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Ad cælum undabat vortex, turrimque tenebat ;
Turrim, compactis trabibus quam eduxerat ipse,
Subdideratque rotas, pontesque instraverat altos. 675
Jam jam fata, soror, superant; absiste morari:

Quò Deus, et quò dura vocat fortuna, sequamur. 678. Stat mihi pati Stat conferre manum Æneæ : stat, quicquid acerbi est quicquid acerbi est in Morte pati ; nec me indecorem, germana ! videbis morte

Ampliùs. Hunc, oro, sine me furere antè furorem. 680. Ante mortem Dixit : et è curru saltum dedit ocyùs arvis:

681 Perque hostes, per tela ruit; mestamque sororem Deserit ; ac rapido cursu media agmina rumpit.

Ac, veluti montis saxum de vertice præceps 684. Velut cùm saxum Cùm ruit avulsum vento, seu turbidus imber 685 ruit præceps de vertice 686. Solvit illud è loco

Proluit, aut annis solvit sublapsa vetustas;
Fertur in abruptum magno mons improbus actu,
Exsultatque solo, sylvas, armenta, virosque
Involvens secum : disjecta per agmina Turnus
Sic urbis ruit ad muros, ubi plurima fuso

690 Sanguine terra madet, stridentque hastilibus auræ : Significatque manu, et magno simul incipit ore :

Parcite jam, Rutuli; et vos, tela inhibite, Latini; 694. Fortuna hujus Quæcunque est, fortuna mea est ; me veriùs unum pugnæ est mea : est veriùs Pro vobis fædus luere, et decernere ferro.

695 695. Luere violatum Discessêre omnes medii, spatiumque dedêre. fædus

At pater Æneas, audito nomine Turni, 701. Tantus quantus Deserit et muros, et summas deserit arces ; est Athos, aut quantus Præcipitatque moras omnes : opera omnia rumpit, est Eryx, aut quantus est

700 Lætitiâ exsultans, horrendùmque intonat armis : pater Apenninus ipse, cùm fremit

Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipse coruscis

NOTES.

stood to govern flammis. Tabulata : the 681. Arvis: in the sense of terre. stages or stories of the tower.

685. Turbidus imber: a violent heavy rain. 674. Turrim, quam ipse : the tower which 686. Proluit : washed away-undermined he himself had raised, &c. Eduxerat: in it. Vetustas : in the sense of tempus. Subthe sense of struxerat.

lapsa : having passed away. Ruæus says, 675. Subdiderat : had placed under it labente. Solvit : torn it away-broken it wheels.

loose. Towers wero built of wood, and commonly 687. Mons fertur improbus: the mass several stories (tabulata) high. They were rock is carried violent, &c. Mons here evifor the purpose of defence, or assault ; and dently means the same as sarum, just bewere so constructed that they could be fore mentioned. In abruptum: down the moved by means of wheels or rollers, placed sides of the mountain. Improbus implies under them, to the place where they were that the rock rushed down with an irresisrequired. Sometimes soveral of them were tible force. Actu: in the sense of impetu. connected by means of bridges (pontes) at 689. Involvens : in the sense of rapiens. the tops, made of planks and timber. By Disjecta : scattered-fleeing before him. these bridges the men could pass from one 690. Plurima : in the sense of plurimun. to another, whenever it became necessary. This implies that Turnus rushed into the

678. Slat: the imp. of sto. I am resolved hottest of the battle-where the earth was - it is fixed. Ruæus says, deliberatum est. wet the most with blood.

680. Furere hunc: in the sense of indul. 692. Ore : in the sense of voce. gere huic furori. The construction is ac- 693. Parcite: cease, or spare your arms. cording to a Greek idiom. Permit me, O, 694. Verius: in the sense of aguants. sister! to rage in this manner--to indulge Pro vobis : in your room, and stead. this passion. Ante: this refers to his death, 698. Deserit : in the sense of relinquit. or his engagement with Æneas, in which he 699. Rumpit : in the sense of abrumpil. was persuaded he should be slain : ante 700. Intonat: in the sense of sonat. mortem, vel antiquam moriar.

701. Athos : a mountain in Macedonia,

+ Cum fremit ilicibus quantus, gaudetque nivali

Vertice, se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras. 2 Jam verò et Rutuli certatim, et Troës, et omnes

Convertêre oculos Itali; quique alta tenebant 705 - Menia, quique imos pulsabant ariete muros ;

Arma que deposuere humeris. Stupet ipse Latinus,
Ingentes genitos diversis partibus orbis

708. Duos ingentes later se coiïsse viros, et cernere ferro.

viros genitos in
Atque illi, ut vacuo patuerunt æquore campi, 710 710. Ut primiim
Procursu rapido, conjectis eminùs hastis,
Invadunt Martem clypeis atque ære sonoro.
Dat gemitum tellus : tum crebros ensibus ictus
Congeminant: fors et virtus miscentur in unum.
Ac velut, ingenti Sild, summove Taburno,

715
Cùm duo conversis inimica in prælia tauri
Frontibus incurrunt; pavidi cessêre magistri ;
Stat pecus omne metu mutum ; mussantque juvencæ,
Quis pecori imperitet; quem tota armenta sequantur :

719. Quis taurus Illi inter sese multâ vi vulnera miscent,

720 Cornuaque obnixi infigunt, et sanguine largo

721. Cornua inter se

invicem
Colla armosque lavant: gemitu nemus omne remugit.
Haud aliter Tros Æneas et Daunius heros
Concurrunt clypeis : ingens fragor æthera complet.
Jupiter ipse duas æquato examine lances

725
Sustinet, et fata imponit diversa duorum ;
Quem damnet labor, et quo vergat pondere letum.

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NOTES

projecting into the Ægean sea. It is said Apennine mountains in Calabria. Taburno:
to be sixty miles in length, and so high that this was a mountain in the confines of Cam-
it overshadows the island of Lemnos. Ho- pania, which blocks up the famous straits of
die, Monte Santo. It is so called from the Caudi or Caudium. Here the Roman army
number of monasteries upon it. Eryx : a was obliged to surrender to the Samnites,
mountain in Sicily, next in height to Ætna, and to pass under the yoke.
Bo called from a king of that name who was 717. Magistri : in the sense of pastores.
slain by Hercules. It is situated near the Cessêre : in the sense of fugerunt.
western side of the island. Hodie, Monte 718. Mussant : Heyne says, tacitè exper-
Giuliano.

lant. Ruæus says, timidè, et quasi tacitè
703. Pater Apenninus : mount Apennine mugiunt.
is here called pater, either as being the pa- 721. Largo : in the sense of mullo.
rent of so many noble rivers and woods; 722. Lavant : Ruæus says, lingunt.
or by way of dignity, as being the greatest 723. Daunius heros : Turnus. He was
mountain in Italy. The Apennines are pro- the son of Daunus and Venilia.
perly a range of mountains running the 725. Æquato examine : equal poise or
whole length of Italy, and dividing it nearly balance. Examen is the tongue, or needle
in the middle.

of the balance, which, being exactly in equi704. Certatim: eagerly.

librio, shows the scales to be equal. 708. Ingentes viros : that two mighty he- 727. Quem labor damnet: whom the comgoes born in, &c.

bat should devote or doom to death. Tho 709. Coüisse : in the sense of congredi. fates, or destiny, were not at the disposal of Cernere : in the sense of pugnare, vel decer. Jove. He could only examine into futurity.

Ho puts (imponit) the fates of the combat. 710. Campi: the ground—the space clear- ants into the scales of the balance, to see ed for the combatants.

which end of the beam would rise. Servius, 712. Invadunt Martem : in the sense of and some others, take the words in the sense incipiunt pugnam.

of quem felix labor damnet votis : whom the 714. Congeminant : they repeat-rodou- combat shall room to pay his vows—who ble. In unum : into one-together.

shall be the successful combatant. But it 715. Sila : a vast forest, or tract of hills, is easier to consider the expression as rofercovered with wood, that formed part of the ring to one and the same person : whom the

nerc.

Emicat hic, impunè putans, et corpore toto 729. Putans futurum Altè sublatum consurgit 'Turnus in ensem, impunè sibi, Turnus hìc Et ferit. Exclamant Troës, trepidique Latini, 130 emicat

Arrectæque amborum acies. At perfidus ensis
Frangitur, in medioque ardentem deserit ictu,
Ni fuga subsidio subeat. Fugit ocyor Euro,

Ut capulum ignotum, dextramque adspexit inermem. 735. Fama est, eum Fama est, præcipitem, cùm prima in prælia junctos 735 præcipitem, cùm

con. Conscendebat equos, patrio mucrone relicto,
scendebat equos junctos Dum trepidat, ferrum aurigæ rapuisse Metisci :
in prima prælia, dum tre-
pidat, rapuisse Idque diu, dum terga dabant palantia Teucri,

Suffecit: postquam arma Dei ad Vulcania ventum est,
Mortalis mucro, glacies ceu futilis, ictu
Dissiluit: fulvâ resplendent fragmina arena.
Ergò amens diversa fugâ petit æquora Turnus,
Et nunc huc, inde huc, incertos implicat orbes.
Undique enim densâ Teucri inclusêre coronâ :

Atque hinc vasta palus, hinc ardua mænia cingunt. 745 746. Æneas insequi. Nec minùs Æneas, quanquam tardata sagitta tur, quanquam genua Interdum genua impediunt, cursumque recusant, tardata sagitta 748. Pedem trepidi

Insequitur: trepidique pedem pede fervidus urget. Turni

Inclusum veluti si quando flumine nactus
749. Si quando canis Cervum, aut punicer septum formidine pennæ,
venator nactus

Venator cursu canis et latratibus instat:
Ille autem, insidiis et ripâ territus altâ,
Mille fugit refugitque vias : at vividus Umber

tum.

NOTES. combat shall devote to ruin, as above. This 734. Capulum: the hilt only remained in is the opinion of Valpy. Davidson renders his hand. 'He now discovered the fatal misthe words, “ whom the toilsome combat take. Ut: when-as soon as. destines to victory." Labor: in the sense 737. Trepidat : in the sense of preperat. of pugna, says Heyne. The poet here imi- 739. Suffecit: in the sense of satis fuit. tates Homer, who makes Jove, in like man- Vulcania arma Dei: in the sense of arsis ner, weigh the fates of Hector and Achilles. Dei Vulcani, vel Divina arma Vulceri. Quo pondere: in which scale. Death was Those arms which Vulcan made for Æneas, to fall to the party, whose scale sunk or fell. This construction is imitated from the Ruæus says, mors inclinat.

Greeks. 729. Alte: this is to be taken with subla- 740. Mortalis mucro: a sword nade by

men-a mortal sword. Futilis: in the sense 730. Ferit : Ænean is understood. Tre- of fragilis. pidi : trembling-in anxious fear. Consur- 141. Dissiluit: in the sense of fractus est. git: in the sense of insurgit.

742. Diversa æquora : different parts of 731. Arrectæ : in the sense of suspense. the plain. Amens : alarmed. Of a prir. The verb sunt is understood.

and mens. 732. Deseril: leaves him ardent for the 743. Implicat : in the sense of facit vel fight, at the mercy of his antagonist. These formal. He wheels around in his flight, last, or words of the like import, are neces- forming irregular figures, or circles. sary to make the sonse complete. When 744. Corona densa : in close ranks in a he mounted his chariot, it was his intention close compact body. to take his trusty, heavenly tempered sword 746. Sagilla : the arrow by which he was that sword made by Vulcan for his father; wounded in the beginning of the action. but in his haste and perturbation, he took Heyne says, vinere. the sword of Metiscus, his charioteer; which 748. Fervidus: in the sense of ardens. here decoived him. It is therefore, called 749. Flumine: some copies have in fiue perfidus ensis.

mine. Heyne omits the in. This is the read733. Ni fuga : had not flight come to his ing of the Roman MS. Inclusum: enclosed, aid-had he not instantly Led, he would or confined by a river. have fallen under the arm of Æneas, being 750. Formidine. The formido, as Dr. left in that defenceless state.

Trapp observes, was a rope stack thick with

Hæret hians, jam jamquc tenet, similisque tenenti

754. Hians hæret illi,
Increpuit malis, morsuque elusus inani est. 755 jam jamque tenet eum
Tum verò exoritur clamor : ripæque lacusque
Responsant circà, et cælum tonat omne tumullu.
Ille simul fugiens, Rutulos siinul increpat omnes,

758. Ille Turnus 80Nomine quemque vocans ; notumque efflagitat ensem. rul est fugiens Æneas mortem contrà, præsensque minatur

760 Exitium, si quisquam adeat: terretque trementes,

761. Adeat Turnum : Excisurum urbem minitans, et saucius instat.

terretque eos trementes,

minitans se excisurum
Quinque orbes explent cursu, totidemque retexunt
Huc, illuc : nec enim levia aut ludicra petuntur
Præmia ; sed Turni de vitâ et sanguine certant. 765

Fortè sacer Fauno foliis oleaster amaris
Hìc steterat, nautis olim venerabile lignum ;
Servati ex undis ubi figere dona solebant

768. Ubi illi servati Laurenti Divo, et votas suspendere vestes :

ex undis
Sed stirpem Teucri nullo discrimine sacrum

770
Sustulerant, puro ut possent concurrere campo.
Ilic hasta Æneæ stabat: huc impetus illam

772. Impetus ejus der
Detulerat, fixam et lentâ in radice tenebat.
Incubuit, voluitque manu convellere ferrum,
Dardanides; teloque sequi, quem prendere cursu 775 775. Sequique Tur
Non poterat. Tum verò amens formidine Turnus,

num telo, quem
Faune, precor, miserere, inquit: tuque optima ferrum
Terra tene: colui vestros si semper honores,
Quos contrà Æneadæ bello fecêre profanos.
Dixit: opemque Dei non cassa in vota vocavit. 780

træ

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NOTES. red or crimson feathers to enclose, and Explent: in the sense of conficiunt. Reterfrighten the deer, or other animals. Seo uni: Ruæus says, relegunt. Geor. iii. 371.

764. Enim: in the sense of equidem. Luba 753. Umber: a dog of Umbria, in the dicra: triling—of no value. north of Italy. Canis is understood. Vivi

766. Oleaster. The wild olive was fredus: quick scented.

755. Increpuit: Ruæus says, insonuit.- quently planted before temples, that the He shuts his jaws, as if in the act of seizing upon its boughs. It was a very durable tree,

consecrated offerings might be suspended him. 761. Si quis adeat. Virgil here outrages

ảnd not apt to receive any injury, though the character of his hero. It is true he has

ever so many nails were driven into its

wood. Its leaves were bitter. the example of Homer for it. But it is to be remembered the two poets lived in very

767. Lignum: in the sense of arbor. Ves different states of society. Turnus is forced nerabile: in the sense of venerandum. to the contest with unequal weapons. Of 769. Votas: in the sense of devotas. his sword he is deprived, and left without 770. Nullo discrimine: with no regard to arms. In this situation, he is pursued by its sacredness. Nullo respectu habilo, says Æneas, who threatens to put the person to Heyne. death, who shall give him his sword, that he 771. Puro: in the sense of aperto, vel may be in a condition to defend himself, vacuo. Sustuleranı : in the sense of abscin. and be on more equal terms with his adver- derant. sary. This is a course of conduct, which 773. Lenta radice : in the tough root. It no age or nation, however barbarous, can stuck fast in the root, so that it could not be justify. Much less is it becoming in the sol- drawn out. dier, and the hero. The putting to death 775. Dardanides : Æneas. A patronymic of unarmed and defenceless persons may be from Dardanus. Incubuit : Ruæus says, practised, but cannot be justified. Valpy. insistit.

763. Reterunt lotidem : they retrace, or 776. Amens : Rumus snys, exanimatus. form back again, as many more. The mean- 778. Colui : I have regarded, or held seing is, that Turnus went five times around cred. the field of combate pursued by Æneas.- 780. Cassa : in the sense of inutilia.

Namque diu luctans, lentoque in stirpe inoratus'
Viribus haud ullis valuit discludere morsus

Roboris Æneas. Dum nititur acer et instat,
784. Rursus Daunia Rursùs in aurigæ faciem mutata Metisci
Dea mutata in faciem
Procurrit, fratrique ensem Dea Daunia reddit.

786
Quod Venus audaci Nymphæ indignata licere;
Accessit, telumque altă ab radice revellit.
Olli sublimes, armis, animisque refecti,
Hic gladio fidens, hic acer et arduus hasta,
Adsistunt contrà certamine Martis anheli.

790
Junonem intereà rex omnipotentis Olympi
Alloquitur, fulvâ pugnas de nube tuentem.

Quæ jam finis erit, conjux ? quid denique restat ? 794. Tu ipsa scis, et Indigetem Æneam scis ipsa, et scire fateris, tateris te scire Æneam Deberi cælo, fatisque ad sidera tolli.

795 indigetem deberi

Quid struis ? aut quâ spe gelidis in nubibus hæres ?
Mortalin' decuit violari vulnere Divum ?

Aut ensem (quid enim sinè te Juturna valeret ?) 799. Decuit-ne eum Ereptum reddi Turno, et vim crescere victis ? Divum violari

Desine jam tandem, precibusque inflectere nostris: 800
Nec te tantus edat tacitam dolor; et mihi curæ
Sæpe tuo dulci tristes ex ore recursent,

Ventum ad supremum est. Terris agitare vel undis 805. Domum Latini Trojanos potuisti ; infandum accendere bellum,

806. Veto te tentare Deformare domum, et luctu miscere hymenæos : 805 quicquam

Ulteriùs tentare veto. Sic Jupiter orsus :

NOTES.

782. Dincludere morsus roboris : to loosen, side of his mother, was of divine descent or separale the hold of the wood. The Valpy says, " destined to divinity." poet here represents the root of the tree 798. Valeret: in the sense of posset facere. (stirpe) as a fierce dog, or wild beast, whose 799. Ereptum. This alludes to his trusty tusks take so fast hold of the prey, that sword, which he forgot to take with bin there is no disengaging them. Lento: in when he mounted his chariot at the begin. the sense of tenace. Discludere: in the sense ning of the fight. It was taken, or snatebed of solvere.

from him, by his forgetfulness. 783. Acer : in the sense of ardens. Æneas 800. Inflectere: in the sense of nerere. is to be supplied.

Edat: consume-waste away. Ruæus says 785. Daunia Dea: Juturna, the sister of angat. Et. The et here connects, and conTurnus, and daughter of Daunus: hence tinues the preceding negative. The nec is the adj. Daunia. See 139, supra, et seq. to be repeated after the et; or the et is to

786. Quod: in the sense of hoc. It is be taken in the sense of nec. This last is governed by indignata : indignant-angry. the opinion of Valpy. Heyne observes, the

788. Refecti : in the sense of reparati vel nec is to be repeated. Negatira nec ropeanimali.

tenda est, says he. Curæ : troubles. Solici789. Arduus: in the sense of elatus. tudines, says Ruæus.

790. Contrà : against each other-face 804. Accendere bellum: to kindle horrid each other. Anheli: Rueus refers it to Sec Æn. vii. 323 ; where Juno raises Turnus and Æneas. Heyne connects it Alecto from the infernal regions, who broke with Martis; and it is a very appropriate the league which Latinus had made with epithet of a fight, like the present. The Æneas, and kindled the war. sense is the same in either construction. 805. Deformare : to afflict-trouble-die

794. Indigelem. Indiges is, properly, a dei- grace. Davidson says, " dishonor.” Heyne fied hero-a demi-god. Such an one was thinks reference is here made to the death Æneas after his death.

of Amata, who hung herself. Disgrace and 796. Hæres: in the sense of manes. ignominy always attend suicide. Hymentos: 797. Divum : this is said by anticipation. the match of Lavinia and Æneas. Miscere: Æneas was not yet a god. Or divum may in the sense of turbare. be in the sense of divinum; and then it will 806. Orsus: in the sense of locutus est. rofor to the origin of Æneas; who, on the Of the verb ordior.

war.

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