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ranum.

eum

Aut ubi decursu rapido de montibus altis

524. Aut ubi amnes Dant sonitum spumosi amnes, et in æquora currunt,

spumosi rapido decursu Quisque suum populatus iter: non segniùs ambo 525

525. Quisque amnis Æneas Turnusque ruunt per prælia ; nunc, nunc Fluctuat ira intus : rumpuntur nescia vinci Pectora : nunc totis in vulnera viribus itur. Murranum hic, atavos et avorum antiqua sonantem

529. Hic Æneas scoNomina, per regesque actum genus omne Latinos. 530 pulo, atque turbine in

gentis saxi, excutit MurPræcipitem scopulo atque ingentis turbine saxi Excutit, effunditque solo. Hunc lora et juga subter

532. Effundit Provolvêre rotæ ; crebro supèr ungula pulsu

præcipitem Incita nec domini memorum proculcat equorum.

533. Ungula equoruni, Ile ruenti Hyllo, aniinisque immanè frementi, 535 nec memorum

535. Ille Turnus ocOccurrit, telumque aurata ad tempora torquet :

currit Hyllo
Olli per galeam fixo stetit hasta cerebro.
Dextera nec tua te, Grajům fortissime Creteu,
Eripuit Turno : nec Di texêre Cupencum,
Æneâ veniente, sui : dedit obvia ferro

540
Pectora, nec misero clypei mora profuit ærei.
Te quoque Laurentes viderunt, Æole, campi,
Oppetere, et latè terram consternere tergo :
Occidis, Argivæ quem non potuere phalanges

544. Tu occidis, quem Sternere, nec Priami regnorum eversor Achilles. 545 Hic tibi mortis erant metæ : domus alta sub Idâ ;

546. Erat libi alta doLyrnessi domus alta ; solo Laurente sepulchrum.

mus sub Ida; erat tibi Totæ adeò conversæ acies, omnesque Latini,

alta domus Lyrnessi ;

nunc est tibi. Omnes Dardanidæ. Mnestheus acerque Serestus,

548. Converse sunt Et Messapus, equûm domitor, et fortis Asylas, Tuscorumque phalanx, Evandrique Arcadis alæ . Pro se quisque, viri summâ nituntur opum vi.

552. Omnes viri, quisNec mora, nec requies : vasto certamine tendunt. que pro se

NOTES. 623 Decursu: descent.

whose priest he was. Cupencus, in the Sa524. Æquora: in the sense of mare. bine language, signified a priest. 525. Populatus : laying waste.

541. Ærei. Pierius found æris in all the 527. Nescia vinci : knowing not to be con- ancient manuscripts which he examined, quered-invincible. Rumpunter: are burst instead of ærei, as in the common editions. -pant and heave as if they would burst Heyne reads ærei. Mora : resistance.

543. Oppetere. This word properly signi528. Itur: they go-march.

fies to die, like a hero, on the field of battle 529. Sonantem : in the sense of jactan- quasi ore petere terram, to bite the ground, tem vel gloriantem. Actum: in the sense of as we say in English. deductum.

544. Occidis : thou fallest. Ruæus says, 531. Turbine : with the force. Heyne moreris. says, jactu.

546. Melæ mortis : for meta vitæ, the limit 532. Excutit: in the sense of dejicit vel or boundary of life. This is in imitation of stermit.

Homer's neãos Ievuton. 533. Super : in the sense of insuper vel 547. Lyrnessi : Lyrnessus was a city of prætereà.

Phrygia, near the Sinus Adramyllenus. 534. Incita : quick-in rapid movement. 548. Conversæ : Ruæus says, permizla. 536. Aurata tempora : his temples decked The verb sunt is understood. with a gilded helmet.

551. Alæ: in the sense of equites, vel 537. Fico: being pierced—the spear

cquitatus.

552. Nituntur: strive-struggle. Opum : passed through his helmet.

this appears merely expletive. Ruæus says, 539. Eripuit. Ruæus says, servavit.

virium. 540. Sui: in the sense of propitii vel 553. Tendunt : in the sense of contendunt faventes. Or, his own gods—those gods vel luctantur.

550 in se

with rage.

Hic mentem Æneæ genitrix pulcherrima misit,
Iret ut ad muros, urbique adverteret agmen

555 Ocyùs, et subitâ turbaret clade Latinos. 557. Ilo Æneas ut Ille ut vestigans diversa per agmina Turnum, circumtulit

Huc atque huc acies circumtulit; aspicit urbem

Immunem tanti Belli, atque impunè quietam. 560. Accendit animum Continuò pugnæ accendit majoris imago :

560 Mnesthea, Sergestumque vocat, fortemque Serestum, Ductores ; tumulumque capit, quò cætera Teucrům Concurrit legio ; nec scuta aut spicula densi

Deponunt. Celso medius stans aggere fatur: 565. Jupiter stat hâc Ne qua meis esto dictis mora : Jupiter hâc stat: 565 parle pro nobis

Neu quis ob inceptum subitum mihi segnior ito. 567. Eruam urbem

Urbem hodie, causam belli, regna ipsa Latini,
Ni frænum accipere et victi parere fatentur,
Eruam ; et æqua solo fumantia culmina ponam.
Scilicet exspectem, libeat dum prælia Turno

570 Nostra pati ? rursùsque velit concurrere victus ? 572. Hoc est caput, Hoc caput, o cives, hæc belli summa nefandi. nempe, urbs Laurentum Ferte faces properė, fædusque reposcite flammis.

576. Scalæ apparuerunt

Dixerat: atque animis pariter certantibus omnes
Dant cuneum, densâque ad muros mole feruntur. 575
Scalæ improviso, subitusque apparuit ignis.
Discurrunt alii ad portas, primosque trucidant:
Ferrum alii torquent, et obumbrant æthera telis.
Ipse inter primos dextram sub mænia tendit
Æneas, magnâque incusat voce Latinum:

580 Testaturque Deos, iterum se ad prælia cogi; 582. Italos jam bis esse Bis jam Italos hostes ; hæc altera fædera rumpi. hostes

Exoritur trepidos inter discordia cives :
Urbem alii reserare jubent, et pandere portas
Dardanidis ; ipsumque trahunt in mænia regem. 585

NOTES.

554. Mentem : mind-design-purpose. 571. Pati nostra prælia : to fight with me. Misit: in the sense of immisit. Heyne Ruæus says, ferre pugnam. takes mentem in the sense of consilium. 575. Dånt cuneum : they form themselves

558. Acies : in the sense of oculos : some into the military wedge, which is drawn to understand it of the various parts of the ar- a poir in the front, and widens toward the my. Immunem : in the sense of expertem. rear; and in this close body (densa mole)

563. Nec scula: this was according to the they rush against the city. Dant: in the custom of the Roman soldiers, who were sense of formant vel faciunt. Feruntur : in wont to be drawn up in arms before their the sense of irrunt. Ruæus interprets mole general, when he harangued them. Legio: by multitudine. in the sense of turmæ vel acies. Ruæus 578. Ferrum. Any missive weapon tipped says, exercitus.

with iron or steel, may be called ferrum. 565. Stat hâc: stands here with us favors 579. Tendit : in the sense of protendil. us—is on our side, in this bold undertaking. Sub: in the sense of ad. This may be said in allusion to his being the 582. Hec altera fædera. The first treaty avenger of violated faith.

was, when Latinus promised to Ilioneus to 568. Fatentur : unless they consent to re- take Æneas for his ally, and son-in-law. ceive the reins and obey. Accipere frænum, Æn. vii. 259. The second league or treaty vel fræna is a military phrase, denoting un- was that which ratified the single combat conditional submission to the conqueror.- between Turnus and Æneas, 195. supra. Ruæus says, volunt.

585. Trahunt: they draw the king to the 569. Aqua : level with the ground. Po- walls, that he may ratify the treaty, and so nam: in the sense of prosternam.

put an end to the war.

Arma ferunt alii, et pergunt defendere muros.
Inclusas ut cùm latebroso in pumice pastor
Vestigavit apes, fumoque implevit amaro :
Illæ intus trepidæ rerum per cerea castra

588. Implevit locum
Discurrunt, magnisque acuunt stridoribus iras. 590
Volvitur ater odor tectis ; tum murmure cæco
Intus saxa sonant : vacuas it fumus ad auras.

Accidit hæc fessis etiam fortuna Latinis, Quæ totam luctu concussit funditùs urbem. Regina ut tectis venientem prospicit hostem, 595 Incessi muros, ignes ad tecta volare : Nusquam acies contrà Rutulas, nulla agmina Turni: 597. Contrà prospicil Infelix pugnæ juvenem in certamine credit

nusquam Rutulas acies

apparere Extinctum : et, subitô mentem turbata dolore,

598. Credit juvenem Se causam clamat, crimenque, caputque malorum : 600 Turnum extinctum esse Multaque per mæstum demens effata furorem,

600. Se esse causam Purpureos moritura manu discindit amictus, Et nodum informis leti trabe nectit ab altà. Quam cladem miseræ postquam accepére Latinæ, Filia prima manu flavos Lavinia crines,

605 605. Lavinia prima Et roseas laniata genas; tum cætera circùm

furit, laniata quoad
Turba furit : resonant latè plangoribus ædes.
Hinc totam infelix vulgatur fama per urbem.
Demittunt mentes: it, scisså veste, Latinus,
Conjugis attonitus fatis, urbisque ruinâ,

610
Canitiem immundo perfusam pulvere turpans :
Multaque se incusat, qui non acceperit antè
Dardanium Æneam, generumque adsciverit ultrò.

NOTES.

586. Pergunt: in the sense of parant. rites of burial. Nectit: she binds, or ties

587. Pumice. Pumex is properly the the rope. Nodum : in the sense of funem, pumice stone: here put for any stone. says Heyne.

588. Vestigavit : hath found-discovered. 605. Accepêre: in the sense of audiverunt.

589. Castra : their hives. Trepidæ rerum: Quam cladem : in the sense of cujus mortem. alarmed for their state-condition. Timentes 606. Lavinia laniala. After the women suis rebus, says Ruæus. So fessi rerum, had learned the tragic end of her mother, Æn. i. 178.

Lavinia was the first to express her grief. 591. Teclis : this again means the hives. This she did by tearing her hair, and mangOdor : fume vapor, or smoke. Cæco : ling her rosy cheeks. Servius reads floros, smothered-obscure.

or floreos, instcad of flavos, in imitation of 593. Fortuna : in the sense of calamitas. Ennius. But there is no authority to supFessis : afflicted-distressed,

port this reading; and there is no necessity 594. Concussit : in the sense of implevit. for the alteration; for yellow, or golden hair,

595. Tectis. Tectum here is in the sense was the color most admired among the anof urbs. Incessi : the inf. of the verb inces- cients. sor: to be assaulted, Ul: when as soon as. 609. Demittunt : their resolution fails

599. Turbata : in the sense of commota. they despond. Ruæus says, dejiciunt aniMentem is put as a Grecism.

Davidson renders it, “ their souls 600. Crimen : the criminal author. despond.” 601. Demens : wanting reason.

610. Fatis : in the sense of morte. and mens. Afata : in the sense of dicens 611. Turpans : defiling—tearing. vel loquens. Per : through-during,

612. Mulia: in the sense of multum. This 603. Informis: unnatural-awful. Heyne and the following line are introduced from says, turpis. The poet here expresses his Æn. xi. 471. In some copies they do not disapprobation of suicide, by calling it in- appear in this place. formis leti. According to the pontifical 613. Adsciveril: admitted, or received him books, such persons were deprived of the as a son-in-law.

mos.

Of de,

Intereà extremo bellator in æquore Turnus
Palantes sequitur paucos, jam segnior, atque

615 Jam minùs atque minùs successu lætus equorum.

Attulit hunc illi cæcis terroribus aura
618. Commixtum ce- Commixtum clamorem, arrectasque impulit aures
cis terroribus

Confusæ sonus urbis, et illætabile murmur.
Hei mihi! quid tanto turbantur mænia luctu ? 620
Quisve ruit tantus diversâ clamor ab urbe ?
Sic ait: adductisque amens subsistit habenis.
Atque huic, in faciem soror ut conversa Metisci

Aurigæ, currumque et equos et lora regebat, 625. Occurrit huic in Talibus occurrit dictis : Hâc, Turne, sequamur

625 talibus dictis: hâc parte, Trojugenas, quâ prima viam victoria pandit O Turne

Sunt alii, qui tecta manu defendere possint.
Ingruit Æneas Italis, et prælia miscet:

Et nos sæva manu mittamus funera Teucris. 630. Numero cæsorum Nec numero inferior, pugnæ nec honore recedes. 630 631. Turnus respondet Turnus ad hæc:

O soror, et dudum agnovi, cùm prima per artem

Fædera turbâsti, teque hæc in bella dedisti : 634. Fallis me. Sed Et nunc nequicquam fallis Dea. Sed quis Olympo quis Deorum voluit te Demissam tantos voluit te ferre labores ?

635 lemissam

An fratris miseri letum ut crudele videres?

Nam quid ago ? aut quæ jam spondet fortuna salutem ? 638. Ego ipse vidi in- Vidi oculos ante ipse meos, me voce vocantem gentem Murranum op- Murranum, quo non superat mihi charior alter, petere ante meos oculos,

610 vocantein me voce, atque

Oppetere ingentem, atque ingenti vulnere victum. victum

Occidit infelix, ne nostrum dedecus, Ufens, 643. Nostris miseris Aspiceret : Teucri potiuntur corpore et armis. rebus

Exscindi-ne domos, id rebus defuit unum,

NOTES. 614. Æquore: in the sense of campo. 617. Aura: in the sense of rentus. Cæcs: 615. Segnior. Rumus says, tardior. unknown-uncertain. Ruæus says, incertie.

616. Successu equorum. Servius, and most 619. Mælabile: mournful-unjoyous. Of interpreters after him, take the meaning to in, neg, and lætabilis. be: that Turnus was now less pleased with 621. Diversâ : in the sense of ab diresa his horses, because they were out of breath, parte urbis. Rueus says, dissita. and fatigued. But it seems much better to 625. Occurrit: in' the sense of respondet. understand it of his being less pleased with 627. Tecla: in the sense of urbem. the easy victory he gained, now that Æneas 629. Mittamus : in the sense of demus. was retired, and only a few straggling troops Funera sæva : in the sense of crudelem mor. left in the field. This agrees with the ex- tem, says Ruæus. " Let us spread cruel pressions paucos palanles. Successu equo- death among the Trojans.” Valpy. rum : this last intimates, that the victory he 630. Numero: in the number of the slain. gained was now so easy, that he had only Turnus should equal Æneas in the number to drive the enemy before his chariot, with. of his slain, and in the glory of the fight. out meeting with any resistance... Turnus 632. Agnovi : the pron. te is understood. might think the, victory not worthy of his 633. Turbâsti; in the sense of rupisti. valor, and was therefore less pleased with 634. Fallis : Heyne says, vis latere. it, than if it bad more richly rewarded him. 638. Murranum. He was one of the ItaThis better accords with the sentiments of lian princes, and slain by Æneas, verse 529, the soldier. This is the opinion of David- supra. Ingentem : mighty-powerful.

Ho rendors the words; “ with the 641. Ufens. He cominanded the Agricolæ. cheap victory of his horses.” Heyne agrees See Æn. vii. 745. with Servius. Ruæus observes : he was 643. Unum: in the sense of solum. The less pleased with his horses, because they only thing wanting to our complete wretchhad carried him so far from the fight, edness and misery.

bon.

ces

Perpetiar? dextrâ nec Drancis dicta refellam?

644 Terga dabo ? et Turnum fugientem hæc terra videbit ? Usque adeòne mori miserum est ? vos 0 mihi Manes 646. Est-ne usquo

adeò Este boni ; quoniam Superis aversa voluntas.

647. Voluntas SupeSancta ad vos anima, atque istius inscia culpæ,

ris est a versa mihi Descendam, magnorum haud unquam indignus avorum.

Vix ea fatus erat: medios volat, ecce, per hostes 650 Vectus equo spumante Sages; adversa sagittà Saucius ora ruitque, implorans nomine Turnum :

652. Saucius quoad

adversa ora Turne, in te suprema salus ; miserere tuorum.

653. Nostra suprema Fulminat Æneas armis, summasque minatur

salus est Dejecturum arces Italùm, excidioque daturum: 655 655. Daturum eas arJamque faces ad tecta volant. In te ora Latini, In te oculos referunt: mussat rex ipse Latinus, Quos generos vocet, aut quæ sese ad fædera flectat. Prætereà regina, tui fidissima, dextrâ Occidit ipsa suâ, lucemque exterrita fugit.

660 Soli pro portis Messapus et acer Atinas Sustentant aciem. Circum hos utrinque phalanges

663. E strictis mucroStant densæ, strictisque seges mucronibus horret

nibus
Ferrea : tu currum deserto in gramine versas.
ů
Ovstupuit variâ confusus imagine rerum

665
Turnus, et obtutu tacito stetit. Æstuat ingens
Imo in corde pudor, mixtoque insania luctu,
Et furiis agitatus amor, et conscia virtus.

Ut primùm discussæ umbræ, et lux reddita menti, 669. Sunt discusse
Ardentes oculorum acies ad menia torsit

670
Turbidus, èque rotis magnam respexit ad urbem.
Ecce autem, flammis inter tabulata volutus

NOTES. 644. Dicta Drancis. See Æn. xi. 336, the state of Latinus' mind. On the one et sequens.

hand, he was inclined to match his daughter 646. Est-ne usque adeò : is it indeed so with Æneas, and fulfil his engagements : grievous a thing to die?

on the other, he was overawed by Turnus, 647. Superis: in the sense of Superorum. and durst not openly declare his sentiments; Boni : propitious-kind. Turnus now plain- but faintly hinted them, like one who mutly sees, that the gods above are against ters what he is afraid to speak out. Ruæus him, and that he must fall beneath the says, dubitat. Heyne says, tacitè deliberat. sword of Æneas. He addresses himself to Referunt: turn-cast. The verb is to be the gods below, (Manes,) not so much with repeated before each objective case. a view to obtain their assistance against 659. Tui: in the sense of tibi. the purposes of Jove, as they might give 662. Aciem : in the sense of pugnam. his shade, his sancla anima, a welcome re- Phalanges : the troops in general. ception; since it would descend to them 664. Deserto gramine : in the sense of etcovered with glory, free from any imputa- tremo campo. See 614, supra. tion of cowardice or faul, and no way de- 665. Rerum: of distress-affliction. Ingenerate from his illustrious ancestors. agine: form_image.

648. Inscia istius culpæ : free from the 667. Ingens pudor : this, and the followfault or crime of deserting his friends in ing line are repeated from Æn. x. 870. their distress, and difficulty. This he will 668. Insania : distraction. Ruæus says, not do, though he knows that it must ter- amentia. Furiis, Heyne conjectures referminato in his death. Sancta : pure-un- ence is had to the nuptials of Lavinia, of polluted.

which he now began to despair. 652. Ora: in the sense of vultum. He 670. Acies oculorum: the sight of his eyes; was wounded full in the face-right in front. simply, his eyes. Heyre reads, orbes. Implorans: in the sense of vocans.

671. Rotis: in the sense of curru. 655. Dejecturum: would rase.

672. Vorlet flammis: a whirling volume 657. Mussat. This word strongly marks of Aame rolled, &c. The prip. è is under.

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