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We shall awaken; and find ourselves in a world greatly widened. - Why Puritanism could not continue? My friend, Puritanism was not the Complete Theory of this immense Universe; no, only a part thereof! To me it seems, in my hours of hope, as if the Destinies meant something grander with England than even Oliver Protector did! We will not quarrel with the Destinies; we will work as we can towards fulfilment of them.

But in these same June days of the year 1658, while Hewit and Slingsby lay down their heads on Tower Hill, and the English Hydra finds that its Master is still here, there arrive the news of Dunkirk alluded-to above: Dunkirk gloriously taken, Spaniards gloriously beaten: victories and successes abroad; which are a new illumination to the Lord Protector in the leyes of England. Splendid Nephews of the Cardinal, Manzinis, Ducs de Crequi, come across the Channel to congratulate “the most invincible of Sovereigns;" young Louis Fourteenth himself would have come, had not the attack of small-pox prevented. * With whom the elegant Lord Fauconberg and others busy themselves: their pageantry and gilt coaches, much gazed-at by the idler multituđes, need not detain us here.

The Lord Protector, his Parliament having been dismissed with such brevity, is somewhat embarrassed in his finances. But otherwise his affairs stand well; visibly in an improved condition. Once more he has saved Puritan England; once more approved himself invincible abroad and at home. He looks with confidence towards summoning a new Parliament, of juster disposition towards Puritan England and him. ** With a Parliament, or if extremity of need arrive, without a Parliament and in spite of Parliaments, the Puritan Gospel Cause, sanctioned by a Higher than Parliaments, shall not sink while life remains in this Man. Not till Oliver Cromwell's head lie low, shall English Puritanism bend its head to any created thing. Erect, with its foot on the neck of Hydra Ba. bylon, with its open Bible and drawn Sword, shall Puritanism

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, pp. 172-3; 15th-21st June 1658. ** Thurloe, vii. 84 99, 128, &c. (Ápril, May 1658.)

stand, and with pious all-defiance victoriously front the world. That was Oliver Cromwell's appointed function in this piece of Sublunary Space, in this section of swift-flowing Time; that noble, perilous, painful function: and he has manfully done it, - and is now near ending it, and getting honourably relieved from it.

LETTER Ccxxy. The poor Protestants of Piedmont, it appears, are again in a state of grievance, in a state of peril. The Lord Protector, in the thickest press of domestic anarchies, finds time to think of these poor people and their case. Here is a Letter to Ambassador Lockhart, who is now at Dunkirk Siege, in the French King and Cardinal's neighbourhood: a generous pious Letter; dictated to Thurloe, partly perhaps of Thurloe's composition, but altogether of Oliver's mind and sense; — fit enough, since it so chances, to conclude our Series here.

Among the Lockhart Letters in Thurloe, which are full of Dunkirk in these weeks, I can find no trace of this new Piedmont business: but in Milton's Latin State-Letters, among the Literce Oliverii Protectoris, there are Three, to the French King, to the Swiss Cantons, to the Cardinal, which all treat of it. The first of which, were it only as a sample of the Milton. Oliver Diplomacies, we will here copy, and translate that all may read it. An emphatic State-Letter; which Oliver Cromwell meant, and John Milton thought and wrote into words; not unworthy to be read. It goes by the same Express as the Letter to Lockhart himself; and is very specially referred to there:

Serenissimo potentissimoque Principi, Ludovico Galliarum Regia "SERENISSIME POTENTISSIMEQUE REX, AMICE AC FEDERATE

“AUGUS VISSIME "Meminisse potest Majestas Vestra, quo tempore inter nos de "renovando Foedere agebatur (quod optimis auspiciis initum multa utriusque Populi commoda, multà Hostium communium exinde "mala testantur), accidisse miseram illam Convallensium Occisio"nem; quorum causam undique desertam atque afflictam Vestrce "misericordice atque tutelæ, summo cum ardore animi ac miseratione, commendavimus. Nec defuisse per se arbitramur Majestatem Vestram officio tam pio, immo verò tam humano, pro , "quâ apud Ducem Sabaudiæ valere debuit vel auctoritate vel gratiâ: Nos certè aliique multi Principes ac Civitates, legationi"bus, literis, precibus interpositis, non defuimus.

"Post cruentissimam utriusque sexûs omnis ætatis Trucidatio"nem, Pax tandem data est; vel potiùs induciæ Pacis nomine "hostilitas qucedam tectior. Conditiones Pacis vestro in oppido Pinarolië sunt latæ: duro quidem illae, sed quibus miseri atque " inopes, dira omnia atque immania perpessi, facile acquiescerent, modò iïs, durce et iniquæ ut sint, staretur. Non statur; sed enim

earum quoque singularum falsâ interpretatione variësque diver"ticulis, fides eluditur ac violatur. Antiquis sedibus multi dejici"untur, Religio Patria multis interdicitur; Tributa nova exiguntur; Arx nova cervicibus imponitur, unde milites crebrò erum6 pentes obvios quosque vel diripiunt vel trucidant. Ad hæc nuper "novæ copice clanculum contra eos parantur; quique inter eos Romanam Religionem colunt, migrare ad tempus jubentur: ut "omnia nunc rursùs videantur ad illorum internecionem misero"rum spectare, quos illa prior laniena reliquos fecit.

: "Quod ergò per dextram tuam, Rex Christianissime, quæ Foedus "nobiscum et amicitiam percussit, obsecro atque obtestor, per illud Christianissimi tituli decus sanctissimum, fieri ne siveris : nec tan"tam sæviendi licentiam, non dico Principi cuiquam (neque enim in ullum Principem, multò minus in ætatem illius Principis tene"ram, aut in muliebrem Matris animum, tanta sævitia cadere pot"est), sed sacerrimis illis Sicariës, ne permiseris. Qui cum Christi Servatoris nostri servos atque imitatores sese profiteantur, qui "venit in hunc mundum ut peccatores servaret, Ejus mitissimi Nomine atque Institutis ad innocentium crudelissimas cædes abutuntur. Eripe que potes, quique in tanto fastigio dignus es posse, tot supplices tuos homicidarum exc manibus, qui cruore nuper ebrii o sanguinem rursùs sitiunt, suæque invidiam crudelitatis in Prin"cipes derivare consultissimum sibi ducunt. Tu verò nec Titulos tuos aut Regni fines istâ invidiâ, nec Evangelium Christi pacatis

simum istâ crudelitate foedari, te regnante patiaris. Memineris hos ipsos Avi tui Henrici Protestantibus amicissimi Dedititios fuisse; cùm Diguierius per ea Loca, quà etiam commodissimus in Italiam transitus est, Sabaudum trans Alpes cedentem victor est insecutus. Deditionis illius Instrumentum in Actis Regni vestri Publicis etiamnum extat: in quo exceptum atque cautum inter alia est, ne cui posteà Convallenses traderentur, nisi üsdem conditionibus quibus eos Avus tuus invictissimus in fidem recepit. Hanc fidem nunc implorant, avitam abs te Nepote supplices re"quirunt. Tui esse quam cujus nunc sunt, vel permutatione ali"quâ si fieri possit, malint atque optârint: id si non licet, patrocinio saltem, miseratione atque perfugio.

“Sunt et rationes regni quce hortari possint ut Convallenses ad "te confugientes ne rejicias: sed nolim te, Rex tantus cum sis, aliis "rationibus ad defensionem calamitosorum quàm fide à Majori"bus datá, pietate, regiâque animi benignitate ac magnitudine permoveri. Ita pulcherrimi facti laus atque gloria illibata atque "integra tua erit, et ipse Patrem Misericordiæ ejusque Filium "Christum Regem, cujus Nomen atque Doctrinam ab immanitate "nefariâ vindicaveris, magis faventem tibi et propitium per " omnem vitam experieris.

Deus Opt. Max. ad gloriam suam, tot innocentissimorum hominum Christianorum tutandam salutem, Vestrumque verum " decus, Majestati Vestræ hanc mentem injiciat.

666 Majestatis Vestræ Studiosissimus

16.OLIVERIUS PROTECTOR REIP. ANGLIÆ,' &c. “ Westmonasterio, Maii '26° die,' anno 1658."*

Of which here is a Version the most literal we can make: 3 “To the most serene and potent Prince, Louis, King of France. "MOST SERENE AND POTENT KING, MOST CLOSE FRIEND AND

ALLY, "Your Majesty may recollect that during the negotiation " between us for the renewing of our League ** (which many "advantages to both Nations, and much damage to their :- The Prose Works of John Milton (London, 1838), p. 815.

** June, 1655 : antea, vol. iii. p. 821.

.

“common Enemies, resulting therefrom, now testify to have "been very wisely done), - there fell out that miserable “Slaughter of the People of the Valleys; whose cause, on all "sides deserted and trodden down, we, with the utmost "earnestness and pity, recommended to your mercy and pro“tection. Nor do we think Your Majesty, for your own part, “has been wanting in an office so pious and indeed so human, "in so far as either by authority or favour you might have “influence with the Duke of Savoy: we certainly, and many “other Princes and States, by embassies, by letters, by " entreaties directed thither, have not been wanting.

"After that most sanguinary Massacre, which spared no “age nor either sex, there was at last a Peace given; or rather, “under the specious name of Peace, a certain more disguised "hostility. The terms of the Peace were settled in your Town “of Pignerol: hard terms; but such as those poor People,

indigent and wretched, after suffering all manner of cruelties "and atrocities, might gladly acquiesce in; if only, hard and ("unjust as the bargain is, it were adhered to. It is not adhered "to: those terms are broken; the purport of every one of them "is, by false interpretation and various subterfuges, eluded "and violated. Many of these people are ejected from their “Old Habitations; their Native Religion is prohibited to "many: new Taxes are exacted; a new Fortress has been "built over them, out of which soldiers frequently sallying "plunder or kill whomsoever they meet. Moreover, new « Forces have of late been privily got ready against them; "and such as follow the Romish Religion are directed to with"draw from among them within a limited time: so that every, "thing seems now again to point towards the extermination of "all among those unhappy People, whom the former Massacre "had left.

“Which now, O Most Christian King, I beseech and obtest " thee, by, thy right-hand which pledged a League and "Friendsbip with us”, by the sacred honour of that Title of “Most Christian, - permit not to be done: nor let such license « of savagery, I do not say to any Prince (for indeed no cruelty

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