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OCEANUM intereà surgens Aurora reliqui 2. Æneas, victor sol- Æneas, quanquam et sociis dare tempus humandie vebat vota Deùm primo Præcipitani curæ, turbataque funere mens est, Eöo, quanquam Vota Deùm primo victor solvebat Eõo. Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis

5 Constituit tumulo, fulgentiaque induit arma, 7. Quod erat tropheum Mezentî ducis exuvias ; tibi, magne, trophæum, O magne

Bellipotens : aptat rorantes sanguine cristas,
Telaque trunca viri, et bis sex thoraca petitum
Perfossumque locis : clypeumque ex ære sinistra
Subligat, atque ensem collo suspendit eburnum.
Tum socios, namque omnis eum stipata tegebat

Turba ducum, sic incipiens hortatur ovantes : 14. O viri, maxima Maxima res effecta, viri : timor omnis abesto. res est

Quod superest : hæc sunt spolia, et de regc superbo 15 16. Mezentius cæsus Primitiæ: manibusque meis Mezentius hic est.

Nunc iter ad regem nobis murosque Latinos.

Arma parate, animis et spe præsumite bellum :
19. Ne qua mora im- Ne qua mora ignaros, ubi primùm vellere signa
pediat vos ignaros, sen- Annuerint Superi, pubemque educere castris,
ientiaque tardet vos seg- Impediat, segnesque metu sententia tardet.
nes metu, ubi primùm

Intereà socios inhumataque corpora terræ
Mandemus : qui solus honos Acheronte sub imo est.
Ite, ait : egregias animas, quæ sanguine nobis
Hanc patriam peperêre suo, decorate supremis 25
Muneribus : : mæstamque Evandri primus ad urbem
Mittatur Pallas, quem non virtutis egentem
Abstulit atra dies, et funere mersit acerbo.

Sic ait illachrymans, recipitque ad limina gressum :

est

NOTES.

war.

3. Funere : at the death of Pallas. hung around with his arms. Hrc est: here

4. Primo Eöo. Eoüs here is taken as a is Mezentius slain by my hand. substantive: with the first dawning light.

16. Primitia: the first fruits; put in apThe first business of the pious Æneas is to position with hæc spolia. These neas here return thanks to the gods for his victory, dedicated to Mars, the warrior god, in the although he wished to perform the last offi.

same manner as the first fruits of the earth ces to his friends and companions in arms,

were offered to the gods. and especially to Pallas.

18. Præsumite: anticipate. Bellum: in

the sense of pugnam. 6. Tumulo : on a rising ground. This trophy was consecrated to Mars, the god of

19. Ubi primùm Superi : when first the It consisted of a trunk of a tree gods permit us, &c. They never raised or placed in the ground, with its branches cut pulled up the standards to march, without Off, and dressed in shining armor, the spoils

first consulting the gods.

21. Sententia metu: resolution-purpose (exuvias) of Mezentius, whom it was intended to represent. It had bis waving accompanied by fear. The same as dubia

sententia. plumes, his breast-plate, perforated in several places, his brazen shield bound to his left opinion, that those who were unburied could

23. Qui honos solus. It was the received arm, and his ivory handled sword suspended not pass over the river Styı into the peacefrom his neck.

ful abodes of the happy, till after the revo8. Rorantes : besmeared with blood lution of a hundred years; which time the dripping with blood.

shade or umbra, roamed at large along its 9. Petitum : struck, or hit.

banks, in anxious expectation of the appoint15. Hæc sunt spolia. By the rex superbus ed period. See Æn. vi. 325, et sequens. here, some understand Turnus: from him he Acheronte. Acheron here is used for the rehad won the spoils in general, to which he gions below, in general. first points ; then to the trophy representing 25.Peperêre: gotten-obtained--procured. Mezentius, which he had just erected, and 29. Recipitque gressum. This alludes

Corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acætes

30 Servabat senior, qui Parrnasio Evandro Armiger antè fuit; sed non felicibus æquè

32. Sed tum ibat coTum comes auspiciis charo datus ibat alumno.

mes datus charo alumno Circùm omnis famulumque manus, Trojanaque turba,

non æquè

34. Omnisque manus Et mæstum Iliades crinem de more solutæ.

35 &c. slant circùm Ut verò Æneas foribus sese intulit altis ;

35. Solutæ quoad Ingentem gemitum tunsis ad sidera tollunt

mæstum crinem
Pectoribus, mestoque immugit regia luctu.
Ipse caput nivei fultum Pallantis et ora
Ut vidit, levique patens in pectore vulnus

40
Cuspidis Ausoniæ, lachrymis ita fatur oboris :
Te-ne, inquit miserande puer, cùm læta veniret,
Invidit fortuna mihi ? ne regna videres
Nostra, neque ad sedes victor veherere paternas ?
Non hæc Evandro de te promissa parenti

45
Discedens dederam; cùm me complexus euntem
Mitteret in magnum imperium; metuensque moneret
Acres esse viros, cum durâ prælia gente.

48. Moneret me Lali. Et nunc ille quidem spe multùm captus inani,

nos esse acres viros, el

prælia esse mihi cum Fors et vota facit, cumulatque altaria donis. Nos juvenem exanimum, et nil jam cælestibus ullis Debentem, vano mæsti comitamur honore. Infelix, nati funus crudele videbis ! Hi nostri reditus, expectatique triumphi !

54. Hi sunt nostri proHæc mea magna fides ! At non, Evandre, pudendis 55 missi reditus Vulneribus pulsum aspicies: nec sospite dirum

50

NOTES.

to the custom of laying out the dead in the with which Turnus killed the noble youth : vestibule, or entrance before the door, after here called Ausonian, or Italian. it was washed, anointed, and crowned with 42. Invidir-ne fortuna : did fortune, when garlands. In such a place was the dead she came propitious, (læta,) envy thee to me, body of Pallas laid out, and watched by his O lamented youth? aged friend Acætes.

44. Veherere: in the sense of reducereris. 31. Parrhasio. Evander is called Par- 47. In magnum imperium: against a powrhasian, from Parrhasia, a country, and also erful empire. Or it may mean, in prospect a city, of Arcadia, where he was born. of a mighty empire. The former best agrees

with what follows. Ruæus says, in magnum 33. Comes : guardian, or tutor. Datus : appointed.

imperium Etruscorum : which is the sense of 35. Iliades mæstum. The poet here

Valpy. Heyne refers it to Latium, to the

represents the Trojan matrons standing around government of which Æneas was about to the corpse of Pallas, in mo'ırning attire. He succeed. It was by the aid of Evander that had before told us, Æn. ix. 216, that Æneas he overcame the Rutuli and Lalini.

50. Fors : in the sense of forlasse. left them all in Sicily, except the mother of

51. Nil debentem ullis. Commentators Euryalus. Servius understands female slaves in this place. But they are never called understand by this, his being no longer a Iliades. The poet would have, probably, of the gods below. But it may mean, that

subject of the gods above, but in the power altered the passage, had he lived to put the he was now discharged from every yow last hand to the Æneid.

which he had made to the celestial gods39. Nivei Pallantis. The epithet niveus that he would never return to perform any here may refer to the fairness of his face he had made himself, or which his father and countenance while living; or more pro

was making for him. Vano: unavailing. bably to his countenance now white, and Inutili, says

Ruæus. All their pomp (honore) pale, and cold in death. Fultum : support and parado were of no avail to him. "The ed-bolstered up.

living are subject to the gods above, the 41. Cuspidis. Cuspis is here taken for dea i to those below :" Valpy. the whole spear, by synec. It is the spear 56. Pulsum: in the senso of cæsum.

Optabis nato funus pater. Hei mihi! quantum 58. Tu, O Ausonia, Præsidium, Ausonia, et quantum tu perdis, lüle! perdis, in Pallante Hæc ubi deflevit, tolli miserabile corpus Imperat; et toto lectos ex agmine mittit

60 Mille viros, qui supremum comitentur honorem, 62. Quæ sunt exigua Intersintque patris lachrymis: solatia luctûs solatia

Exigua ingentis, misero sed debita patri. 64. Alii haud segnes Haud segnes alii crates et molle feretrum toxunt crates

Arbuteis texunt virgis, et vimine querno,
Extructosque toros obtentu frondis inumbrant.

Hìc juvenem agresti sublimem in stramine ponunt: 68. Talem, qualem Qualem virgineo demessum pollice florem florem seu mollis viole, Seu mollis violæ, seu languentis hyacinthi; seu languentis hyacin- Cui neque fulgor adhuc, necdum sua forma recessit ; 70 thi, demessuu

Non jam mater alit tellus, viresque ministrat.

Tum geminas vestes, auroque ostroque rigentes,
Extulit Æneas : quas illi læta laborum
Ipsa suis quondam manibus Sidonia Dido

75 Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro. 76. Quasi supremum 77. Alteráque veste

Harum unam juveni, supremum mæstus honorem quasi amictu obnubit Induit, arsurasque comas obnubit amictu.

Multaque prætereà Laurentis præmia pugnæ 81. Manus

eorum, Aggerat, et longo prædam jubet ordine duci. quos mitteret tanquam Addit equos et tela, quibus spoliaverat hostem.

SO inferias umbris Pallantis

Vinxerat et post terga manus, quos mitteret umbris 82. Flammam rogi Inferias, caso sparsuros sanguine fiammam;

comas

NOTES. Though it would be a source of grief to see 67. Stramine agresti. By this we are to his son a corpse; it would nevertheless be understand the bed mentioned in the presome mitigation of that sorrow, to find that ceding line. It is called agresti, rural, or rushe fell not by dishonorable wounds—that he tic, because it was made of the green boughs fell facing his enemy, and not in flight. It of trees, leaves, &c. Stramen, from sterre, was considered disgraceful to be slain, or to properly signifies any thing placed, or receive a wound in the back. Pudendis : in strewed under as a bed; such as strar, the sense of indecoris.

leaves, &c. 57. Nec pater optabis: These words are 68. Qualem florem: This is a beautiful susceptible of a double ineaning: the father simile. He looks fair, and still blooming will not imprecate a cruel death to himself, like a flower, just plucked by the the virin conséquence of the disgrace of his son: gin's hand. or, he will not imprecate a cruel death upon 69. Languentis. This very beautifully his son, whose life had been disgracefully represents the hyacinth, just after it is preserved. This last is the sense given to the plucked, beginning to fade, and droop its passage by Davidson. Rumus says, nec op- head. labis tibi morlem acerbam, filio turpiter salvo, 70. Forma: beauty-comeliness. taken it in the former sense. This is also 74. Quas Sidonia Dido ipsa : which Sitho opinion of Heyne.

donian Dido herself, pleased with the labor, 58. Præsidium: protection.

had made, &c. 59. Ubi deflevil: when he said these 75. Discreverat. Ruæus says, distinxerat. things weeping-having spoken these things Tenui auro : with a slender thread of gold with tears.

77. Obnubit : he binds up, or veils. 62. Intersint: may be present at, or bear 78. Pugnæ: of the battle, fought upon & part with.

the plains of Laurentum. 64. Segnes: in the sense of tardi.

81. Vinzerat manus: he bound the hands 65. Arbuleis : of the arbute tree.

of thoso, &c. This barbarous custom the 66. Toros: here is the bed raised, or made poet takes from Homer. It might suit the high upon the fevetrum, or bier. Obtentu temper of Achilles, but does not agree with frondis. Ruæus says, umbraculo foliorum. that of Æneas. They shaded the bed by sy reading Coblentu) leafy branches over it.

82. Caso : in the sense of fuso. Inferias : sacrifices for the dead. Ümbris : to the 85 arborum.

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Indutosque jubet truncos hostilibus armis
Ipsos ferre duces, inimicaque nomina figi.

84. Figi his truncis
Ducitur infelix ævo confectus Acætes,
Pectora nunc fædans pugnis, nunc unguibus ora :
Sternitur et toto projectus corpore terræ.
Ducunt et Rutulo perfusos sanguine currus.
Pôst bellator equus, positis insignibus, Æthon
It lachrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. 90
Hastam alii galeamque ferunt; nam cætera Turnus
Victor habet. Tum mesta phalanx, Teucrique sequun-
Tyrrhenique duces, et versis Arcades armis. (tur,
Postquam omnis longè comitum processerat ordo,
Substitit Æneas, gemituque hæc addidit alto :
Nos alias hinc ad lachrymas eadem horrida belli
Fata vocant. Salve æternùm mihi, maxime Palla,
Æternùmque vale. Nec plura effatus, ad altos
Tendebat muros, gressumque in castra ferebat.
Jamque oratores aderant ex urbe Latina,

100
Velati ramis oleæ, veniamque rogantes,

103. Ut ille redderet Corpora, per campos ferro quæ fusa jacebant,

illis corpora, quæ

104. Esse illi nullum Redderet, ac tumulo sineret succedere terræ :

certamen cum victis, et Nullum cum victis certamen, et æthere cassis ;

iis cassis æthere, ut parParceret hospitibus quondam, socerisque vocatis.

105 ceret iis

93

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NOTES.

shade of Pallas. Eight prisoners were sent being laid aside, he is now dressed in
as victims to be offered at the funeral pile of mourning. Pòst: behind.
Pallas. The poet mentions this circum- 90. Il lachrymans: he moves on weeping.
stance, without any expression of disappro- Virgil here is indebted to Homer for this
bation. It is true, Achilles, in the Iliad, thought, Iliad. 17. Where the horses of
does the same thing at the tomb of his friend Achilles are represented as weeping at tho
Patroclus; but he is represented as a person death of their master, and obstinately re-
of a very different character from Åneas, fusing to obey their driver. Both Aristotle
the hero of the Æneid. And moreover, the and Pliny say, that horses often lament their
losy wbich he had sustained was more se- masters slain in battle, and even shed tears
vere, and his grief more poignant. But over them.
above all, he lived in a state of society very 94. Processerat. This is the common read.
different from that in which Virgil lived. ing. Davidson reads præcesserat, upon the
These things serve in some measure to miti- authority of Pierius, who assures us he found
gate the cnormity of the deed. And yet that reading in the Roman, and other many.
there is one passage of Homer, which Eu- scripts, which he consulted. Heyne reads
stathius understands as conveying a strong processerat. Ordo : the procession.
censure of the barbarous act.

96. Ad alias lachrymas : to other scenes The practice of sacrificing prisoners at of sorrow-to the burial of the other dead. the funerals of their generals, in process of 97. Salve mihi. This is after the manner time, appeared to the Romans barbarous of the Greeks, who used their personal proand cruel. They therefore changed it, says noun in the same manner. Salve--vale : Servius, for the milder shows of the gladia- these were the novissima verba, or last words, tors! See Æn. x. 518. et seq.

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with which they departed from the funeral. 83. Truncos: trunks of trees. These were Farewell for ever, farewell for ever, most illus considered the less trophy, and were carried trious Pallas. Fata : state-condition. in the hand. They were dressed in the 101. Veniam: the favor, that he would spoils of the enemy.

restore to them, &c. 84. Inimica nomina : the names of the 102. Fusa : in the sense of cosa vel strala. enemies to be inscribed upon them.

103. Succedere tumulo : to be buried, or 87. Sternitur terræ : he grovels, or rolls interred in the earth. on the ground.

104. Cassis : deprived of: a part, from 89. Ethon: the name of the horse of carco. Æthere : in the sense of luce. Pallas. Insignibus positis : his trappings 105. Quondam : his former host--friend.

je bila

nos

110

115.

106. Quof precantes Quos bonus Æneas, haud aspernanda precantes, ea quae sunt haud

Prosequitur venia, et verbis hæc insuper addit.

Quænam vos tanto fortuna indigna, Latini, 109. Vos, qui fugiatis Implicuit bello, qui nos fugiatis amicos ?

Pacem me exanimis, et Martis sorte peremptis 111. Concedere pacem Oratis ? equidem et vivis concedere vellem. et vivis

Nec veni, nisi fata locum sedemque dedissent; 112. Nec veni hue, nisi Nec bellum cum gente gero. Rex nostra reliquit

Hospitia, et Turni potiùs se credidit armis.

Æquiùs huic Turnum fuerat se opponere morti
116. Si ille apparat Si bellum finire manu, si pellere Teucros
finire

Apparat, his decuit mecum concurrere telis :
Vixêt, cui vitam Deus aut sua dextra dedisset.
Nunc ite, et miseris supponite civibus ignem.

Dixerat Æneaș. Olli obstupuere silentes;
Conversique oculos inter se atque ora tenebant.
Tum senior, semperque odiis et crimine Drances
Infensus juveni Turno, sic ore vicissim
Orsa refert: O famâ ingens, ingentior armis,
Vir Trojane, quibus cælo te laudibus æquem ?

Justitiæ-ne priùs mirer, belli-ne laborum ? 127. Hæc tua verba

Nos verò hæc patriam grati referemus ad urbem .

Et te, si qua viam dederit fortuna, Latino 129. Alia fædera

Jungemus regi: quærat sibi fædera Turnus. 130. Quin juvabit nos, Quin et fatales murorum attollere moles,

Saxaque subvectare humeris Trojana juvabit.
Dixerat hæc: unoque omnes eadem ore fremebant
Bis senos pepigêre dies ; et, pace sequestrâ,

12)

123

130

et

NOTES.

Soceris : parents-in-law, Lalinus and Ama- ing the war by single combat was inade by ta. By marrying Lavinia, ho would become Æneas. related to the whole Latin nation.

122. Odiis et : in hatred and crimination 107. Prosequitur veniâ : he follows, or inimical, &c. Drances embraced erery opaccompanies them with the desired favor. portunity to vent his envy and hatred against He granted their request as soon as asked. Turnus, and to throw upon him all the blame It was reasonable in its nature, and conso- of the war.

It is supposed, that under the nant with the laws of war.

character of Drances, the poet portrays 109. Implicuit : hath entangled-involved. Cicero, who was no friend of Virgil. See

110. Pacem, me. This is the reading of infra, 336. et seq. Heyne, and Valpy after him. Some ancient 124. Orsa: in the sense of verba. copies have the same. The common read. 126. Justitiæ-ne : this is the common ing is pacem-ne. Peremptis : for thosc slain reading. Catrou however reads, justitié-ne by the lot of war. Marlis : for belli. priis mirer, belli-ne labore, which Pierius

112. Veni: in the sense of venissen. says, is the reading of the Roman, and of

115. Æquiùs fuerat : it had been more some other manuscripts of antiquity. Ser. just that Turnus, &c. It may iiere be re- vius justifies the common reading, by making marked, that Latinus did not take part with it a Grecism. Priùs: chiefly, or most. Sball Turnus of his own free will and accord; but I most admire thy justice, or thy achierewas forced into it by the importunities of ments in war? Rumus says: Admirabor te his wife Amata. He was convinced that he ob justitiam, an ob opera bellica. Heyna acted against the will and purposes of the reads, as in the text. gods, in so doing.

130. Moles murorum : your walls or the 117. Apparat : in the sense of statuit. towers and fortifications built upon them. Manu: by force, or valor.

Fatales : destined by the fates. 118. Vixel : by syncope, for vixisset : the 133. Sequestra : intervening-intermedi. one of us would have lived, to whom, &c. ate. They had agreed upon a truce, or It appears here that the first proposal of end- cessation of hostilities for iwelve days, for

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