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cere se

Diceret : Hæc mea sunt ; veteres migrate coloni.

2. Nos vivi perveniNunc victi, tristes, quoniam fors omnia versat,

5 mus miseria, ut ad

vena possessor Hos illi (quod nec benè vertat) mittimus hædos.

4. Hæc arva sunt mea; Ly. Certè equidem audieram, quâ se subducere colles

vos, O veteres coloni, Incipiunt, mollique jugum demittere clivo,

7. Certè equidem auUsque ad aquam et veteris jam fracta cacumina fagi, dieram vestrum DomiOmnia carminibus vestrum servâsse Menalcan. 10 num Menalcan servâsse

sibi omnia arva suis carMe. Audieras, et fama fuit: sed carmina tantùm

minibus ab eo loco, quà Nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantùm colles incipiunt subduChaonias dicunt, aquilâ veniente, columbas, Quòd nisi me quacumque novas incidere lites

11. Audieras illud, et Antè sinistra cavâ monuisset ab ilice cornix ; 15 lalis fuit fama

13. Columbas valere Nec tuus hic Meris, nec viveret ipse Menalcas.

14. Quòd nisi sinistra Ly. Heu! cadit in quemquam tantum scelus? heu tua cornix monuisset me Penè simul tecum solatia rapta, Menalca ! [nobis antè ab ilice cava inciQuis caneret Nymphas ? quis humum florentibus herbis dere

20 Spargeret ? aut viridi fontes induceret umbrâ ?

18. Heu tua solatia

rapta sunt penè nobis Vel quæ sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper,

simul tecum Cum te ad delicias ferres Amaryllida nostras ?

21. Vel quis caneret * Tityre, dum redeo, brevis est via, pasce capellas : carmina, quæ tacitus “ Et potum pastas age, Tityre, et inter agendum

23. Quorum versuum “ Occursare capro, cornu ferit ille, caveto.”

25

hoc est fragmentum : 0

Tityre, pasce Me. Immò hæc, quæ Varo, necdum perfecta, canebat. 26. Immo potius quis Vare, tuum nomen (superet modò Mantua nobis, caneret hæccarmina, quæ

ille Menalcas

NOTES. 3. Agelli : a noun diminutive from ager : 14. Incidere novas lites, &c. To break off a little farm.

my new disputes in any way whatever. 5. Fors: in the sense of forluna. Lis, is properly an action or case at law. 6. Quod nec benè vertat : which (present 15. Sinistra : ill-boding. See Ecl. 1. 18. of the kids,) I wish may not turn out well 16. Hic tuus Mæris. It appears from this to him. The usual mode of congratulation that the life of Virgil, who is here called upon receiving a favor was: Benè vertal, Menalcas, and that of Meris, had been in I wish you joy-may it turn out well to you. danger from the new landlord. nec benè vertat, therefore, was a kind of im- 17. Heu, tantum scelus, &c. Alas! that so precation: may it prove a mischief to you. great wickedness should fall upon any one.

7. Subducere se: to decline-to fall. Or the words may be rendered thus; Alas!

8. Demittere jugum: to lower their ridge, that so great wickedness should come into or top, by an easy descent. Here we have any one's mind :—that any one should cona description of the farm of Virgil. It was ceive the idea of perpetrating the horrid bounded on one side by a ping hill; in deed of murder. This is the usual sense other parts of its limits, were the broken given to the words. top of an old beech-tree, a marsh, and the 18. Heu, lua solatia, &c. Alas, Menalcas, river Mincius.

your delight (the delight of your song,) was 9. Ad aquam: perhaps the river Mincius. almost snatched from us with yourself: and

13. Aquilâ veniente: the eagle coming upon if you had been quite slain, in that case, them-pursuing them. Here we have a who would have sung the nymphs, &c. Heyne beautiful circumlocution, expressing the in- observes that by solatia we are to underutility of his verses, and the charms of po- stand the song, carmina, or verses of Menal. etry, amidst martial arms. Chaonias : an adj. from Chaonia, a part of Epirus, where 21. Sublegi : I purloined from you. Ruwas the city Dodona, and a grove of the æus says, surripui. same name, famous for its oracular oaks. 22. Nostras delicias : for nostram amicam. Columbas: two doves endued with a pro- Delicic is used only in the plural; delight phetic spirit are said to have resided among darling : here a mistress. these oaks. Afterward one of them is said 24. Age pastas : drive them full fed to to have flown to the temple of Apollo at drink. Potum : sup. in um, to drink-take Delphi, and the other to the temple of Jupi- water. Inter agendum: in driving themter Ammon in Africa. They are here put while driving them, beware, &c. for deves in general.

26. Varo: to Varus. See Ecl. 6. 7.

cas.

27. Quorum hoc est “ Mantua, væ miseræ nimiùm vicina Cremonæ !)
fragmentum: O Vare, Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni.”
cantantes cycni ferent
tuum nomen

Ly. Sic tua Cyrneas fugiant examina taxos, 30
Sic cytiso pastæ distentent ubera vaccæ :
Incipe, si quid habes : et me fecere poëtam

Pierides : sunt et mihi carmina : me quoque dicunt
34. Ego sum non cre- Vatem pastores, sed non ego credulus illis.
dulus illis.

Nam neque adhuc Varo videor, nec dicere Cinna 35 35. Nam adhuc videor

Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores. mihi dicere carmina dig

Me. Id quidem ago, et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse vona neque

38. Nunc recordor frag- Si valeam meminisse : neque est ignobile carmen. [luto, mentum ejus : ades huc, “ Huc ades, ô Galatea : quis est nam ludus in undis ? O Galatea:

“ Hic ver purpureum ; varios hìc flumina circùm 40 66 Fundit humus flores : hìc candida populus antro

“ Imminet, et lentæ texunt umbracula vites. 43. Sine ut insani “ Huc ades; insani feriant sine litora fluctus." 44. Quæ carmina au

LY. Quid, quæ te purâ solum sub nocte canentem dieram te solum canen- Audieram ? numeros memini, si verba tenerem. 45 tem sub pura nocte

Me. “ Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus?
Eoce, Dionæi processit Cæsaris astrum :

NOTES. 28. Cremona. Cremona was a city on ipse voluto : I am thinking silently with mythe western bank of the river Po, not far self, if I can recollect it. Voluto : I am refrom Mantua. Its inhabitants were in- volving it in my mind. volved in the same misfortune with those of 39. Quisnam ludus : what sport is there Mantua, in having their property and lands in the waves? The parts of the word are taken from them by Augustus. Hence the separated by Tmesis. Nothing can be more epithet misere.

beautiful than the whole of this fragment. 29. Cycni : properly swans. By meton. It is in imitation of the eleventh Idyl of poets. The meaning of this fragment is, Theocritus. that if Mantua should be preserved from the 40. Purpureum : blooming-gay. Est is calamity which had befallen Cremona, to be supplied. through the influence of Varus, the Man- 41. Fundit : in the sense of producit. tuan poets would celebrate his praises and 42. Texunt: in the sense of efficiunt. raise his name to the stars. By Cantantes Umbracula: a dim. noun from umbra, a litcycni, says Heyne, we are to understand the tle, or pleasant shade. Mantuan poets.

43. Insani : raging-stormy. 30. Cyrneas; an adj. from Cyrnus, an 44. Quid: in the sense of cur island in the Mediterranean sea. Hodie 45. Mimini numeros: I recollect the tune; Corsica. This island abounded in the yew- if I knew the words, I would sing them. tree : hence the epithet Cyrnean. The ho- These last, or some other of the like import, ney made of this tree was of a bitter quali- are evidently implied. Or else we must take ty, and universally considered bad. For si in the sense of Utimam; I wish-0 that. this reason Lycidas wished the swarms of 46. Suspicis: in the sense of miraris. his friend to shun those trees. Examina : 47. Astrum. This word properly signifies swarms of bees.

a constellation of stars. The poet uses it 32. Poetam: a poet. Vatem : a poet, or here for a single star, thereby giving the prophet. These words are frequently used greater dignity to the star of Cæsar. Viras synonymous, but they are not strictly so. gil makes lülus the son of Æneas, the founder

35. Cinna. Cornelius Cinna, the grande of the Julian family. Tülus was the grandson of Pompoy the Great. He became a son of Venus, who according to some was favorite of Augustus.

the daughter of Dione, a nymph of the sea, 36. Digna : things worthy of: or it may by Jupiter. Hence the epithet Dionæan. agree with carmina, understood; verses About the time of Julius Cæsar's death, it is worthy of the attention of Varus and Cin- said a remarkable comet appeared, which na; or worthy to celebrate their actions. the Romans considered to be the soul of strepere anser : to gabble as a gooso among Cæsar received up to heaven. The poet tuneful swans—to make inharmonious calls it the star of Cæsar, agreeable to the sounds, &c.

vulgar notion. This comet, according to 37. Ago: in the sense of facio. Tacitus Dr. Halley, appeared the third time in

" Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo " Duceret apricis in collibus uva colorem. " Insere, Daphni, pirus, carpent tua poma nepotes.” 50 Omnia fert ætas, animum quoque. Sæpe ego longos 51. Ego momini mo Cantando puerum memini me condere soles.

puerum sæpe condere Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina : vox quoque Mærim Jam fugit ipsa : lupi Mærim vidêre priores. Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi sæpe Menalcas. 55 55. Ista carmina tibi Ly. Causando nostros in longum ducis amores :

sæpe satis Et nunc omne tibi stratum silet æquor, et omnes

56. Longum tempus (Aspice) ventosi ceciderunt murmuris auræ. Hinc adeò media est nobis via : namque sepulchrum Incipit apparere Bianoris : hic, ubi densas

60

62. Tamen veniemus Agricolæ stringunt frondes; hìc, Meri, canamus :

opportune Hic hædos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem :

63. Antè quàm perveAut si, nox pluviam ne colligat ante, veremur :

nerimus ad eam, licet Cantantes licet usque (minùs via lædet) eamus.

nobis ut eamus usque Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo.

65
cantantes.

66. Desine loqui plura Me. Desine plura, puer : et quod nunc instat, agamus. verba Carmina tum meliùs, cùm venerit ipse, canemus.

67. Cùm Menalcas ipse

NOTES.

eus.

1680. In its nearest approach to the sun, level surface of the water, is still for you. its tail was about 60 degrees long. Pro- Stratum : smooth-level. To consider stracessit; moves along-hath begun its course. tum as expressing the tranquillity of the

48. Quo segeles, &c. Under which (by the water is mere tautology: that is sufficiently influence of which) the fields shall rejoice expressed by silet. Æquor any plain or with com. Or, the crops shall abound in level surface, whether land or water; here, grain; taking segetes for the stalks or spring, probably, the river Mincius. Omnes auræ, ing corn. Gauderent, by enallage for gaude- &c. Every breeze of whispering wind hath bunt. Sała abundabunt frumento, says Ru- ceased. Ventosi murmuris : in the sense of

murmurantis venti. 49. Uva duceret colorem: shall take co- 59. Adeò: only-surely. lor-grow ripe. Duceret : for ducet, by 60. Sepulchrum Bianoris : the tomb of enallage.

Bianor. He was said to be the son of the 50. Insere piros: plant or graft your perr- river Tiber and the nymph Manto. He trees. The star of Cæsar shall extend its founded, or rather cnlarged Mantua, and influence to them. They will grow and called it after the name of his mother. See flourish; and if you should not live to reap Æn. 10. 198. His tomb was placed by the the fruit of your labor yourself, be assured side of the way. your offspring will. Piros may be put for 61. Stringunt : prune, or lop off the thick fruit trees in general: the species for the boughs. genus.

62. Urbem. The city Mantua. Depone 51. Ætas : in the sense of tempus. Ani- hædos : lay down your kids. He was promum: in the sense of memoriam.

bably carrying them upon his shoulders. 52. Condere longos Soles : to pass or spend Let us stay here awhile and amuse ourlong days in singing. Sol is often taken for selves in singing: we shall, nevertheless, the day, as Luna is for the night. See Æn. arrive in town in good time. 2. 255.

64. Usque : all the way—all the time. 54. Lupi priores: the wolves first have Lædel : in the sense of fatigabit. seen Mæris. He hath lost his voice-he can. 65. Levabo te, &c. I will ease you of this not sing. Alluding to a superstitious notion burden-load: to wit, the kids, which he that if a wolf saw a man the first, he would was carrying to town for his new landlord. lose his voice.

See verse 6, supra. 55. Rrferet : in the sense of recitabil. 66. Puer : swain. It is applied to shep

56.Causando : by framing excuses. From herds in general. the verb causor. Ducis : you put off-defer. 67. Cùm ipse, &c. It is probable that Vir. Amores : pleasure-entertainment. gil composed this Eclogue when he was at 57. Omne stratum æquor, &c. The whole Rome.

QUESTIONS.

To whom did the estate of Virgil fall in What is the distinction between poela, the distribution of the Mantuan lands? and Vates?

Did he receive any hard treatment from What remarkablo appearance was obArius? How did he save his life? What served in the heavens about the time of Juwas the name of his steward? Who is Ly- lius Cæsar's death cidas supposed to be? When does the pas- What does the poet call it? toral open ? Where is the scene laid? What When did it appear the third time? is the time of the day? What is the subject Who was Bianor? What did he do? of this pastoral? What is the character of it?

ECLOGA DECIMA.

GALLUS.

The supject ot this fine pastoral is the love of Gallus for Lycoris, who refused his ad

dresses, and gave her affections to an officer. This Gallus was a particular friend of Virgil, and was an excellent poet. He raised himself from a humble station to great favor with Augustus, who appointed him governor of Egypt after the death of Anthony

and Cleopatra. The scene of the pastoral is laid in Arcadia, whither the poet supposes bis friend to have

retired in the height of his passion. Here all the rural deities assemble around him, inquire the cause of his grief, and endeavor to moderate it. This Eclogue is not surpassed by any of the preceding, except the fourth, in beauty and grandeur. Ilere, too, Virgil imitates Theocritus, particularly in his first Idyl. By Lycoris is mcant Cytheris, a most beautiful woman, and celebrated ac ss.

EXTREMUM huic, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem.
2. Pauca carmina sunt Pauca meo Gallo, sed quæ legat ipsa Lycoris,
dicenda

Carmina sunt dicenda : neget quis carmina Gallo?
Sic tibi, cùm fluctus subter labêre Sicanos,
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam.

5
Incipe, sollicitos Galli dicamus amores,

NOTES.

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1. Arethusa. A nymph of great beauty, he begat the nymphs called Nereïdes ; here tho daughter of Nerous and Doris. Also, a put by meton. for the sea, whose water is fountain on the island Ortygia, in the bay salt and of an unpleasant inste ; which the of Syracuse, upon which stood a part of the poet prays may not be mingled with the sweet city. Syracuse was famous for its being and pleasant waters of the fountainArethusa, the birth place of Theocritus and Archime in its passage under the Sicilian sea. Sec des; and for its valiant defence against the Æn, iii. 694 and 6. Alpheus, a river of the Roman fleet and army under Marcellus. It Peloponnesus, is said to have been in love was taken after a siege of three years. with the nymph Arethusa, who, flying from Concede, &c. Grant me this last work him, was turned by Diana into a fountain. favor me in the execution of this my last She made her escape under the sea, to the pastoral essay. The reason that the poet island Ortygia, where she rose up. But Alinvoked this ph is, that she was the pheus pursuing her by the same way, arose goddess of a fountain of that name, in the up in the same fountain, mingling his waters place where Theocritus was born, and whero with hers. Undam : in the sense of aquam. pastorał poetry was much cultivated.

6. Galli. There were several persons by 4. Tibi : with thee—with thy water. the name of Gallus. The one here meant

5. Amara Doris. Doris, a nymph of the is Publius Cornelius Gallus. He raised sea, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, himself by his extraordinary merit to great and married to her brother Nereus, of whom favor with Augustus, who appointed him

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Dum tenera attondent simæ virgulta capellæ.
Non canimus surdis, respondent omnia sylvæ.
Quæ nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puellæ
Naiades, indigno cùm Gallus amore periret?
Nam neque Parnassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi
l'la moram fecere, neque Aonia Aganippe.
Illum etiam lauri, illum etiam flevere myricæ.
Pinifer illum etiam solâ sub rupe jacentem
Mænalus, et gelidi fleverunt saxa Lycæi.
Stant et oves circùm, nostrî nec pænitet illas :
Nec te pæniteat pecoris, divine poëta.
Et formosus oves ad flumina pavit Adonis.
Venit et upilio, tardi venêre bubulci :
Cridus hybernâ venit de glande Menalcas.
Omnes, unde amor iste, rogant, tibi ? Venit Apollo.
Galle, quid insanis ? inquit: tua cura Lycoris,
Perque nives alium, perque horrida castra secuta est.
Venit et agresti capitis Sylvanus honore,

10

11. Nam neque ulla juga Parnassi, nam neque ulla juga Pindi, ne. que fons, Aonia Aga.

nippe, fecere ullam mo. 15 ram vobis. Etiam laur.

fleverunt illum

e? do?

20

21. Unde est iste amor tibi, O Galle

NOTES.

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7. Sima: flat-nosed.

back our song,

governor of Egypt after the death of An- 15. Mænalus. A mountain in Arcadia, tony and Cleopatra. His prince, however, celebrated for its pines. Lycui. Lycæus, for some cause or other, conceiving a violent a mountain of the same country, noted for enmity against him, sent hiin into banish- its rocks and snows; hence the epithet gement; which sentence was ratified by the lidi. The whole of this passage is very senate. This cruel and undeserved treat- fine. It contains a reproof to the nymphs for ment had such an effect upon his mind, not assisting in alleviating the grief of Gallus. that he killed himself. After his death,

16. Stant et oves, &c. His flocks too stand Augustus lamented his own severity and around him-nor are they ashamed of him that of the senate toward so worthy a man,

-nor do they disregard his grief. Gallus Gallus was a great friend of Virgil, and is represented under the character of a swain, highly esteemed by Pollio and Cicero. He feeding his sheep on the mountains of Arwas a poet as well as statesman and soldier. cadia. Nostri: our friend-Gallus. It is said he wrote four book of elegies to

18. Adonis. He was the son of Cinyras, Cytheris

, whom Virgil calls Lycoris. He king of the island of Cyprus, by his daughalso translated some part of the works of ter Myrrha. He was so beautiful, that Euphorion, a poet of Chalcis.

Venus ranked him among her favorites, and

honored him with her bed. When hunting, 3. Respondent : will answer-will echo he received a wound from a boar, of which

he died, and was greatly lamented by her. 9. Habuere vos: in the sense of detinuerunt

19. Venit et upilio : the shepherd too came, to. Nemora : properly signifies a grove or

and the slow moving herdsmen came. Ugilio, rood thinly set with trees, where hocks may for opilio, by metaphasmus. Opilio

, probafed and graze ; derived from the Greek. bly from oves, by changing the v into p. Saltu: properly a thick wood, where bushes The word et is often

used to express empha2nd fallen trees do not permit animals to sis, and has the force

of etiam or quoque, as pass without leaping; from salio. Habuere in the present case. When it has its coren in detained you from coming to console respondent et in the following member of Gallus in his grief. Puellæ : in the sense

the sentence, it is usually translated by the

et pan. Juga: in the sense of cocumina. conj

. que

, when it has its correspondent Parnassi. Parnassus was a mountain, or que, is rendered in the same way. rather range of mountains in Phocis, sacred

20. Uvidus de: wet from gathering the do the Muses. Pindi. Pindus was a range winter mast. of mountains in the confines of Epirus and Macedonia, also sacred to the Muses. Aga- gods; because he was the god of poetry.

21. Apollo. He came, the first of the nippe was the name of a fountain issuing

22. Tua cura : for tua amica. from mount Helicon in Beotia, and flowing

24. Sylvanus. He was the god of the from Aon, the son of Neptune, who reigned always bore on his head a branch of cypress.” into the river Permessus. It is called Aonian woods, and said to be the son of Mars. He

Like Pan, he was represented as half man,

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