with open politics, with Spanish War and Royalist Revolt, on Oliver's side; with secret Queen - mothers, and back-stairs diplomacies, on the Cardinal's: - of which there flit, in the dreariest manner, this and the other enigmatic vestige in the night-realm of Thurloe;* and which is partly the subject of this present Letter. A Letter unique in two respects. It is the only one we have of Oliver Cromwell, the English Puritan King, to Giulio Mazarini, the Sicilian-French Cardinal, and King of Shreds and Patches; ** who are a very singular pair of Correspondents brought together by the Destinies! It is also the one glimpse we have from Oliver himself of the subterranean Spy-world, in which by a hard necessity so many of his thoughts had to dwell. Oliver, we find, cannot quite grant Toleration to the Catholics; but he is well satisfied with this “our weightiest affair," — not with out weight to me at least, who sit. expecting Royalist Insurrections backed by Spanish Invasions, and have Assassins plotting for my life at present “on the word of a Christian King!” –

Concerning the “affair" itself, and the personages engaged in it, let us be content that they should continue spectral for us, and dwell in the subterranean Night-realm which belongs to them. The “Person" employed from Eng. land, if anybody should be curious about him, is one Colonel Bamfield, once a flaming Presbyterian Royalist, who smuggled the Duke of York out of this country in woman's clothes; and now lives as an Oliverian Spy, very busy making mischief for the Duke of York. “Berkley" is the Sir John Berkley who

. iv. 506; V. 753; &c. &c. ** Three insignificant official Notes to him: in Appendix, Nos. 29, 30. rode with Charles First to the Isle of Wight long since;* the Duke of York's Tutor at present. Of "Lockhart,” Oliver's Ambassador in France, we shall perhaps hear again. The others, – let them continue spectral to us. Let us conceive, never so faintly, that their "affair" is to maintain in the Duke of York some Anti-Spanish notion; notion of his having a separate English interest, independent of his Brother's, perhaps superior to it; wild notion, of one or the other sort, which will keep the quarrel wide: - as accordingly we find it did for many months, **) whatever notion it was. We can then read with intelligence sufficient for us. .

"To his Eminency Cardinal Mazarin.

E' i ' ' "Whitehall,' 26th December 1656.. The obligations, and many instances of affection, which I have received from your Eminency, do engage 'me' to make returns suitable to your merits. But although I have this set home upon my spirit, I may not (shall I tell you, I cannot?) at this juncture of time, and as the face of my affairs now stands, answer to your call for Toleration.*** ...

. I say, I cannot, as to a public Declaration of my sense in that point; although I believe that' under my Government your Eminency, in the behalf of Catholics, has less reason for complaint as to rigour upon men's consciences than under the Parliament. For I have of some, and those very many, had compassion; making a difference. Truly I have (and I may speak it with cheerfulness in the presence of God, who is a witness within me to the truth of what I afffrm) made a difference; and, as Jude speaks, "plucked many out of the fire,” † — the raging fire of persecution, which did!

Antea, i. 244. + Thurloe, iv. v. vi.: see also Biog. Brit. (2d edition), il. 154. .

+ Verses 22, 23: a most remarkable Epistle, to which his Highness often enough solemnly refers, as we have seen.

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tyrannise over their consciences, and encroached by an'. arbitrariness of power upon their estates. And herein it is my purpose, as soon as I can remove impediments, and some weights that press me down, to make a farther progress, and discharge my promise to your Eminency in relation to that.

And now I shall come to return your Eminency thanks for your judicious choice of that Person to whom you have entrusted our weightiest Affair: an Affair wherein your Eminency is concerned, though not in an equal degree and measure with myself. I must confess * that I had some doubts of its success, till Providence cleared them to me by the effects. I was, truly, and to speak ingenuously, not without doubtings; and shall not be ashamed to give your Eminency: the grounds I had for much doubting. I did fear that Berkley would not have been able to go through and carry on that work; and that either the Duke would have cooled in his suit,* or condescended to his Brother. I doubted also that those Instructions which I sent over with 290** were not clear enough as to expressions; some affairs here denying me leisure at that time to be so particular as, 'in regard to some circumstances, I would. — If I am not mistaken in his 'the Duke's? character, as I received it from your Eminency, that fire which is kindled between them will not ask bellows to blow it, and keep it burning. But what I think farther necessary in this matter I will send to your Eminency by Lockhart. : i .

And now I shall boast to your Eminency my se*** * His suit, I understand, was for leave to continue in France; an Anti** Cipher for some Man's Name, now undecipherable; to all appearance Bamfield.

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curity upon a well-builded confidence in the Lord: for : I distrust not but if this breach 'be' widened a little more, and this difference fomented, with a little caution in respect of the persons to be added to it, — I distrust. not but that Party, which is already forsaken of God as to an outward dispensation of mercies, and noisome to their countrymen, will grow lower in the opinion of all the world.

If I have troubled your Eminency too long in this,... you may impute it to the resentment of joy which I have for the issue of this Affair; and 'I' will conclude with giving you assurance that I will never be backward in, demonstrating, as becomes your brother and confederate, that I am, ; ...

Your servant, .



, THE Spanish Invasion and Royalist Insurrection once more. came to no effect: on mature judgment of the case, it seemed necessary to have Oliver Protector assassinated first; and that, as usual, could not be got done. Colonel Sexby, the frantic Anabaptist, he and others have been very busy; “riding among his Highness's escort” in Hyde Park and else.. where, with fleet horses, formidable weapons, with "gatehinges ready filed through," if the deed could have been done; - but it never could. Sexby went over to Flanders again, for fresh consultations; left the assassination-affair in other hands, with 1,6001. of ready money, “on the faith of a Christian King." Quartermaster Sindercomb takes Sexby's

$ Thurloe, v. 735. In the possession of a "Mr. Theophilus Rowe of Hampstead in Middlesex," says Birch. Where did Rowe get it? Is it in the original hand, or only a copy? Birch is silent even as to the latter point. The style sufficiently declares it to be a genuine Letter.

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