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Quos alios muros, quæ jam ultrà mænia habetis ? 783. Unus homo, et Unus homo, vestris, ô cives, undique septus ille septus vestris agge- Aggeribus, tantas strages impunè per

urbem ribus undique

Ediderit ? juvenum priinos tot miserit Orco? 785

Non infelicis patriæ, veterumque Deorum, 787. Non miseretque Et magni Æneæ, segnes, miseretque pudetque? pudetque vos, O segnes, Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso infelicis

789. Turnus paulatim Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugnâ, incipit

Et fluvium petere, ac partem quæ cingitur amni. 791. Teucri incipiunt Acriùs hôc Teucri clamore incumbere magno, acriùs hoc

Et glomerare manum. Ceu sævum turba leonem
Cùm telis premit infensis: at territus ille

Asper, acerbà tuens, retrò redit: et neque terga 1795. Nec ille est potis Ira dare aut virtus patitur; nec tendere contrà

795 tendere contrà per tela Ille quidem hoc cupiens, potis est per tela virosque. virosque, quidem piens hoc

Haud aliter retrò dubius vestigia Turnus
Improperata refert ; et mens exæstuat irâ.
Quin etiam, bis tum medios invaserat hostes;
Bis confusa fugâ per muros agmina vertit,
Sed manus è castris properè coit omnis in unum

Nec contrà vires audet Saturnia Juno
803. Sufficere vires el Sufficere : aëriam cælo nam Jupiter Irim
contra Teucros.
Demisit, germanæ haud mollia jussa ferentem;

805 Ni Turnus cedat Teucrorum mænibus altis. 806. Ergò valet subsistere tantum Nec dextrâ valet : injectis sic undique telis

juvenis Ergò nec clypeo juvenis subsistere tantum, impetum, nec clypeo, nec dextrâ

Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum

Tinnitu galca, et saxis solida æra fatiscunt: 810. Jubæ sunt dis- Discussæque jubæ capiti ; nec sufficit'umbo

Ictibus: ingeminant hastis et Troës, et ipse
Fulmineus Mnestheus. Tum toto corpore sudor

810

cusse

NOTES.

is a bitter sarcasm. It implies that they had 794. Acerbà : an adj. neu. plu. taken as already fled into their camp, and shut them- an adverb. This is common among the selves up through fear, within their in- poets.

Tuens, a part. of tueor: looking trenchments. Tenditis : in the sense of fiercely. ibilis.

795. Tendere contrà: to go forward. 784. Aggeribus : in the sense of muris.

798. Improperata : slow-deliberate. Of 785. Ediderit : in the sense of effecerit. in, negativum, and properairls, 787. Segnes: cowards. Ruæus says, 0,

800. Confusa: confused-disordered. Rio inertes. It is better to consider segnes, as æus and some others read contersa. the voc. than the acc. agreeing with vos un

801. In unum : against him alone. Coid: derstood, and governed by the verbs miseret unites. Of con, and co. and pudet. It is more animated, and more

805. Ni Turnus. A threat is intimated in the spirit of address.

or implied in the words, haud mollia mar788. Firmantur: in the sense of animan- data ; which would be put in execution tur. By these words of Mnestheus the Tro- unless Turnus retired from the Trojan walls

. jans were encouraged, and rallied; and again returned to the attack.

809. Tinnitu: ringing. Strepit: in the

sense of sonat. 790. Partem: the part of the walls which 810. Jubæ : the plumes was bounded by the river.

his helmet. These were struck from his 791. Hôc acriùs, &c. This retreat of head. Umbo. The boss or extreme part Turnus gave courage to the Trojans, who of the shield

, by synec. the whole shield began to press upon him more closely, and This is not able to withstand the blows to form a band about him with a view to the missive weapons. surround him, and take him prisoner. 792. Turba: a company of hunters.

The Trojane, with Mnestheus at their head.

812. Fulmineus: in the sense of ardent

or feathers in

Liquitur, et piceum, nec respirare potestas,
Flumen agit : fessos quatit æger anhelitus artus,
T'um demùm præceps saltu sese omnibus armis
In fluvium dedit. Ille suo cum gurgite flavo
Accepit venientem, ac mollibus extulit undis ;
Et lætum sociis ablutâ cæde remisit.

813. Nec est potestas illi respirare

816. Ille fluvius acce815

pit eum venientem cum suo flavo gurgite, ac extulit eum mollibus undis; et remisit eum lætum so ciis, cæde abluta.

NOTES.

attack Turnus with such fury that he is with dust, which would adhere to his body, unable to maintain his ground. His solid it became tough and clammy like pitch, and armor of brass is bruised and shattered by nearly of a similar color. Æger anhelitus. the heavy stones hurled at him; his plumes This is such a difficulty of breathing as they fall from his head; his trusty shield begins have, who are sickly, and asthmatic. to give way; and the enemy to repeat their 816. Ille suo gurgite. This is extremely strokes with redoubled fury, with darts and beautiful. The poet represents the river spears. In this situation, worn out with god, expanding his gulfy bosom to receive fatigue, and panting for breath, he flings Turnus, and bearing him off in safety upon himself into the Tiber, and returns in safety his waves.

818. Cæde aòlutả : the blood being washed 814. Agit piceum flumen : pours a black off. Not the bloud from any wounds he had pitchy stream. Turnus sweat so copiously received; but from those wounds which he that it fell from him in a stream. Mingled had inflicted.

to his camp

QUESTIONS.

Bage?

How is this book distinguished from all At the conclusion, what does he recomthe rest?

mend to his men?
What does Turnus in the mean time? When does he resolve to attack the camp
Does he attempt to burn the Trojan ships of the Trojans?
What becomes of them ?

What orders does he give to be observed At whose particular request was this during the night? granted to them?

What is the condition of the Trojans ?
What does Dr. Trapp observe of this pas- What do they in the mean time?

Is there any proposition made to recall
Does he consider it a blemish to the book? Æneas?
By whom is Turnus roused to arms? By whom was it måde?

To what does the poet compare the Who were Nisus and Euryalus? marching of his troops ?

Had any mention been made of their Where does the Ganges empty?

friendship before?
What is its.length?

In what book?
What course does it run?

And upon what occasion ? In what light is it considered by those What is the character of this episode? who live near it?

How many lines does it occupy?
Where does the Nile rise ?

In what state does the poet represent the
Where does it empty?

Rutulian camp during the night?
And by how many mouths?

Which of the two friends is the elder?
What effect has it upon the fertility of Do they pass peaceably through the ene-
Egypt?

my's camp?
What occasions its inundations ?

What then did they do?
Is this a fine comparison ?

How long did they continue the slaugh-
Having failed to burn the fleet, what ter
course does Turnus determine to pursue ? Did they both make their escape from

Was there any prodigy in the heavens at the camp? this time?

What prevented Euryalus from accompaWhat was that prodigy?

nying Nisus ? What effect had it upon the Trojans? By whom was he taken prisoner? What effect had it upon the Rutulians ? Who commanded this troop of horse?

Did Turnus make an address to his men Where was Nisus during these transacupon the occasion?

tions ? What effect had it upon them?

When he perceived his friend to be missWhat is the character of that speech? ing, what course did he pursuo?

Having found him in the hands of the

What was the character of this assault?

Were the enemy repulsed in this attack? enemy, what did he do? Whom did he kill?

What feats of valor did Turnus perform? What effect had this upon the mind of

What effect had the burning of the tower Volscens:

upon the Trojans ? By whom was Euryalus slain ?

By whom was it set on fire ? When he found he was about to be killed, After this, was the assault renewed? did Nisus discover himself?

Was any part of the Trojans, at this Did he make any appeal to the enemy time, without the ramparts? upon this occasion ?

Were they able to defend themselves? What was his object in doing this ?

What did the sentinels at the gates do in Unable to save his lifo, what resolution this crisis ? did he take?

Why did they open the gates? Whom did he kill?

Who were stationed as guard at the gates? Was he slain himself also ?

What was their stature and strength? What is the character of this episode? Did Turnus enter along with the fugiIs it objectionable in any respect? tives?

What are the principal grounds of objec- Was he perceived at the time? tion?

Was the gate closed immediately on his At the return of day, what does Turnus do? entrance ?

In what way did the Trojans learn of the What feats of valor does he here perform? death of Nisus and Euryalus?

Whom does he first kill? What effect had the news upon the mo- i Are the Trojans able to stand before him? ther of Euryalus?

What remark does the poet make after How was she employed at that time? the admission of Turnus, and the closing of

What effect had the sight of his head upon the gate? her?

How does the poet account for this want In what light may her lamentation be of thought in the hero ? considered?

By whom are the Trojans finally rallied, What is the character of this sequel ? and brought again to the attack?

Who among the ancients is said to have What becomes of Turnus. greatly admired it?

How does he escape from them? By what troops was the assault com- Did he receive any injury from the host menced ?

of weapons sent at him? What do you mean by the testudo, or tar- By whom was Tumus assisted in his get defence

mighty achievements ? On what occasion was that used ?

Did he return in safety to his troops?

LIBER DECIMUS.

JUPITER calls a council of the gods, and forbids them to assist either side. On this occa

sion, Venus makes a very pathetic speech in favor of the Trojans, and entreats Jupiter to interfere in their favor, and not to suffer them to be entirely destroyed. Juno replies in a strain haughty and imperious, and attributes their misfortunes io their own folly and misconduct, and particularly to the conduct of Paris in tho, case of Helen; and insinuates that Æneas was playing the same game at the court of Latinus. Jupiter concludes their deliberations by a speech, in which he declares he will assist neither party, that success or disaster should attend their

own actions. As soon as Æneas had concluded a treaty with the Tuscans, he hastens his retum, accompanied by his allies. On his way he is met by a choir of nymphs: one of whom informs

him of the transformation of his ships, of the attack of Turnus upon his camp, of the great slaughter he had made, and the distress to which his friends were reduced. When he arrives in sight of his camp, the Trojans shout for joy; and Turnus resolves to prevent their landing. Leaving a sufficient number to besiege the camp, he marches with the rest of his forces to the shore. Æneas divided his troops into three divisions, and, in that order, effected a landing. Here a general engagement commences, and Æneas performs prodigies of valor. The Arcadians were routed by the Latins. When Pallas perceives them give way, he hastens along the ranks, animates his men, and brings them again to the charge. Here he performs feats of valor. Lausus, who commanded one wing of the Latins, opposed him with equal skill and valor. Arcadian, Tuscan, and Trojan, fell before him.

In the mean time, Turnus, informed of the havoc made by Pallas, determines to attack

him in person. He proceeds against the youthful warrior, who, undaunted, meets him

with strength and arms unequal. After the death of Palias, a great slaughter of the Trojans ensues. Æneas, in an other

part of the line, informed of the death of Pallas and the slaughter of his troops, immediately sets out in search of Turuus. In his way he kills a great number, and puts to flight whole ranks. Venus assists the Trojans, and Juno intercedes with her husband to favor the Latins; but to no purpose. However, he permits her to bear away Turnus from the fight, and save him from the vengeance of Æneas. The goddess instantly repairing to the field of battle, assumed the shape and attire of Æneas; and, by a device of hers, conducted Turnus from the fight. As soon as he was out of danger, the phantom vanished. Discovering the deception, the hero becomes frantic with rage and

disappointment. Mezentius succeeds Turnus in command, and makes head against the Trojans. The

fight is renewed with great fury, and ho performs feats of valor. Victory, for a time, seems equally poised. Æneas beholds him thundering along the ranks, prostrating all who stand before him; and resolves to meet him. Mezentius throws a spear, which, glancing from the shield Æneas, kills Antores, who had been the companion of Hercules. The spear of Æneas wounds him in turn, but not mortally. In this situation, Lausus succors his father, and, flinging himself between the combatants, affords him an opportunity to retire, and, in the pious duty, loses his own life. He retires to the river, and washes his wound. All his anxiety is for his son, his affectionate, his dutiful Lau

Messenger after messenger he sends to recall him from the fight. But when he learns his death, he resolves to return to fall by the hand of Æneas, or to bear off his spoils. For this purpose, he mounts his faithful courser, arms himself, and rushes into the field, seeking the victor. The book concludes with the death of Mezentius.

PANDITUR intereà domus omnipotentis Olympi : Conciliumque vocat Divům pater atque hominum rex Sideream in sedem ; terras unde arduus omnes, Castraque Dardanidûm aspectat, populosque Latinos. Considunt tectis bipatentibus. Incipit ipse :

5

5. Superi considunt Cælicolæ magni, quianam sententia vobis

tectis bipatentibus. Juo Versa retrò ? tantùmque animis certatis iniquis ?

piter ipse incipit sic Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris :

9. Qur est hæc dis

cordia contra meum vetiQuæ contra vetitum discordia ? quis metus, aut hos,

tum? Quis metus suasit Aut hos arma sequi, ferrumque lacessere suasit? 10

aut hos llalos, aut hos Adveniet justum pugnæ, ne accersite, tempus,

Teucros sequi

sus.

NOTES.

1. Olympi. Olympus is a very high moun- mentioned by the poet before. On the contain in the confines of Thessaly and Mace- trary, Jove had declared that Æneas should donia, whose summit is above the clouds. carry on a great war in Italy, bellum inHence the poets made it the residence of gens geret Italia. Æn. i. 263. It is probaJove. Here they assigned him a sumptu. ble that the poet would have corrected this ous palace. The epithet omnipotens is added passage, if he had lived to reviso this part of by way of eminence; that being the pro- his works. per epithet of Jove, who had there his re- 10. Lacessere: in the sense of commovere, sidence. The poet here imitates Homer, says Ruæus. Suasit : in the sense of imIliad, lib, viii.

pulit. Arma : by meton. for bellum. 4. Aspectat : in the sense of despicit. Ara 11. Adveniet justum : the proper time for duus : in the sense of sublimis.

war will arrive, &c. Jove declares in coun. 5. Biparentibus : opening both ways, to cil that the Italians had engaged in the the right and left.

war against the Trojans, contrary to his 6. Cælicolæ : in the sense of Superi. Qui- wish and inclination; that it was his desire anam: in the sense of cur. The meaning Italy should open its bosom, and receive is: why have ye changed your purpose of them in friendship and amity. But do not, assisting neither party? Why do ye con- ye gods, infer hence that I wish they should tend with so inuch animosity? and disre- always escape the calamitics of war. The gard my prohibition that the Italians should time will come in its proper season, nor do not oppose the Trojans?

ye hasten it, when warlike Carthage shall 8. Abnuernm : I had forbidden the Italian bring a great destruction upon the Roman nations, &c. This prohibition had not been towers. Then you may indulge your ani.

Cùm fera Carthago Romanis arcibus olim
Exitium magnum, atque Alpes immittet apertas.
Tum certare odiis, tum res rapuisse licebit.

Nunc sinite, et placitum læti componite fædus. 15 16. Jupiter dixit hæc Jupiter hæc paucis: at non Venus aurea contrà paucis verbis.

Pauca refert:

O pater, ô hominum Divûmque æterna potestas !
19. Quid aliud numen (Namque aliud quid sit, quod jam implorare queamus ?)
sit, quod

Černis ut insultent Rutuli ? Turnusque feratur 20
Per medios insignis equis, tumidusque secundo
Marte ruat? non clausa tegunt jam mænia Teucros :
Quin intra portas, atque ipsis prælia miscent

Aggeribus murorum, et inundant sanguine fosse. 25. Æneas ignarus Æneas ignarus abest. Nunquamne levari

25 harum rerum abest,

Obsidione sines? muris iterum imminet hostis
Nascentis Trojæ, nec non exercitus alter :
Atque iterum in Teucros Ætolis surgit ab Arpis

8 D .

NOTES.

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mosities, then you may foinent discord; but 12. Fera: warlike-fierce.
now cultivate harmony, and practice good 13. Apertas Alpes. Scaliger thinks per is
will toward each other. Carthage was the to be supplied ; meaning that the Carthagi-
most powerful rival of Rome. It was a nians marched through or over the Alps.
very flourishing and commercial state. The This to be sure is the true meaning: but
interests of the two nations soon began to the construction will not bear it. We must
interfere, and a war broke out between not throw away the atque. Both Dr. Trapp
them. A naval battle was fought off Sicily, and Ruæus understand the people of the
in which the Carthaginians were victorious; Alps, whom Hannibal took with him. I can
but the Romans had the advantage by land. hardly think this to be the meaning. The
A peace was concluded very much to the expression is highly figurative and poetical.
disadvantage of the former. The Cartha. It represents Hannibal and his army pour-
ginians gave up all the islands between ing through the passages of the Alps, as if
Africa and Italy, and agreed to pay 2,200 the mountains theinscives were mored or
talents annually, for twenty years, to the sent against Rome.
Romans. This took place in the year of 14. Tum licebit, &c. The gods are here
Rome 513. Twenty-four years after this, a represented as divided and split into factions
second war broke out between the two rival and parties. To calm their dissentions

, Jore
powers. Hannibal was commander-in-chief tells them a time will come when they may
of the Carthaginians. He led his army indulge their passions, and plunder and
into Spain, which he subjugated as far as commit acts of violence. Dr. Trapp thinks
the Iberus. He thence passed over the Alps the words licebit, &c. refer to the Trojans
into Italy, where he defeated the Romans in and Latins, on account of whom the gods
several engagements, with great slaughter, were split into factions. It is common for
and filled Rome itself with fear and conster writers, especially the poets, to ascribe the
nation; and if he had marched directly to evil actions of men to the gods, under whose
Rome, it would, in all probability, have fallen influence they were supposed to act. Res:
before his victorious arms. In this juncture the Roman state. Ruæus says, Trojanas res.
of affairs, Fabius Maximus was made dic- 15. Sinite : be quiet-permit it to be so.
tator ; who, by his prudent measures, and, Componile : in the sense of facile, vel conci-
above all, by his declining a general engage- liate. Placilum : in the sense of destinatum.
munt, and protracting the war, in some Quod placet mihi, says Ruæus.
ineasure, recovered the Roman affairs. In

22. Tegunt: protect-defend. the mean time, Scipio was sent into Africa 23. Miscent : in the scnse of committunt. to attack Carthage. Hannibal was recalled 24. Ipsis aggeribus : on the very ramparts to defend his country. The Romans, how- of the walls. ever, were victorious, and Carthage became 27. Nee non : in the sense of quoque, vel tributary. The intrepid Hannibal saved his etiam. Imminel : presses upon-besieges. life by fleeing his country. This war lasted Ruæus says, instal. seventeen years. In the third Punic war, 28. Ætolis Arpis. Arpi was a city of as it was called, Carthage was utterly ra- Apulia. It is called Ætolian from Etolia

, sed, under the younger Scipio, in the year of the country of Diomede, who led a colony Rome 608.

into that part of Italy, and founded Arpi.

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