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Florentes ferulas et grandia lilia quassans. 26. Quem nos ipsi vi- Pan Deus Arcadiæ venit, quem vidimus ipsi dimus
Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque rubentem.
Ecquis erit modus ? inquit : amor non talia curat. 29. Crudelis amor nec Nec lacrymis crudelis amor, nec gramina rivis, saturatur lacrymnis
Nec cytiso saturantur apes, nec fronde capellæ.
Tristis at ille: Tamen cantabitis, Arcades, inquit,
* Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores!
Aut custos gregis, aut maturæ vinitor uvæ! 37. Certe sive Phillis, Certè sive mihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas, sive Amyntas, seu qui- Seu quicumque furor (quid tum, si fuscus Amyntas ? cumque esset mihi fu. ror, jacoret
Et nigræ violæ sunt, et vaccinia nigra.)
Mecum inter salices lentâ sub vite jaceret. 42. Hìc, o Lycori, Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. sunt gelidi
44. Insanus amor de- Hic gelidi fontes, hìc mollia prata, Lycori: tinet me in armis duri Hìc nemus: hìc ipso tecum consumerer ævo. Martis inter
Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis
NOTES. and half goat. He fell in love with Cypa- 31. Arcades. This address of Gallus to rissus, the favorite of Apollo, who was the Arcadians is tender and pathetic, espechanged into a trce of that name. Agres- cially that part of it where he wishes he ti honore capitis : with the rustic honor of had been only a humble shepherd like his head—with a garland of leaves upon them. his head. Honore: in the sense of corona. 32. Hæc: thcso my misfortunes.
25. Florentes serulas: blooming fennel. 33. O quàm molliler: O how softly then There are two kinds of ferula, or fennel, my boncs, &c.; alluding to a superstitious the small, or common, and the large, or notion of the ancients that the bodies of giant fennel. This last grows to the height the dead might be oppressed by the weight of six or seven fcet. The stalks are thick, of the earth cast upon them. Accordingly and filled with a fungous pith, which is used they crumbled it fine, and cast it lightly into in Sicily for the same purpose as tinder is the grave, using the words, sit tibi terra lecis: with us, to kindle fire. From this circum- may the earth be light upon theo. stance, the poets feigned that Prometheus 34. Olim: hereafter. This word refers stole the heavenly fire and brought it to earth to future as well as to past time. Mihi: in in a stalk of ferula. Some derive the name the sense of mea, agrecing with ossa. from ferendo, because its stalk was used as a 36. Vinitor: a vine-dresser. It seems to walking-stick; others derive it from feriendo, be used here in the sense of vindemiator, a because it was used by school-masters to gatherer of grapes--a vintager. strike their pupils with on the hand." Hence 38. Furor. This word properly signifies the modern instrument, or ferula, which is any inordinate passion, such as love, anger, used for the same purpose, though very dif- rage, fury, and the like; by meton. the obferent from the ancient one, and capable of ject of such passion—the person loved.giving much greater pain.
Fuscus: black. The verb sit is to be sup27. Rubeniem: stained with the red ber- plied. ries of alder, and with vermilion. Ebuli. 39. Vaccinia: whortle-berries, or bil-berEbulum is the plant called dwarf elder. It ries. Mr. Martyn takes the word for the grows about three feet high, and bears red flower of the hyacinth. berries. In England it has obtained the 41. Serta: garlands of flowers. name of dane-wort; because it was fabled 43. Consumerer, &c. I could spend my to have sprung from the blood of the Danes, very life here with you in this pleasant reat the time of their massacre. It is chiefly treat, gazing upon the beauty of your perfound in church-yards. Minio. Minium is son. Ruæus says: traducerem omnem ætatem the native cinnabar. It was the vermilion tecum. But consumerer may be used in the of the ancients; it is our present red-lead. sense of the Greek middle voice. Virgil 28. Modus: in the sense of finis.
was fond of the Greek idiom. 29. Rivis: with streams, or rills of water. 44. Nunc insanus amor, &c. The mean30. Saturantur: are satisfied.
ing of this passage appears to be: in this
Tela inter media atque adversos detinet hostes.
45 46. Tu, ah dura femi
na! procul à patria (utinam sit mihi nec credere id) vides tantùm Alpinas nives, frigora
Rheni, sola sinè me. 50 50. Et modulabor
avenâ Siculi pastorie Theocriti, carmina, quæ
54. Ille arbores cres cent: vos, O mi amores 55
pleasant place, if you had conscnted, we 57. Alpinas: an adj. from Alpes, a very might have both lived happy and secure. high range of mountains separating Italy But now, on account of your cruelty, we from France, Switzerland, and Germany, are both unhappy and miserable. Through and covered with almost perpetual snow. despair, 1 expose myself to the dangers and Rheni: the river Rhine. It rises in the hazards of war; and in the mean time your mountains of Switzerland, and runs a northlove of a soldier hurries you to distant erly course, forming the boundary between countries, over the gnows of the Alps, &c. France and Germany, and falls into the Gallus here supposes Cytheris to accompany German sea near the Hague. Its length is her lover, and to undergo the fatigues and near six hundred miles. Dura: in the sense hardships incident to a military life. Me. of crudelis. Sola : Lycoris was alone, as This passage would be much easier, if we respected Gallus. could read te in the room of me.
49. Plantas : in the sense of pedes. Aspaturally leads to such reading ; but we pera : sharp. The whole of this address to have no authority for making the substitu- his mistress is extremely tender and pathetion. Martis. Mars was esteemed the god tic. of war.
He was the son of Jupiter and 50. Quæ condita sunt, &c. Which were Juno, as some say ; others say, of Juno composed by me in elegiac verse. Chalcialone. His education was intrusted to Pric dico : an adj. from Chalcis, a city of Eubea, apus, who taught him all the manly exer- (hodie, Negropont,) the birth-place of Eucises. In the Trojan war, he took a very phorion, an elegiac poet ; some of whose active part, and was always at hand to as- verses, it is said, Gallus turned into Latin sist the favorites of Venus. His amours
To this, Ruæus thinks, the poet rewith that goddess have been much celebra- fers. However this may be, it cannot be ted by the poets. Vulcan, her husband, made from the words without straining being informed of their intrigue, made a net them. They simply imply that Gallus of such exquisite workmanship, that it could wrote some verses or poems in the same not be perceived. In this net he caught the kind of verse, or measure, in which Euphotwo lovers, and exposed them to the ridicule rion wrote. of the gods. He kept them in this situation 51. Modulabor : in the sense of canam. for a considerable time, till Neptune pre- 52. Certum est, &c. It is certain-I am vailed upon him to set them at liberty. resolved, that I had rather suffer in the The worship of Mars was not very general woods any dangers and hardships than folamong the Greeks, but among the Romans low after Lycoris. These, or words of the he received the most unbounded honors. like import, seem to be necessary to make His most famous temple was built by Au- the sense complete. Spelæa : dens, or gustus, after the battle of Phillippi, and de- haunts of wild beasts; from the Greek. dicated to Mars Ultor. His priests were 53. Incii'ere : to cut, or inscribe. called Salii, and were first instituted by 55. Mænala : neu. plu, a mountain in Numa. Their chief office was to keep the Arcadia. In the sing. Mænalus. Lustrabo: sacred ancyle, or shield, which was supposed in the sense of circumibo. Mixtis nymphis. to have fallen from heaven.
Mars was The meaning is, that he was in company sometimes called Gradivus, Mavors, and with the nymphs; or that they, in confused Quirinus; by meton. put for war in general and irregular order, pursued their course. -a battle-a fight, &c.
56. Acres : fierce-dangerous. Vetabunt . 45. Adversos : in the sense of infestos. in the sense of prohibebunt. 46 Tantùm, only-nothing beside. 57. Parthenios. Parthenius was a moun
Jam mihi per rupes videor lucosque sonantes
Ire: libet Partho torquere Cydonia cornu 60. Tanquam hæc om- Spicula : tanquam hæc sint nostri medicina furoris, nig sint
Aut Deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat. 61. Aut tanquam ille Deus Cupido
Jam neque Hamadryades rursùm, nec carmina nobis 64. Ilíum Deum Cupi- Ipsa placent : ipsæ rursùm concedite sylvæ. dinem; nec equidem, si Non illum nostri possunt mutare labores ;
Nec si frigoribus mediis Hebrumque bibamus,
Sithoniasque nives hyemis subeamus aquosæ : 67. Nec equidem, si Nec si, cùm moriens altâ liber aret in ulmo, versemus oves Æthiop- Æthiopum versemus oves sub sidere Cancri. um, sub' sidere cancri, Omnia vincit amor; et nos cedamus amori. cùm 70. O Divee Pierides,
Hæc sat erit, Divæ, vestrum cecinisse poëtam, sat erit vestrum poetam
Dum sedet, et gracili fiscellam texit hibisco, cecinisse hæc carmina
Pierides : vos hæc facietis maxima Gallo:
Quantùm vere novo viridis se subjicit alnus.
tain in Arcadia, where virgins used to hunt; 68. Versemus: feed, or tend upon; in the from a Greek word signifying a virgin. It sense of pasceremus. Æthiopum : gen. plu. is here used as an adj. Circumdare : in the of Æthiops, an inhabitant of Æthiopia, an sense of cingere.
extensive country in Africa, lying principal58. Sonantes : echoing-resounding.
ly within the torrid zone. Here it is put for 59. Cydonia : an adj. from Cydon, a city hot climate. Cancri. Cancer is one of the
the inhabitants of any country lying in a of Crete, the arrows of which were held in twelve signs of the Zodiac. The sun great estimation. Partho cornu: a Parthian
enters it about the twenty-first day of June, bow. The Parthians were a people famed for their skill in handling the bow, which causing our longest day. they made of horn. Henco cornu : a bow. 69. Amor vincit, &c. The poet here hath Libet: in the sense of juvat.
finely represented the various resolutions 60. Medicina furoris : a remedy for our
and passions of a lover. Gallus having love. Tanquam : as if.
tried various expedients to divert his affec61. Malis: in the sense of miseriis.
tions, and finding nothing sufficiently enti
cing to him, to accomplish that end, finally 62. Hamadryades: nymphs of the woods abandons the vain pursuit with this reflecand trees. Their fate was supposed to be tion: Love conquers all things—let us yield connected with that of particular trees, to love. with which they lived and died. It is de
71. Terit: formed-made. Hibisco: in rived from the Greek. See Ecl. ii. 46.
the sense of vimine. 63. Rursum concedite: again, ye woods, farewell. Concedite, is here elegantly put
72. Marima: most acceptable-most for valele. I wish you may grow and flourish,
precious. though I languish and die.
73. In horas hourly-every hour. 65. Hebrum. The Hebrus is the largest 74. Subjicit se: shoots itself up-springs rivor of Thrace, rising out of mount Rho- up. dope, near its junction with mount Hæmus, 75. Umbra solet, &c. The shade of the and taking a southerly course, falls into the evening is wont to be injurious to singers. Ægean sea : hodie, Marisa. The ancient Umbra here must mean the shade or dusk of Thrace forms a province of the Turkish the evening, which, on account of the falling empire, by the name Romania. Frigori- dew, is reckoned an unhealthy part of the bus: in the sense of hyeme.
day. That the word is to be taken in this 66. Sithonias: an adj. from Sithonia, a sense, appears from the circumstance menpart of Thrace, bordering upon the Euxine tioned in the following line. Hesperus venit:
Subeamus: endure—undergo. the evening star is approaching. Canlanti67. Moriens liber: the withering bark, or bus; some read cunctantibus : to those derind.
laying, or loitering.
Juniperi gravis umbra: nocent et frugibus umbræ.
77. Vos, O meæ saturæ capellæ, ito, ite domum.
76. Umbra juniperi : the shade of the we may be sure Virgil did in the present juniper tree is injurious : not so in fact; instance. It might have been the current it is both pleasant and healthy. It is opinion that the juniper treo changed its odoriferous in itself, and is often burned, qualities as the evening came on; or, we to absorb the noxious part of the atmos- may understand it thus: so noxious is the phere, and to prevent infection. Poets often evening air, that even the juniper tree will take liberties that are not allowable in prose not secure from its effects. writers. They may follow the common re- 77. Saturæ : full-fed-sufficiently fed ; ceived opinions of things, however incor- implying that time enough had been spent rect, without justly incurring censure. This in pastoral writing.
What is the subject of this pastoral? Where was Pindus?
Where were the mountains Mænalus and Where is the scene of the pastoral laid? Lycæus ?
What took place after his arrival in Ar- What is said of them? cadia ?
Who was Mars? What is the character of this pastoral? What is said of him? Whom does Virgil imitate ?
By whom was the most celebrated templo Who was Lycoris ?
of Mars built ? Who was Arethusa ?
What were his priests called ?* Was there any fountain of that name? What was their chief office ? Where was it situated ?
What were the names of Mars? For what was Syracuse famous ?
For what is the word Mars put for by Why did the poet invoke the nymph Are- meton.? thusa ?
Where is the river Hebrus? What is said of the river Alpheus? Where does it rise and empty its watera? Where was the mountain Parnassus? Where is Æthiopic situated ?
licel.it is banjal
Tak Jorpratus past wley