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His accensa super iactatos aequore toto
Troas, reliquias Danaum atque inmitis Achilli,
Arcebat longe Latio, multosque per annos
Errabant, acti fatis, maria omnia circum.
Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem.

Vix e conspectu Siculae telluris in altum
Vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis aere ruebant,
Cum Iuno, aeternum seryans sub pectore volnus,
Haec secum : Mene incepto desistere victam,

35

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29.] The construction is resumed after equally good Latin. Comp. e. g. “urbis the parenthesis with some variation, his conspectu frui,” Cic. Sull. 9. Generally, accensa super' referring to the subject- though not universally, where the noun in matter of the parenthesis. Super' for the gen. is a thing, the gen. is that of the insuper," 2. 71, &c. Weidner connects object; and, in the present case, we more it with aequore, which is very unlikely. naturally think of the Trojans looking to

Lactatos arcebat' is equivalent to "iacta. wards Sicily, than of Sicily looking towards bat et arcebat,” or “ iactando arcebat.” the Trojans.

30.] Reliquias Danaum,' who had been 35.) Heyne puts a comma after daleft by the Greeks. Comp. Cic. de Sen. 6. bant,' which is the punctuation of Med., 19, “ut avi reliquias (i. e. “ Karthaginem but MS. authority on such points is of ab avo relictam ") persequare," quoted by little value. Wagn. omits the comma altoForb. Comp. Aesch, Ag: 517, atpatòy gether, on the ground that “ laeti' belongs déxeolai TÒv nedeljévov dopós. For the to both verbs; which of course it does, in orthography · Achilli,' see note on G. 3. 91. sense; but in construction it must be Here Rom. has · Achillis,

taken with the one or the other, and it is 32.] * Acti fatis,' inasmuch as their des. obviously better taken with the former. tiny forbids them to rest. Comp. “fato Virg., in fact, is imitating Od. 5. 269, profugus,” ν. 2. The opposition which γηθόσυνος δ' ούρω πέτασιστία διος 'ΟδυσHenry supposes between the impulse of reús, Ulysses's voyage there answering to the fates and the repulse of Juno, though Aeneas's here. “Ruebant,''were driving true in fact, does not seem to be distinctly before_them;' see note on G. 1. 105. intended here. They are said to wander “Campos salis aere secabant,” 10. 214. round the seas rather than over them, Spumat sale (“sale” neute non.) ocdoubtless for variety's sake. In v. 667 curs En. A. 14. 1. below Aeneas is tossed on the sea

« omnia

36.] 'Sub pectore,' deep in her breast,' circum litora.”

with a derivative notion of secrecy, Comp. 33.] 'Tantae molis? for tanti molimi. Aesch. Eum. 156, étuyev--ÚTO opévas und nis,' as in Livy 25. 11, “Plaustris trans. Loßbv. On a'comparison of Lucr. 1. 34, veham naves haud magna mole." The “aeterno devictus volnere amoris," it is metaphor may be continued in condere.' perhaps better to take ' aeternum' closely

3449.] "The Trojans were just sailing with · volnusthan, as the order might from Sicily when Juno saw them, remem warrant, with servans.' bered the vengeance Pallas once took on 37.] 'Secum:' “sine conscio," says Serv., the Greek fleet, and chafed to think that comparing v. 225 below and 2.93. Loqui hitherto she had done so little.'

secum,' as opposed to loqui cum aliquo,' 34.] Virg. plunges “in medias res," as is to soliloquize, if the person is alone; to the commentators remark. See Introduce think or mutter, if the person is in comtion to this Book. The departure from pany. It is the προτι δν μυθήσατο θυμόν Sicily closes Aeneas's narrative, 3. 715. of Od. 5. 285, where Poseidon takes the Forb. takes 'e conspectu Siculae telluris' part taken by Juno here. Menedesisto mean "out of sight from Sicily,' or tere :' for this use of the accus. and intin. of those who were in Sicily, comparing to denote indignation or surprise

, see Mõdv. 11. 903, “ Vix e conspectu exierat ;" but $399. In Greek the article is not unfrethere the sense is determined by the quently prefixed to the infin. in this concontext. and the common rendering, out struction. • Victam,' 'baffled. For one of sight of Sicily,' is more natural, and aspect of the word we may comp. 7. 310,

40

Nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ?
Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere classem
Argivom atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto,
Unius ob noxam, et furias Aiacis Oilei ? Qiu Sen
Ipsa, Iovis rapidum iaculata e nubibus ignem,
Disiecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis,
Illum exspirantem transfixo pectore flammas

Vincor ab Aenea :” for another, Hor. tion which Ajax gives to Poseidon, Od. 4. 1 Ep. 13. 11, “ Victor propositi."

503, 509. Oilei' is not an adjective, but 38.] • Avertere,' G. 2. 172. As Henry a patronymic genitive, like 'Oños Taxùs remarks, it means not merely to turn Atas. In Cic. de Orat. 2. 66, and Ov, M.

way, but to turn back. Rom. originally 12. 622, Oileos' is probably the Greek and Gud. have · Italiam.'

genitive. Hyginus and Dictys Cretensis 39.] 'Quippe' generally gives a reason however are cited by Freund for an adjec(comp. vv. 59, 661 below, G. 1. 268., 2. 49., tive, Oilëus.' For the orthography Oilei,' 4. 394), sometimes with irony, and here not • Oili' (which is however the reading with indignation. The use of 'ne,' which of Med., supported by some grammarians, implies a negative answer, expresses incre- and adopted by Ribbeck), see Wago. on dulity that Pallas should bave done what v. 30 above, who decides that where the Juno cannot. Hom., Od. 1. 326, makes nominative terminates only in 'eus,' the the minstrel sing to the suitors of the genitive must terminate, not in ‘i,' but in vbotov 'Axacov Avypov ov èx Tpoins énetei- ei. Rom, and Gud. have Oilei.' nato Manlàs 'Atnun. But in Od. 3 and 4, 42.] So Aesch. Eum. 827, she says of where the return of the Greeks is described herself, και κλήδας οίδα δωμάτων μόνη θεών in detail, he says nothing of a general storm. 'Ev Kepavvós {OTIV do opaylouévos. Juno, Ajax, in Od. 4. 499, is shipwrecked, but in Book 4, raises a thunder-storm, but does saved on a rock, in spite of the enmity of not herself ('ipsa') hurl the thunderbolt. Pallas, by Poseidon, who afterwards, pro. “Pallas fulminatrix," and the owl grasping voked by his impious boast that he would a thunderbolt, are found on coins. lovis escape in spite of the gods, cleaves the rock ignem’ is of course merely a periphrasis on which he is sitting, and drowns him. for the lightning. See the passage from Aeschylus, like Virg., mentions a general Attius cited on v. 44. Comp. Eur. Tro. storm, and implies (through the forebod. 80, euol de dúoel onol Tüp Kepabviov, ings of Clytaemnestra) that it was the Bάλλειν 'Αχαιούς ναύς τε πιμπράναι πυρί punishment of some impiety. The crime (spoken by Pallas). of Ajax is fixed by Lycophron and others 43.] Eurip. I, c. makes Zeus send the to be insolence offered to Cassandra in the storm and Poseidon raise the sea, Pallas temple of Pallas. Virg. however merely being merely charged with the lightning. mentions him among others in 2, 403, Quinct. Smyrn. 14. 444 foll. follows Virg., where Cassandra is dragged from sanc- making Zeus give all his artillery to Athena tuary.

for the occasion, and delight in seeing the 40.] Ipsos,' 'Argivos,' the crews, as storm which she raises. He imitates Virg. distinguished from the ships. Forb. comp. in the speech wbich Athena addresses to Il. 14. 47, aply arupi vñas evitphoai, kreivai Zeus, vv. 427 foll., and also in the visit δε και αυτούς.

Iris is represented as paying on Athena's 41.) So Tryphiodorus v. 650, åv evds account to Aeolia, for the special purpose 'Αργείοισιν εχώσατο πάσιν 'Αθήνη. I have of making the tempest worse about the placed a comma at noxam,' to show that headland of Caphareus, vv. 474 foll., * unius' is not to be taken with 'Aiacis though in the latter case his narrative is Oilei,' but that the second clause is distinct more summary: from and epexegetic of the first. Comp. 44.] Comp. Lucr. 6.391 foll., “icti flamv. 251 below, “unius ob iram.” But it is mas ut fulguris halent Pectore perfixo;" hard to judge in cases like this, where it is and Attius, Clyt. fr. 5 (quoted by Serv. a question of minute considerations. See on this passage), “ In pectore fulmen inon 3. 162. Furias ’ expresses the Homeric choatum flammam ostentabat Iovis.” For árn, the infatuation which impels to crime. pectore 'Probus read tempore.' Mén adoon is twice used of the provoca

45

Turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit acuto;
Ast ego, quae divom incedo regina, Iovisque
Et soror et coniunx, una cum gente tot annos
Bella gero. Et quisquam numen Iunonis adorat
Praeterea, aut supplex aris inponit honorem ?

Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans

50

45.) Comp. Lucr. l.c. “Turbine cac na soror.” It is probable that Prop. had lesti subito correptus et igni.” “Turbine' seen Virg. : see on v. 2 above. is the wind or force of the thunderbolt, as 47.] kao iyvntnu oxoxov te, Il. 16. 432. in 6. 594. See also on 2. 649. Forb. is UnaJuno thinks it strange that she right in placing a semicolon only after should take so long to subdue a single va'acuto,' to show that · Ast ego, &c. is tion; Venus, on the other hand (v. 251 connected with the lines preceding. One below), complains that she and her son or two MSS. have 'inflixit,' which Cornu are persecuted to gratify a single indivi. tus ap. Serv. preferred “ut vehementius.” dual, Juno, • Infixit’ is a little awkward after trans 48.] The old reading, unsupported appafixo;' and the construction “infigere ali- rently by the better MSS., though one or quem alicui,” to impale a person upon a two have adoret,' was 'adorat-inponat.' thing, is, as Henry has pointed out, un Heins. and Heyne recommended, and later usual, if not unexampled. •Infixit’how- editors have restored, 'adorat-inponet' ever is supported by Sen. Ag. 571, “ Hae from Med., Rom., and other MSS. "Some rent acutis rupibus fixae rates," quoted by MSS. however, including Gud. originally, Gossrau. Henry's interpretation, making have ‘inponit;' and this would appear to be * scopulo' abl., and supposing Ajax to be the true reading, both from the instances pierced by a fragment of rock hurled at quoted by Wagn, in support of the indihim (“turbine' being paralleled with "in- cative against the subjunctive (Or. 3 Am. gentis turbine saxi," 12. 531), agrees to a 8. 1, 2, "Et quisquam ingenuas etiamnum certain extent with Quinct. Smyrn. 14. suspicit artis Aut tenerum dotes carinen 567 foll. (not with Sen. Ag. 552 foll., who habere putat ?” and Consolatio ad Liviam follows Hom.); nothing however is there Incerti Auctoris, 7, 8), and from the na. said about piercing Ajax, who is merely ture of the case. * Et quisquam adoret' said to be overwhelmed by the rock as would be, 'can it be that any one will or Enceladus was overwhelmed by Aetna; so is likely to do it ?' 'et quisquam adorat,' that the parallel is hardly made out. W. can it be that any one is doing it ?'. If Ribbeck cites Seneca's poem to Corduba, then the subjunctive is less forcible than vv. 13, 14 (Wernsdorf's Poet. Lat. Min. the indicative, it is precisely because the vol. 5, p. 1367), “ Ille tuus quondam mag. future is less forcible than the present. nus, taa gloria, civis Infigar scopulo," Those who read “inponet' explain the which is in favour of the common inter- change of tense by saying that adorat pretation, as the writer evidently means praeterea’ = “adorabit." _'Et couples to speak of his banishment to a rocky the presents adorat’and “inponit' with island as an impalement.

'gero'-'I am proving my imbecility, and 46.] Apparently from Il. 18. 364 foll., yet I have worshippers !' • Praeterea' where Here pleads her dignity as greatest then will express, not so much sequence of the goddesses and consort of Zeus, as a in time, as a logical relation, like Énecta. reason why she should work her will on We may still however comp. praeterea the Trojans. *Incedo,' poetically substi- vidit,” G. 4. 502. Honorem'G. 3. 486. tuted for the simple copula “sum ;” with •Inponere,' of offerings, 4. 453., 6. 246, an allusion, of course, to the majesty of 253, G. 3. 490. The general thought Juno's gait. The word itself, as Henry seems to be from Poseidon's complaints in remarks, does not necessarily imply ma two distinct passages of Hom., Il. 7. 4-16 jestic movement; but this notion is gained foll., Od. 13. 128 foll. by attention being directed to the move 50–64.] 'She goes to Aeolia, the home ment at all, in a context like this ; at the and prison of the winds, and applies to same time, of course, that it is enforced by Aeolus their king.' the qualifying words .divom regina,' &c. 50.] *Talia secum volutang.' These words Comp. Prop. 2. 2. 6," incedit vel love dig. refer to the thought rather than to the

Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris,
Aeoliam venit. Hic vasto rex Aeolus antro
Luctantis ventos tempestatesque sonoras
Inperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat.
Illi indignantes, magno cum murmure montis,
Circum claustra fremunt; celsa sedet Aeolus arce

55

mur

« cum

expression : but that they are not incom- munt' is not the same thing as "ad claustra patible with an actual soliloquy, appears fremunt.” The more reasonable thing from 4. 533, compared with ib. 553, and seems to be to say that Virg. uses imagery 6. 185, 186, compared with ib. 190. principally taken from the race-horse and

51.] “Patriam' gives a poetical hint of the prison, but without intending any one the personality of the storms; comp: v. connected or uniform series of metaphors. 540 below, G. 1. 52, note; Ov. 3 Am. Lucr., in a passage from which this is 6. 40, “Nilus Qui patriam tantae tam bene partly imitated (6. 189–203), compares celat aquae." The notion of generation is the winds pent in a thunder-cloud to wild carried still farther in ‘feta. The home beasts in a cage, “in caveisque ferarum of the storm-cloud, the teening womb of more minantur, Nunc hinc nunc illinc raging southern blasts.'

fremitus per nubila mittunt Quaerentesque 52.] • Aeoliam'appears from 8. 417 to viam circum versantur” (vv. 198–200). be Lipara. The Aeolia of Hom. (Od. 10) 55.] Here we are reminded of an earlier has been Bupposed to unite the character part of the passage just cited from Lucr., istics of Lipara and Strongyle, the latter where the storm-clouds in which the winds of which appears to be assigned by Virg. are confined are compared to mountains (1. c) to Vulcan. Comp. also Val. F. i. (vv. 189, 190) and caverns (v. 195), 579 foll. The Aeolus of Hom. is not a

is moles

quas venti cum tempestate demigod, but the king of a sort of magic coorta Complerunt, magno indignantur isle, entrusted by Zeus with the control murmure clausi Nubibus." It is possible of the winds, but passing his life in that the Lucretian image may have sugcontinually feasting with his queen and gested to Virg. his deviation from the children.

account in Hom. Magno cum 53.] Hom.'s winds are not represented mure:' comp. such phrases as as struggling, or the object of anxious magna calamitate et prope pernicie civicustody. When Aeolus wishes to waft tatis,” Cic. 2 Verr. 1. 24. See also Hand, Ulysses to his country, he lets the west Tursell. 2. p. 152, foll. Montis? with wind blow, and ties up all the rest in a murmure,' as v. shows, in spite of skin. Val. F., on the contrary, with ques. the passage in

While the huge tionable judgment, makes Aeolus let loose rock roars-responsive.' the winds whenever he finds them un 56.] It is not easy to say what or where governable. Gud. originally had • luctatos.' this arx'of Aeolus is intended to be. The

54.] Henry (on v. 86) considers the common notion is that it is the top of the whole picture of the winds to have been mountain in which the winds are confined, suggested by the Ludi Circenses, referring Henry once thought it was an eminence Iparticularly to the words 'inperio premit, within the cave; now he takes it of a *frenat,''fremunt,''carcere,' and 'claustra,' fortress or palace in ne the neighbourhood. and citing the imitation by Val. F. 1. 611, This last certainly seems the most natural “fundunt se carcere laeti Thraces equi meaning of the word. The citadel is the Zephyrusque," and the description of a natural dwelling of a despotic governor chariot-race in Sidon. Apoll. 1. ad Consen. (comp. Juv. 10. 307); in Greek history, tium, opening with “Illi ad claustra fre- tyrants seize it when they assume supreme munt." Against this may be urged the power ; and so here, as Aeolia is under a collocation of two of the inost important strong government, it is supposed to be words, 'carcere' and 'frenat;' inasmuch furnished with an 'arx,' though the goas ' carcere frenat' must mean curbs with vernment consists in keeping the key of a carcer,'not curbs in a carcer.' Vinclis' the prison. So in the description of the also appears to fix the sense of carcere' shades, Stat. Theb. 8. 21, Pluto is described as a prison-house, and not a barrier in a as “ sedens media regni infelicis in arce,” race-course. Again, 'circum claustra fre. words apparently imitated from Virg., and

60

Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos et temperat iras;

Ni faciat, maria ac terras caelumque profundum
Why Quippe ferant rapidi secum verrantque per auras.

Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris,
Hoc metuens, molemque et montis insuper altos
Inposuit, regemque dedit, qui foedere certo
Et premere et laxas sciret dare iussus habenas.
Ad quem tum Iuno supplex his vocibus usa est :

Aeole, namque tibi divom pater atque hominum rex 65
Et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento,

doubtless to be understood simply as bring. Virg. in v. 23 would naturally useid' ing out the notion of sovereignty, without rather than 'hoc,'having just said. hinc any particular reference to the appro- populum,' &c., and being about to say his priateness of the image. It is in this accensa super. Otherwise 'hoc' might * arx' that Juno has her interview with have stood there as well as here, as in Aeolus, who goes from it (though this is either place it would only mean this which not directly asserted) to the dungeon, and I have just mentioned.' Molem et montis opens the door. 'Sedet' expresses actual = "molem montium.” “Insuper'is rightly sitting, not, as Henry thtaks, merely dwelto taken by Wund. as above,' not besides.' ing; but it has no further appropriateness Comp. 3. 579, "ingentemque insuper Aetthan as carrying out the image of arce;' nam Inpositam.” and so 'sceptra tenens,' the Homeric 62.] Regemque dedit,' &c., imitated σκηπτούχος.

from Od. 10. 21 foll. Foedus' is here 57.] Exifatpa in Greek appears to sig nearly equivalent to‘lex;' as in G. 1. 60, nify generally the symbols of supreme Continuo has leges aeternaque foedera authority rather than the actual sceptre.' certis Inposuit natura locis” (note). Virg. however uses it simply for scep

63.] It is difficult to say whether the -trum, 7. 252, and probably this is the object of premere' is ventosor 'ha

meaning here, though there is no special benas. If the latter, which is supported appropriateness in the image ; see previous by pressis habenis,” 11.600,laxas dare' note. Animos,' like "animosi,” G. 2. 441 must be taken together as equivalent to (note), is half physical, half mental. Mol "laxare,” like “Haec ego vasta dabo,” 9. lit,' &c., as Henry observes, expresses the 323. Otherwise dare habenas' might general effect of Aeolus' sway.

stand alone, as in 11. 623,"datis referun58.] ‘Ni fuciat-ferant—verrant.' The tur habenis." "Iussus,' “a Jove.” present tense here, as in 6. 292., 11. 912, 64.] 'Ad'is not "apud,” as Serv. thinks, is substituted for the imperfect to give but ad quem,' &c. is equivalent to "quem greater vividness and express the greater allocuta est." * Ad quem 'is used elliptiimminence of that which is prevented or cally 10. 742. “Vocibus usi,” Lucr. 5. averted. Faciat,' E. 2. 44, note. Med. 1046. tas faciant.' “ Terrasque tractusque 65—75.] "She begs him to wreck the maris caelumque profundum,” E. 4. 51, Trojan fleet, and promises him one of her pote.

nymphs as a wife. 59.) Lucr. 1. 277 foll.“venti . . corpora 65.] Πατήρ ανδρών τε θεών τε, ΙΙ. 1.544. caeca Quae mare, quae terras, quae denique The namque’ is also Homeric, e. g. Il. nubila caeli Verrunt ac subito vexantia 24. 334, 'Epuela, col gáp te uáalotá ye turbiue raptant.” Quippe,' as Heyne re- platatbv dotiv-Bdok You. Macrobius marks, in prose would precede ni faciat.' (Sat. 6. 1) says that the words · Divom Compare the position of scilicet' in poetry. pater atq

hominum rex' are from * Per auras' is equivalent to “per inane." Ennius. Varro, L. L. 5. 65, quotes "divom.

61.] The distinction attempted by Wagn. que hominumque pater rex as from between hoc metuens' here and id Ennius. metuens'in v. 23, as if 'hoc' referred to 66.] Od. 10. 22, nuev travéueval 78' an immediate, 'id' to a more distant opvúper & K doéanoiv. Vento,' as the object of apprehension, is groundless. important word in the sentence, is to be

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