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and temporary allowances of Revenue certain, both as to the sum and to the times those "supplies” are to be continued. (Let us know what ground we stand on.] And truly I hope I do not curry favour with you: but another thing is desired, and I may very reasonably desire it, That these moneys, whatever they are; – that they may not, if God shall bring me to any interest in this business, * as lieth at His disposal; – that these moneys, 'I say,' may not be issued out by the authority of the Chief Magistrate, buti by the advice of his Council. You have made in your Instrument a coördination of Council and Chief Magistrate in general terms: 'but I could wish' that this might be a specified thing, That the moneys were not to be distributed 'except by authority of both. It will be a safety to whosoever is your Supreme Magistrate, as well as a security to the Public, That the moneys be issued out by advice of the Council, and that the Treasurers who receive these moneys be accountable every Parliament, within a certain time limited by yourselves; — 'that' every new Parliament, the Treasurer be accountable to the Parliament for the disposing of the Treasury.

[" Article Ninth: Judges, Principal Officers of State, Com"manders-in-chief by Sea or Land, all chief Officers civil and “military, "are to be approved-of by both Houses of Parlia"ment.'"]

There is mention made of the Judges in your Ninth Article. It is mentioned that the Officers of State and the Judges are to be chosen with the approbation of Parliament. But now if there be no Parliament sitting, should there be never so great a loss of Judges, it cannot be supplied. And whether you do not intend that, in the intervals of Parliament, it should be by the choice -- [Omit of the Chief Magistrate," or politely mumble it into indistinctness], — with the consent of the Council; to be afterwards approved by Parliament?

* If I live, and continue to govern. Carlyle, Cromwell. IV.

[Certainly, your Highness; reason so requires it. Be it tacitly so ruled. And now for Article Twelfth:

Article Twelfth (Let us still call it Article Twelfth, though " in the ultimate Redaction it has come to be marked Thir. " teenth): - Classes of persons incapable of holding any office. “Same, I think, as those excluded from elections, - only there “is no penalty annexed. His Highness makes some remarks "upon this, under the Title of Article Twelfth;" – a new "article introduced for securing Purchasers of Church Lands, " which is now Article Twelfth, * has probably pushed this "into the Thirteenth place.")

The Twelfth Article relates to several qualifications that persons must be qualified with, who are put into places of Public Office and Trust. [Treats all of DISqualifications, your Highness; w'ich, however, comes to the same thing.] Now, if men shall step into Public Places and Trust who are not so qualified, 'I do not see but hereby still' they may execute them. “Office of Trust" is a very large word; it goeth almost to a Constable, if not altogether; — it goeth far. Now if any shall come-in who are not so qualified, they certainly do commit a breach upon your rule: - and whether you will not think in this case that if any shall take upon him an Office of Trust, there shall not some Penalty be put upon him, where he is excepted by the general rule? Whether you will not think it fit in that respect to deter men from accepting Offices and Places of Trust, contrary to that Article?

* Whitlocke, p. 659.

[Nothing done in this. The “Penalty," vague in outline but all the more terrible on that account, can be sued-for by any complainant in Westminster Hall.

"Article Thirteenth suddenly provides that your Highness "will be pleased to consent that ‘Nothing in this Petition and “Advice, or the assent thereto, shall be construed to extend to " -- the dissolving of this present Parliament!'"-"Oh, no!" answers his Highness in a kind of bantering way; “not in the least!”]

The next ‘Article' is fetched, in some respects, I may say, by head and shoulders into your Instrument! Yet in some sense it hath an affinity with the rest, too;' I may say, I think it is within your general scope* upon this account; — 'yes,' I am sure of it: There is mention made in the last parts of your Instrument (Looking in the Puper; Article Eighteenth] of your purpose to do many good things: – I am confident, not like the gentleman who made his last will, and set down a great number of names of men who were to receive benefit by him, and there was no sum at the latter end! [": You cannot do these many good "things' if I dissolve you! That will be a Will, with inany beneficiary legatees, and no sam mentioned at the "end!His Highness wears a pleasant bantering look; - to which the countenances of the others, even Bulstrode's leuden countenance, respond by a kind of smile.]

I am confident you are resolved to deal effectually in these things at the latter end; and I should wrong my own conscience if I thought otherwise. I hope you will think sincerely, as before God, “That the Laws be regulated!"** I hope you will. We have been often talking of them: - and I remember well, at the

"order" in orig. ** One of their coäcluding promises (Article Eighteenth).

old Parliament (Whitlocke and Glynn look intelligence), we were three months, and could not get over the word “Incumbrances” (Hum-m-m!]: and we thought there was little hope of "regulating the Law” where there was such difficulty as to that. But surely the Laws need to be regulated! And I must needs say, I think it were a sacrifice acceptable to God, upon many accounts. And I am persuaded it is one of the things that God looks for, and would have. [Alas, your Highness!] – I confess, if any man should ask me, “Why, how would you have it done?” I confess I do not know How. But I think verily, at the least, the Delays in Suits, and the Excessiveness in Fees, and the Costliness of Suits, and those various things which I do not know what names they bear – I heard talk of “Demurrers” and such-like things, which I scarce know — (Sentence is wrecked]! — But I say certainly, The people are greatly suffering in this respect; they are so. And truly if this whole business of settlement, whatever be the issue of it, if it come, which I am persuaded it doth, as a thing that would please God; - 'then,' by a sacrifice 'to God' in it, or rather as an expression of our thankfulness to God, I am persuaded that this will be one thing that will be upon your hearts, to do something that is honourable and effectual in this. ["Reforming of the Law!Alas, your Highness !] —

‘Another thing' that — truly I say that it is not in your Instrument - [Nothing said of it there, which partly embarrasses his Highness; who is now getting into a small Digression]! – Somewhat that relates to the Reformation of Manners, — you will pardon me! — My Fellow Soldiers 'the Major-Generals,' who were raisedup upon that just occasion of the Insurrection, not only

"to secure the Peace of the Nation," but to see that persons who were least likely to help-on "peace” or to continue it, but rather to break it — [" These MajorGenerals, I say, did look after the restraining of such persons; suppressed their horse-racings, cock-fightings, "sinful roysterings; took some charge of 'REFORMATION "OF MANNERS,' they:" but his Highness is off elsewhither, excited by this tickle subject, and the Sentence has evaporated] — Dissolute loose persons that can go up and down from house to house, – and they are Gentlemen's sons who have nothing to live on, and cannot be supplied with means of living to the profit of the Commonwealth: these I think had a good course taken with them. [Ordered to fly-away their game-cocks, unmuzzle their bear-baitings; fall to some regular livelihood, some fixed habitat, if they could, and, on the whole, to duck low, keep remarkably quiet, and give no rational man any trouble with them which could be avoided! And I think what was done to them was honourably and honestly and profitably done. And, for my part, I must needs say, It* showed the dissoluteness which was then in the Nation; — as indeed it springs most from that Party of the Cavaliers! Should that Party run on, and no care be taken to reform the Nation; to prevent, perhaps, abuses which will not fall under this head alone —! [Not under Reformation of MANNERS alone: what will the consequence be?]

We send our children into France before they know God or Good Manners; ** and they return with all the licentiousness of that Nation. Neither care taken to educate them before they go, nor to keep them in good order Z * The course taken with them, the quantity of coercion they needed, and!of complaint made thereupon, are all loosely included in this “It."

** Morals.

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