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Scorpius, et cæli justà plus parte reliquit.

35 36. Quicquid Numen Quicquid eris (nam te nec sperent Tartara regem,

Nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupido:
Quamvis Elysios miretur Græcia campos,
Nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem)

Da facilem cursum, atque audacibus annue cæptis: 40
41. Tuque miseratus Ignarosque viæ mecum miseratus agrestes
agrestes ignaros viæ, me- Ingredere, et votis jam nunc assuesce vocari.
cum ingredere

Vere novo, gelidus canis cùm montibus humor
Liquitur, et Zephyro putris se gleba resolvit;
Depresso incipiat jam tum mihi taurus aratro 45
Ingemere, et sulco attritus splendescere vomer.
Illa seges demum votis respondet avari
Agricolæ, bis quæ solem, bis frigora sensit:
Illius immensæ ruperunt horrea messes.
At priùs ignotum ferro quàm scindimus æquor, 50

Ventos et varium cæli prædiscere morem
52. Cura sit nobis præ- Cura sit, ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum :
discere

Et quid quæque ferat regio, et quid quæque recuset.
Hic segetes, illic veniunt feliciùs uvæ:
Arborei fætus alibi, atque injussa virescunt

55
Gramina. 'Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores,
58. At nudi Chalybes

India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabæi? mittunt ad nos ferrum At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus

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NOTES.

Ruæus says:

39. Proserpina. See Ecl. v, 79.

the fields are most exposed, and whether 42. Ingredere: enter upon your office of a the climate be moist or dry, cold or hot. god, and even now accustom yourself to be morem cæli : naturam vel temperiem aëris, invoked by vows.

says Heyne. 43. Gelidus humor: here, ice or snow. 52. Patrios cultus: the culture of our Humor is properly any kind of moisture or fathers. This is the sense of Davidson and liquor. Novo vere, The poel advises the Heyne. Colendi rationem probatam usu husbandman to begin his ploughing in the majorum, says the latter. early part of the spring, as soon as the snow Propriam culturam. Habitus locorum: the melts from the mountains, and the earth be habits of the places-the habit or peculiar sufficiently softened, that he may be in due nature of the various soils. Land, by being season with the work of the year.

tilled in a certain way, acquires an aptitude 45. Depresso aratro : in the plough put, to produce some kinds of grain better than or laid, deep in the earth. Or the words others. This is what is meant here, may be put absolutely: the plough being 54. Feliciùs : more luxuriantly. put deep in the earth.

55. Arborei fætus: nurseries, or young 48. Quæ bis sensit, &c. Which feels twice trees. Fætus signifies the young of any the summer, and twice the winter; that is, kind, animate or inanimate. Injussa : not lies fallow for two years together, or with sown---spontaneously. out tillage. Seges: in the sense of terra, 56. Tholus. A mountain in Phrygia, in vel ager, says Heyne.

the confines of Lydia, famous for its saffron: 49. Ruperunt. The sense seems to re- hence the epithet croceos. quire the present; accordingly Ruæus hath 57. Molles Sabæi: the effeminate Sabeinterpreted it by rumpunt: his immense These were a people inhabiting Araharvests burst his barns his barns are not bia Felix, which abounded in frankincense. capable of containing his crops.

58. Chalybes nudi: the naked Chalybes 50. Æquor: properly any plain or level send us iron, and Pontus, &c. The Chalysurface, whether land or water. Here used bes were a people of Spain, according to in the sense of ager or campus. Ignotum: Justin; but of Pontus, according to Strabo, cujus natura ignota est nobis.

said to have wrought naked, on account of 51. Prædiscere ventos, &c. To learn before the heat of their furnaces, or forges. Hence hand the winds and the various qualities Chalybs came to signify the best kind of of the weather-to obscrve, to what winds iron and steel. Pontus. See Ecl. viii, 95.

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60

64. Extemplò à primis 65 mensibus anni fortes

tauri

Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum ?
Continud has leges æternaque fædera certis
Imposuit natura locis, quo tempore primùm
Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem :
Unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergò age, terræ
Pingue solum primis extemplo à mensibus anni
Fories invertant tauri: glebasque jacentes
Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus æstas.
At si non fuerit tellus fæcunda, sub ipsum
Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco :
Illic officiant lætis ne frugibus herbæ ;
Hic, sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor arenam.
Alternis idem tonsas cessare novales,
Et segnem patiere situ durescere campum.
Aut ibi flava seres mutato sidere farra ;
Unde priùs lætum siliquâ quassante legumen,
Aut tenues fætus viciæ, tristisque lupini
Sustuleris fragiles calamos, sylvamque sonantem.
Urit enim lini campum seges, urit avenæ :
Urunt Lethæo perfusa papavera somno.

45

70

71. Tu idem patiero tonsas novales cessare alternis annis, et

74. Unde priùs sustu-
leris lætum legumen
75 quassante siliquâ, aut

tenues fætus viciæ, fra-
gilesque

77. Seges avenæ urit

50

cum.

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NOTES.
59. Virosa castorea : strong-scented castor. furrow, and some time in the fall, about the
According to Pliny, the castor was contain- rising of Arcturus.

In the former case,
ed in the testicles of the beaver. But the (illic) that the grass and weeds may not
moderns have found that the castor is con- injure the springing crop; in the latter casu
tained in certain odoriferous glands about (hic) that the scanty moisture may not
the groin

, and in both sexes. Epirus pal- leave the barren land.
mas, &c. Epirus (produces) the victors of 71. Tonsas novales, &c. You should suffer
the Olympic mares-produces those mares your reaped fallow grounds to rest every
that obtain the palm of victory in the other year. Novalis terra, is properly new
Olympic races. Palmas equarum; Ruæus ground, or ground newly broken up. Hence
says equas victrices in Olympico cursu. Epi- it came to signify fallow ground, because
rus, once a powerful kingdom, is bounded by resting it is recruited, and, as it were,
by the Ionian sea on the south and west, renewed.
and by Thessalia, Macedonia, and Achaia 72. Situ: with a sword. Situs here
on the north and east, famous for its excel- means the grass, weeds, &c. which over.
lent horses. Elidum: an adj. gen. plu. spread the ground, and bind it down into
from Elis, or Elea, a maritime country of what is commonly called a sword. Campum
the Peloponnesus

, the chief cities of which segnem: your field lying idle.
were Elis, on the river Peneus, and Olympia,

73. Sidere mufato: the year being changed.
on the river Alpheus, famous for the games Some copies read semine mulato. Sidus, in
there celebrated in honor of Jupiter. "They the sense of annus, is frequently used by
were instituted 1458 years before Christ, Virgil.
and celebrated every fifth year.

74. Lætum : in the sense of fertile vel
60. Fodera: in the sense of conditiones. copiosum. Siliqua : in the rattling pod, or
62. Deucalion. See Ecl. vi. 41.

shell.
63, Nali: in the sense of orti sunt.

75. Tristis: bitter. Tenues fætus, Ruæus
66. Solibus : Sol, properly the sun, by me- interprets by parva grana:
ton. heat. Maluris: in the sense of vehe- 76. Sylvam. This word is frequently used
mentibus

, vel ardentibus. Coquat: emoliat for a thick luxurious crop or growth of any
et rarefaciat, says Heyne.

thing.
68. Sub ipsum Arcturum: about the rising 78. Papavera perfusa: poppies impreg-
of Arcturus. This is a star of the first nated with oblivious sleep, or possessing the
magnitude in the constellation Bootes, near quality of causing sleep. Lelhæo: an adj.
the tail of the great Bear. The poet

recom- from Lethe, a word of Greek origin, im-
meuds

, if the soil be rich, to turn it up plying forgetfulness or oblivion. The with a deep furrow carly, that it may lie poets feigned it to be one of the rivers of and bake through the heat of the summer; hell, the water of which the dead were said but if the land be of a thin soil, and light, to drink after they had been in the regions it will be sufficient to turn it up with a thin below some time. It was represented as

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80

85

79. Labor erit facilis Sed tamen alternis facilis labor: arida tantùm alternis, annis :

Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola ; neve
80. Tantùm ne pudeat Effotos cinerem immundum jactare per agros.
te saturare sola

Sic quoque mutatis requiescunt fætibus arva.
Nec nulla intereà est inaratæ gratia terræ.
Sæpe etiam steriles incendere profuit agros,
Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere flammis
Sive inde occultas vires et pabula terræ
Pinguia concipiunt; sive illis omne per ignem
Excoquitur vitium, atque exudat inutilis humor:

Seu plures calor ille vias, et cæca relaxat
91. Seu ille calor ma- Spiramenta, novas veniat quà succus in herbas :
gis durat terram, et Seu durat magis, et venas astringit hiantes :

92: Ne tenues pluviæ Ne tenues pluviæ, rapidive potentia solis penetrent altiùs; acriorve potentia

Acrior, aut Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurat. 95. Adeò ille juvat Multùm adeò, rastris glebas qui frangit inertes, arva multùm, qui frangit Vimineasque trahit crates, juvat arva ; neque

illum 97. Et ille multùm ju- Flava Ceres alto nequicquam spectat Olympo: vat arva, qui perrumpit Et qui, procisso quæ suscitat æquore, terga terga, que suscitat in primo procisso æquore,

Rursus in obliquum verso perrumpit aratro: aratro verso rursus in Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque imperat arvis. obliquum :

Humida solstitia atque hyemes orate serenas,

90

95

100

NOTES.

having the power of causing them to for- abundantly repay the farmer for this indul. get whatever they had done, seen, or heard gence. before. A river in Africa of that name, 86. Sive inde, &c. The poet here gives which flowed under ground for some dis- four reasons for the farmer's firing his lands. tance, and then rose to its surface, is sup- 1. That they might hence receive an inposed to have given rise to this extravagant crease of nutriment. 2. That the noxious fable.

moisture might be dried up to them. 3. 79. Labor facilis. The meaning appears That the close and dense soil might be loosento be this: that the above mentioned crops ed. And 4. That the loose soil might bo may be sown every other year, notwith- rendered closer. This he founds upon the standing their injurious qualities, provided principle of those philosophers who taught the land be well manured.

that fire was the universal element. 80. Arida sola: dry or thirsty soils.

88. Vitium : the bad quality. 81. Effælos : worn out-exhausted.

90. Spiramenta cæca : secret avenues, or 82. Fotibus: in the sense of segetibus. passages, by which moisture is drawn into

83. Nec nulla gratia est inaratæ terre: the new plants. nor, in the mean time is there no gratitude 93. Penetrabile : in the sense of penetrans, in the land untilled-left fallow every other penetrating—searching. Rapidi: in the year.

sense of ardentis. The whole of this section contains a num- 97. Et qui, &c. The poet recommends ber of excellent precepts and instructions for to the farmer to harrow his ground well, the husbandman. In the first place, he ad. before he commit the seed to it; but if it be vises the farmer to let his land rest every hard and obstinate, and lie up in ridges, other year; or, if he cannot do that with (terga) so that it will not yield to the has convenience, then to change the crops, and row, then it will be profitable to plough it to sow wheat after the several kinds which he again crosswise. Proscisso æquore: in breakmentions, but not to sow flax, oats, or pop- ing up his field. Suscitat : raises uppies : for these burn and impoverish the makes. land. He says, notwithstanding this, they 99. Ecercet, &c. He exercises his land may be sown in turn, provided care be taken frequently, and commands his fields. This to recruit and enrich the land by manure. is a metaphor taken from a general training The poet concludes by observing, that if the or exercising his troopa giving them comground be left fallow, as he at first advised, mands, and dispensing discipline among instead of being sown with any of those them. grains, it would not be ungrateful-it would 100. Solstitia : summers.

Agricolæ: hyberno lætissima pulvere farra,

101. Farra sunt lætisLætus ager: nullo tantùm se Mysia cultu

sima hyberno pulvere: Jactat, et ipsa suas mirantur Gargara messes.

ager est lætus Quid dicam, jacto qui semine cominùs arva

104. Quid dicam de Insequitur, cumulosque ruit male pinguis arenæ ?

105 eo, qui
Deinde satis fluvium inducit, rivosque sequentes?
Et cùm exustus ager morientibus æstuat herbis,
Ecce, supercilio clivosi tramitis undam
Elicit: illa cadens raucum per levia murmur
Saxa ciet, scatebrisque arentia temperat arva. 110
Quid, qui, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis,

111. Quid dicam de Luxuriem segetum tenerâ depascit in herbâ,

illo, qui, ne culmus proCùm primùm sulcos æquant sata ? quique paludis

cumbat gravidis aristis,

om depascit Collectum humorem bibulâ deducit arena ?

113. Quique deducit Præsertim incertis si mensibus amnis abundans 115 humorem collectum inExit, et obducto latè tenet omnia limo,

star paludis bibulå arena Unde cavæ tepido sudant humore lacunæ. Nec tamen (hæc cùm sint hominumque, boumque labores Versando terram experti) nihil improbus anser, Strymoniæque grues, et amaris intuba fibris, 120 Officiunt, aut umbra nocet. Pater ipse colendi

121. Colendi terram

NOTES. 101. Farra: in the sense of segetes. native. This appears to be the opinion of

102. Mysia. There were two countries Heyne. Humorem: in the sense of aquam. of this name: the one in Europe, and bound- 115. Incertis mensibus: in the variable ed on the north by the Danube; the other months—those months when the weather in Asia Minor, near the Propontis and Hel- is most changeable. lespont. The latter is here meant. Mysia 118. Nec tamen, &c. Though the farmer delights herself so much in no cultivation, be never so careful in the culture of his land, as in moist summers and dry winters—no the poet reminds him not to stop there. culture renders her so fruitful, as to have After the crop is put into the ground, it still inoist, &c.

requires his attention. For the foul or 103. Gargara: neu. plu. A part of mount greedy goose, the Thracian cranes, the sucIda, the country near which was much famed cory, or endive, as also the shade, injure it. for its fertility.

The two negatives, nec-nihil, amount to an 104. Quid dicam, &c. What shall I say of affirmative. him, who, the seed being sown, closely plies 120. Strymoniæ: an adj. from Strymon, a his fields, and breaks down the ciods or river in the confines of Macedonia and ridges (cumulos) of his barren soil? For malè Thrace, where cranes abounded. pinguis; Rueus says, malè compacte; and 121. Pater ipse voluit: father Jupiter himValpy, too rich and adhesive. Ruit: in the self willed that the way of cultivating the sense of frangit.

earth should not be easy. He was fabled to 106. Sequentes rivos: in the sense of flue have been the son of Saturn and Ops; and entes rivulos.

called the father of gods, and king of men. 108. Ecce, elicit aquam, &c. Lo! he leads Saturn, who received the kingdom of the down a stream of water from the brow of world from his brother Titan, on the condia hilly tract. Æstuat : is parched, or burn- tion of his raising no male offspring, devoured.

ed his sons as soon as they were born; but 110. Scatebris: with its streams, or rills. his mother, regretting that so fair a child Temperat : Ruæus says, humectat.

should be destroyed, concealed him from 114. Quique deducit. The probable mean- his father, as she also did Neptune and Pluto, ing of this passage is : that the husbandman, and intrusted him to the care of the Coryfor the purpose of watering his fields in the bantes, or Curetes, who educated him on dry season, should form reservoirs or ponds, mount Ida, in Crete. As soon as he came by collecting into them the water that fell to mature years, he made war against the in the rainy season. He had already ad. Titans, who had made his father a prisoner. vised the plan of bringing water from the He was victorious and set him at liberty. higher grounds upon his fields. But where But growing jealous of his son's power, he that could not be done, he advises to substi- conspired against him; whereupon Jupiter tute the reservoir or pond, as the only alter- expelled him from his kingdom, and he fled

Haud facilem esse viam voluit, primusque per artem
Movit

agros, curis acuens mortalia corda :
Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno.
Ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni :

125
Nec signare quidem, aut partiri limite campum
Fas erat: in medium quærebant: ipsaque tellus
Omnia liberiùs, nullo poscente, ferebat.
Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris,
Prædarique lupos jussit, pontumque moveri,

130
Mellaque decussit foliis, ignemque removit,
Et passim rivis currentia vina repressit:
Ut varias usus meditando extunderet artes
Paulatim, et sulcis frumenti quæreret herbam,
Et silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.

135 Tunc alnos primùm fluvii sensêre cavatas :

Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit,
eas Pleïadas, Hyadas, claramque Lycaonis Arcton.

Tum laqueis captare feras, et fallere visco,
Inventum; et magnos canibus circumdare saltus. 140
Atque alius latum fundâ jam verberat amnem

138. Appellans Pleiadas

NOTES. for safety to Italy, where Janus was king. found necessary to man. Decussit: he After this, Jupiter divided the empire of the shook off the honey from the leaves, i. e. he world with his two brothers, reserving to him- caused the honey to cease. self the empire of heaven and earth. The 133. Ut usus extunderet : that experience, Giants, the offspring of the earth, to avenge by observation, might find out the various the death of the Titans, whom Jupiter slew, arts by degrees. rebelled against him. Piling mountains, one 134. Sulcis: by agriculture-by the plough. upon another, they hoped to scale heaven 136. Cavatas alnos: simply, boats; beitself, and attack Jupiter in person. He, cause, at first, they were made of the alderhowever, completely vanquished them, and tree. inflicted on them the severest punishment 138. Pleïadas: acc. plu. of Greek termifor their crimes. He married his sister Juno, nation. They are seven stars in the neck who was very jealous of him, and sometimes of Taurus, and are called Pleïades, from a very troublesome. His power was the most Greek word signifying, to sail; because by extensive of any of the gods. His worship their rising, they indicated the proper time was general, and surpassed that of any of to put to sea. They were sometimes called the gods in dignity and solemnity. He had Atlantides, from Allas, a king of Mauritaseveral celebrated oracles, but ihat at Do- nia, whose daughters they were fabled to dona, in Epirus, and at Ammon, in Lybia, per- be, by the nymph Pleżone. The Romans haps took the lead. He had several names, sometimes called them Vergilia. Their chiefly derived from the places where he was names were, Electra, Alcynoë, Celano, Steworshipped, and from his offices and func- rope, Taygeta, Maia, and Merope. Hyadas. tions. He was called Hospitalis, because These are seven stars in the front of Taurus, he was the protector of strangers; Optimus, so called from a Greek word signifying, to because he was the best; Marimus, because rain. They were fabled to have been the he was the greatest; Olympius, because he daughters of Alias and Athra. Refusing was worshipped at Olympia, &c. Jupiter, consolation for the death of their brother is sometimes put for the air, or weather. Hyas, who was slain by a lion, Jupiter, ta

123. Movit : in the sense of coluit. king pity on them, changed them into as

124. Gravi veterno. Veternus, or veternum, many stars. Their names are Ambrosia, 18 a disease causing a stupor both of mind Eudoxa, Pasithoë, Cirone, Plezauris, Pytho, and body, something like the lethargy. and Syche. Arcton. A constellation near Torpere graviveterno, is highly metaphorical. the north pole, called the Ursa Major. Ly. Veterno: in the sense of otio, vel desidia, caon was a king of Arcadia, whose daugh.

ter Calisto, out of jealousy, was transform131. Removit ignem: he removed fire from ed by Juno into a bear; and Jupiter, for his the sight of men, and concealed it in the regard to her, translated her in that form to veins of the flint. Prometheus is said to heaven, and made her the constellation have stolen it from heaven, because it was Arcton.

says Ruæus.

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