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allowed to sell them in an open shop except on two days in the year, at the beginning of January. At this time husbands gave their wives money to buy a few pins. Thus money allowed to a wife for her own private expenses is still called pin-money.

Originally, before the invention of pins in 1543, skewers made of wood, bone, and ivory were used to fasten ladies' dresses.

During the mid-Victorian period a craze prevailed for all sorts of fancy wares and woodwork, the making of which largely conduced to the prosperity of certain


Tunbridge Wells and, in a lesser degree, Brighton were once quite celebrated for a special industry of painted woodwork: pretty old boxes of painted hollywood, sycamore, and chestnut hand-screens embellished with flowers.

At a very early date painting on wood-at first hollywood, then sycamore and chestnut, was a peculiar industry of a certain number of the population of Tunbridge Wells, from which the art eventually spread to Brighton. The quaint old boxes and hand-screens, embellished with flowers painted in an artistic style upon white wood, have for a long time past begun to be prized by the increasing number of minor collectors who, unable to afford the huge prices demanded by curiosity dealers for fine eighteenthcentury curios, specialize in less costly trifles. As far back as 1720 plain articles had been manufactured at Tunbridge Wells, whilst at a later era ornamental

designs were burnt into the wood-the flower painting came last of all. The Tunbridge Wells mosaic work seems first to have made its appearance about 1797. A certain Mr. Burrows was the first maker of such ware. He, however, employed only a few woods, whilst his designs were merely cubes and diamonds pieced together in imitation of mosaic, every piece by itself. The original idea of Tunbridge ware, it should be added, appears to have been taken from the glass and stone mosaics which once enjoyed such a vogue in Italy. Indeed, it is said that an Italian mosaic maker having come to Tunbridge Wells as a refugee, and plied his art rather secretly upon Rusthall Common, he was watched through the roof by some of the natives, whom he eventually allowed to learn all he knew.

Scattered up and down England are a number of interesting relics which are now carefully preserved. Amongst them not the least interesting, I think, are certain old tables, like that, still in existence, at which the three beautiful Ladies Waldegrave were painted. Another small historical table was one formerly at the White Lodge. Upon this, in an after-dinner conversation, whilst taking wine with Lord Sidmouth, and shortly before resuming his command of the noble fleet which achieved the ever-memorable victory of Trafalgar, Lord Nelson traced with his finger his plan of attack, and the manner in which he proposed to break the enemy's line.

Here also formerly, amongst the pictures in the



drawing-room, were portraits of George III on horseback and Queen Charlotte, which had been presented to that nobleman by the King. A picture representing an inspection by His Majesty of the Tenth Hussars, or Prince of Wales's Regiment, was copied from the original, by Sir William Beechey, at Hampton Court; but with the remarkable omission. of the figure of the Prince, which was left out by the order of the King, who thus testified his then displeasure against his son.

In connexion with the subject of the White Lodge, few probably know that a very curious old custom formerly prevailed at Richmond close by; this was "Borough English," by which, in the event of the father dying intestate, lands descend to the youngest son; or in default of heirs male, to the youngest daughter. Richmond, in spite of the increase of houses and villas, is still a charming place.

The magnificence of the view from the hill is of world-wide fame. The manifold forms of beauty which its verdant landscape embraces—a vast "sea of verdure," as Scott has called it-the ever-shifting scenery of its sky, the faint tints of the distant hills -Windsor, with its Royal towers-Hampton, with its stately avenues, suggesting, while they conceal, the palace of the great Cardinal-all conspire to produce an impression which is not to be readily effaced.

No wonder that of late the many amenities

of Richmond have attracted a number of clever people, like my dear friends Miss Braddon and her son, Mr. Maxwell, who inherits much of his mother's literary talent.

A curious phase of collecting which once attracted me was the accumulation of numbers of teapots of varying material and make.

I believe the largest collection of this sort known was that of a Mrs. Hawes, who died some forty years ago, and who bequeathed three hundred specimens to her daughter. Among them were several formerly belonging to Queen Charlotte.

George IV had a large assembly of teapots-tea was not much in his way, by the by-piled in pyramids in the Pavilion at Brighton; and Mrs. Elizabeth Carter was also a collector of teapots, each of which possessed some traditionary interest.

Liverpool produced two historic teapots, one of which was dedicated to the Earl of Derby, printed in "Liverpool transfer," with the Stanley crest and the following inscription: "Good health and success to the Right Honourable the Earl of Derby.

"Long may he live,

Happy may he be,
Blest with content,

And from misfortune free."

The second famous Liverpool teapot was dedicated to John Wesley, and was decorated with his portrait. A specimen of this Wesley teapot may be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum.



Another Wesley teapot, upon which are his portrait and acrostic lines in his praise, was made in the Staffordshire potteries. Liverpool pottery, however, was not always dedicated to such noble persons or objects. One fine specimen, covered with ships and trophies, bears the inscription, "Success to the African Trade," a euphuistic expression for speculating in slaves.

A more graceful subject for the collector's attention, perhaps, was collecting old bells. My friend Lady Waldegrave had some very interesting ones, the best of which were three of silver-gilt which she bequeathed to the South Kensington Museum. They were all of different designs and of historical interest, having been appended to canopies used at the coronations of George II, George III, and George IV. These canopies were borne by the barons of the Cinque Ports, in accordance with an immemorial custom. The first husband of Lady Waldegrave (Mr. Milward) had been one of the barons, and it was through him that the bells came into the possession of the testatrix.

In the days when King Bomba ruled at Naples, I remember there arose a craze for what were called Bomba dollars, which must now be very rare.

One of this wretched ruler's favourite arguments with his subjects consisted in firing on them and throwing bombs into their streets, and therefore he was called after his chosen engines of destruction. In Sicily they adopted an ingenious mode of spreading

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