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a Professor of Theology, and four Regents. This state of matters continued till the Revolution, when the University again began to prosper after a long period of depression.* In the first twenty years of last century, six Professorships were either originally founded or revived-viz., those of Humanity (1706), Oriental Languages (1709), . Civil Law (1713), Medicine (1713), Church History (1716), and Anatomy (1718); and to these a Professorship of Astronomy was added in 1760. The remaining fourteen Professorships were founded during the present century-viz., Natural History (1807), Surgery (1815), Midwifery (1815), Chemistry (1817), Botany (1818), Materia Medica (1831), Institutes of Medicine (1839), Forensic Medicine (1839), Civil Engineering (1840), Conveyancing (1861), English Language and Literature (1861), Divinity and Biblical Criticism (1861), Clinical Surgery (1874), Clinical Medicine (1874).

UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS.

The changes in the City of Glasgow, connected with the vast extension of its commerce and manufactures, having so entirely altered the character of the district in which the University Buildings were planted four hundred years ago, as to render the locality altogether unsuitable for an Academic Institution; and the buildings themselves having become, by their limited extent and defective construction, inadequate for the modern requirements of a great educational establishment; measures were adopted for the removal of the University to more extended and commodious buildings, and for this purpose a large extent of ground was secured in the lands of Gilmorehill, in the western part of the City.

In 1846, a Bill for the sale of the College grounds and buildings to the Monklands Junction Railway Company, and the transference of the University to a new site on Woodlands, was passed by both Houses of Parliament, and received the Royal assent. But that measure failed by the inability of the Railway Company to implement their engagements; and the Senate of the University found no favourable opportunity for the renewal of the scheme, till the year 1863, when a proposal for the purchase of the College lands and * See Dr. Thomas Reid's Account of the University of Glasgow.

buildings was made by the City of Glasgow Union Railway Company, and a sale was accordingly effected to that Company, under their Act of Parliament, in 1864, at the price of £100,000.

The funds at the disposal of the University to carry out the scheme. of removal consisted of-(1.) The produce of the sale of the old College and grounds, £100,000,- (2.) A sum of £17,500, consisting of the principal sum of £10,000, obtained by the University as compensation from the Monklands Junction Company, for non-fulfilment of their agreement, with interest since the time of payment, and—(3.) A sum of £21,400, promised by Her Majesty's Government in aid of the scheme of removal, conditionally on a further sum of £24,000 being raised by public subscription, for the erection of a sick hospital in connection with the new University Buildings.

With these funds at their disposal, buildings might have been erected sufficient for the transaction of the ordinary business of instruction in the same manner as heretofore, and for the accommodation of the Library and Museum, but they must have been of the plainest design, and on a scale quite inadequate to provide for the future extension of the University.

In these circumstances, the Senate resolved to make an earnest appeal for aid to the Government and to the public. This appeal was responded to in the most generous and gratifying manner. In a short time a sum of nearly £100,000 was subscribed, chiefly in the City of Glasgow; and the Government, appreciating the importance of the work, and the public interest it had excited, announced their intention to ask Parliament for the sum of £120,000, in six annual instalments, on condition of a like amount being raised by subscription and expended on the buildings. This sum has now been paid out of the National Treasury, and the public subscription for the University Buildings has reached the large amount of £165,924, after deduction of £30,000 allocated to the Western Infirmary.

The efforts of the University being thus seconded in so gratifying a manner by the public and the Government, new buildings, designed by the late Sir G. Gilbert Scott, were erected on the grounds of Gilmorehill; and in these buildings the classes of the University met for the first time in session 1870-71.

GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY.

Previous to the Universities Act of 1858, the whole business of the University was transacted in three distinct courts— namely, the Senate, the Faculty, and the Comitia.

The Senate consisted of the Rector, the Dean, the Principal, and all the Professors of the University. Meetings of the Senate were held for conferring degrees, and for the management of the libraries and other matters belonging to the University.

The Faculty, or College Meeting, consisted of the Principal, who presided, and the Professors of Divinity, Church History, Oriental Languages, Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Mathematics, Logic, Greek, Humanity, Civil Law, Medicine, Anatomy, and Practical Astronomy. The Members of Faculty had the administration of the whole revenue and property of the College, along with the right of exercising the patronage of eight professorships vested in the College. They also presented a Minister to the Parish of Govan, and had the gift of various bursaries.

The Constituent Members of the Comitia were the Rector, the Dean, the Principal, the Professors, and the Matriculated Students of the University. The Rector or Vice-Rector presided in this court, and also in the Senate. Meetings of the Comitia were held for the election and admission of the Rector, for hearing the inaugural discourses of the Principals and Professors previously to their admission to their respective offices, and for promulgating the laws of the University.

Besides these a court, called the Jurisdictio Ordinaria, consisting of the Principal, the four Regents (viz., the Professors of Greek, Logic, Ethics, and Physics), and the Professor of Humanity, with the gowned students, met occasionally, for the exercise of discipline over the junior students.

By the Scottish Universities Act, 21 and 22 Vict., chap. 83, important changes were made in the constitution and government of the University. The distinction between the Faculty and the Senate was abolished; two new bodies, called the University Court, and University Council, were instituted; and Commissioners were appointed, armed with extensive powers of revision and regulation, who issued ordinances, sanctioned by Her Majesty, in accordance with which the affairs of the University are now administered.

CHANCELLOR,

The Chancellor is the head of the University, and, by himself or his deputy, has the privilege of conferring Academical Degrees upon persons found qualified by the Senate. All changes in the internal arrangements of the University must have the sanction of the Chancellor before being carried into effect. He is elected by the General Council, of which he is president. His office is held during life. He is empowered to appoint a Vice-Chancellor, to discharge his office in his absence, so far as regards conferring Degrees, but in no other respect. The office of Vice-Chancellor has usually been, and is now, held by the Principal.

Chancellors from the year 1642.

1642. James Hamilton, Marquis of Hamilton. 1660. William Cunningham, Earl of Glencairn. 1661. Andrew Fairfowl, Archbishop of Glasgow. 1664.

Alexander Burnett,

1670. Robert Leighton,

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1674.

Alexander Burnett,

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1679. Arthur Ross,

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1684. Alexander Cairncross,

1687. John Paterson,

1691. John Carmichael, Earl of Hyndford. 1715. James Graham, Duke of Montrose. 1743. William Graham,

1781. James Graham,

1837. James Graham,

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1875. Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Bart., M.P.

1878. WALTER FRANCIS, DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY,

K.G.

GENERAL COUNCIL.

The General Council, as constituted by the Scottish Universities Act, 1858 (21 and 22 Vict., chap. 83), by the Representation of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868 (31 and 32 Vict., chap. 84), and by the Universities Elections Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1881 (44 and 45 Vict., chap. 40), consists of the following ex officio Members, viz., the Chancellor, the Members of the University Court from and after their first election, and the Professors, and also of the following persons after registration, viz., al! Masters of Arts of the University, and all persons on whom the

University has, after Examination, conferred the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, or Doctor of Science, or Bachelor of Divinity, or Bachelor of Laws, or Bachelor of Medicine, or Bachelor of Science, or any other Degree instituted since 13th July, 1868; and also all persons who, previous to the 2nd August, 1861, had, as matriculated students, given regular attendance on the course of study in this University for four complete sessions, or such regular attendance for three complete sessions in this University, and regular attendance for one such complete session in any other Scottish University, the attendance for at least two of such sessions having been on the course of study in the Faculty of Arts.

Members of the Council must have their names enrolled in a book kept for the purpose by the Registrar. The Register of the Council is made up annually on the first day of December, for the year following, and includes the names of all members entered on the Registration Book on or before the 30th day of November in each year. The Registration Fee, which is a payment for life, is 20s.

By section 16 of the Act 44 and 45 Vict., chap. 40, it is enacted that no person shall be allowed, after examination, to graduate at any of the Universities of Scotland until he shall have paid the Registration Fee; and it is further enacted that every person who has hitherto been, or who shall in the future become, ex officio, a member of the General Council of any of the Universities shall, on payment of the Registration Fee, be put and continued on the Register of Members of General Council of such University during his life, and shall be entitled to all the privileges of a Member of Council. The Act also provides that no person, subject to any legal incapacity, shall be entitled to vote at any parliamentary election, or exercise any other privilege as a Member of the General Council.

The corrupt payment of any Registration Fee is punishable as bribery.

The Council meets twice every year-viz., on the Wednesday before the opening (31st October, 1883), and the Wednesday before the close of the winter session (23rd April, 1884). It is competent to the Council to take into consideration all questions affecting the well-being and prosperity of the University, and to make representations from time to time, to the University

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