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Dardana qui Paridis dirêxti tela manusque
59. Te duce, intravi Massylûm gentes, prætentaque Syrtibus arva : 60 tot maria obeuntia mugJam tandem Italiæ fugientis prendimus oras.
terras, gentesque Hac Trojana tenus fuerit fortuna secuta.
Massylûm penitùs re
66. Da Teucros, erRegna meis fatis, Latio considere Teucros,
rantesque Deos, agita. Errantesque Deos, agitataque numina Trojæ.
taque numina Troja Tum Phæbo et Trivia solido de marmore templa
considere in Latio, non Instituam, festosque dies de nomine Phæbi.
ego namque tuas sortes, arcanaque fata
75. Ne turbata volent Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis :
lanquam ludibria rapidis Ipsa canas, oro. Finem dedit ore loquendi.
ventis: oro ul tu ipsa At, Phæbi nondum patiens immanis in antro
canas ea ex ore.
NOTES. Paris, against the body of Achilles. It is institute a house or temple. Our language said that Achilles was killed by Paris in the will not admit of this liberty and freedom of temple of Apollo, at Troy.
expression. See'Æn. vii. 431, and Æn. viii. 57. Dirêzii : for direzisti, by syncope. 410. Some copies have constituam. 59. Penitùs repôstas : far remote.
71. Te quoque magna: a spacious sanc60. Massylům. The Massyli, a people of tuary too awaits thee in our realms. This Africa, put for the Africans in general, or alludes to the shrine or sanctuary in the for the Carthaginians in particular. See temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, where the Æn. iv.483. Prælenta: lying before. Arva: Sibylline books were kept in a stone chest the laads-country.
under ground. Fifteen persons, called Quin61. Ilalia fugientis: the nearer they ap- decemviri, were appointed to take care of proached to Italy, new obstructions arose, them, and to consult them in the affairs of which seemed to prevent access to it, as if it state. They were chosen from the Patrified from them.
cians, and had great influence in public af62. Hactenus : hitherto--thus far. It is fairs. It was a very easy matter to make separated by tmesis, for the sake of the verse. these Sibylline books speak what language Trojano fortuna : id est, adversa fortuna. they pleased.
64. Dique Deæque omnes, quibus : ye 72. Sortes: in the sense of oracula. Dicta: gods and goddesses all, to whom Ilium and in the sense of declarata, the great glory of Troy was offensive, it is 74. Ne manda: do not commit, &c. It just that you too, &c. The deities here was the custom of this Sibyl to write her meant were Juno, Minerva, and Neptuno. prophetic responses upon the leaves of the Obstitit: invisa sunt, says Heyne.
palm tree. Before the invention of parch68. Agitata numina: persecuted deities ment and paper, there was no better mate
rial for writing than the leaves and bark of 70. Instituam Phæbo: I will build to trees. Alma: 0 holy prophetess. Phæbus and Diana temples of solid marble, 77. Nordum patiens, &c. The meaning and institute festival days, &c. Here is an is this: the Sibyl was not docile and subo allusion to the Ludi Apollinares, which were missive (patiens) to Phæbus, and would not instituted in the first Punic war, and to the utter oracles according to his will, but rebuilding of a teinple to Apollo by Augustus, sisted him until he had subdued her ferocious after his victory over Anthony and Cleopa- temper and formed her to his purposes by tra, at Actium.' Heyne reads templum, alter force and restraint. Excussisse : the perf. Heinsius. The common reading is templa. in the sense of the pres. The terms here Virgil here uses the verb instituam with two used are taken from the horse and the rider. nouns, when in strict propriety it can apply The Sibyl is compared to the former; and to one of them only. We can say, instituie Apollo, breaking her and rendering her subfestivals, but it is quite another thing to say, missive and obedient to him, to ihe latter
78. Tentans, si possit Bacchatur vates, magnum si pectore possit excussissc
Excussisse Deum : tantò magis ille fatigat
Sponte suâ, vatisque ferunt responsa per auras :
86. Sed et volent se Sed non ef, venisse volent. Bella, horrida bella, non venisse eò.
Et Tybrim multo spymantem sanguine cerno.
Non Simoïs tibi, nec Xanthus, nec Dorica castra 89. Alius Achilles par- Defuerint: alius Latio jam partus Achilles, tus est tibi
Natus et ipse Deâ : nec Teucris addita Juno 90 91. Cùm in egenis re- Usquam aberit. Cùm tu supplex in rebus egenis, bus, quas gentes Italûm, Quas gentes Italûm, aut quas non oraveris urbes ? aut quas urbes, non tu
Causa mali tanti conjux iterum hospita Teucris ; supplex oraveris? Conjux hospita iterum erit Externique iterum thalami. causa tanti mali Tou: Tu ne cede malis ; sed contrà audentior ito, 95 cris; externique thalami Quà tua te fortuna sinet. Via prima salutis, iterum erunt causa.
Quod minimè reris, Graiâ pandetur ab urbe.
Talibus ex adyto dictis Cumæa Sibylla
The verb erculio is applied to the horse comparing it with the Trojan war,
warlike prince, the son of the nymph Venilia.
93. Conjux hospita. As the rape
of Helen 82. Ferunt: in the sense of emittunt. by Paris, whom she entertained in her palace
83. Defuncte: voc. Othou, having pass- at Sparta, was the cause of the Trojan war, ed through-escaped. Ruæus says, Qui so shall Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, who evasisti. Periclis: by syn. for periculis. shall receive Æneas under his hospitable roof,
84. Lavini : by apocope for Lavinii, gen. be the cause of a second war, by espousing of Lavinium, a country to the east of the Æneas after she had been promised to TurTyber, so called from the city Lavinium, nus. Thalami: in the sense of nuptie. which Æneas built. See Æn. i. 2. Some read, 96. Quà: the common reading is quàm, regna Latini, which perhaps is the best read- but of this it is difficult to make sense. It' ing: the kingdom of Latinus. . He received is not probable that the Sibyl sould advise Æneas, on his arrival, with hospitality, gave Æneas to proceed with more courage or him his daughter in marriage, and was suc- boldness than prudence dictated, or his forceeded by him in his kingdom. Heyne pre- tune permitted. To preserve the reading of fers Lavinî, and observes that it is more in quàm, Mr. Davidson renders the words quam the language of prophecy than Latini. tua, &c., “ The more that fortune shall op88. Non Simoïs tibi : neither Simois, nor
pose you;" giving to the verb sinel a turn Xanthus, nor the Grecian camp, shall be which it will by no means bear. Heyne wanting to you, &c. Here the prophetess, reads quà, taking it in the sense of qua via to prepare the mind of Æneas to meet the
et ratione, vel quantùm per fatum licebit
. worst, or rather the poet to do honor to his Heinsius and Burmannus read quàm, which hero in overcoming such powerful opposi- they take in the sense of quanlum. tion, gives a terrible representation of the 97. Graiâ urbe: this was the city Pallapwar in which he was to be engaged in Italy, teum, where Evander reigned. See Lib. 8.
gens ex Acheronte
110 hi ire ad
Horrendas canit ambages, antroque remugit,
Ut primùm cessit furor, et rabida ora quierunt;
106. Dicitur ess' hic, Dicitur, et tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso ;'
et tenebrosa palus ur-
109. Ul contingat mi-
112. Ille comitatus
est meum iter; et invaAtque omnes pelagique minas cælique ferebat
lidus ferebat omnia maInvalidus, vires ultra sortemque senectæ.
ria mecum, atque omnes
115. Quin, idem An.
chises orans dabat manNequicquam lucis Hecate præfecit Avernis.
data mihi, ut
122. Quid memorem Itque reditque viam toties. quid Thesea, magnum
Talibus orabat dictis, arasque tenebat.
99. Canit horrendas : she delivers her aw. ed his brother by an alternate death, &c. ful predictions. Ambages : (ez ambi, et ago) Castof and Pollux were twin brothers of Lemysteries, says Valpy.
da, the wife of Tyndarus, king of Sparta. 100. Ea fræna furenti : Apollo shakes Jupiter being the father of Pollux, he was those reins over her, raging, inspired,) and immortal, while Castor, being only the son turns his spurs under her breast. The meta- of Tyndarus, was subject to mortality. phor of the horse and the rider, is still con. Upon the death of Castor, his brother, out tinued.
of the great love he bore to him, obtained of 104. Mi: by apocope for mihi. Æneas Jupiter leave to share with him his immorspeaks like a man long accustomed to the tality; whereupon they lived, by turns, one calamities and misfortunes (laborum) of life, day in heaven and one in hell. and so well fortified in his mind to meet 122. Thesea : a Greek acc. He was the every vicissitude of things, that no form of son of Ægeus, king of Athens. He and Piritoil and suffering could arise, new and un- thoüs are fabled to have made a descent to expected.
hell for the purpose of liberating Proserpina, 195. Præcepi: I have anticipated all things but were seized by Pluto, who gave Piri-I have received information of all those thoüs to Cerberus to be devoured, while difficulties before.
Theseus he bound in chains, where he re107. Tenebrosa palus : the gloomy lake, mained till he was set at liberty by Hercu(arising) from the overflowing of Acheron. les. See 28, supra. The lake here is Avernus, which was fabled 123. Alciden: Hercules, so called from to arise from the overflowing of the river Alceus, his grandfather. He was the son of Acheron, a fabulous river of the infernal Jupiter and Alcmene. He is said to have regions. See Geor. iv. 4.
descended to the infernal regions, and to 111. Eripui: in the sense of sustuli. have carried off Cerberus in spito of Pluto 114. Sortem : state-condition.
himself. Mi: for mihi, by apocope, and 119. Si Orpheus potuit: if Orpheus could in the sense of meum. Mi genus : my decall back the ghost of his wife, relying upon, scent also is from Jove supreme. Æneas &c. See the story of his descent to hell. descended from Dardanus, the son of Jove. Geor. iv. 454.
He was also the son of Venus, the daughter 121. Si Pollux redemit : if Pollux redeem- of the same god. Et: in the sense of eliam
Tunc sic orsa loqui vates : Sate sanguine Divům, 125
Quòd si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido esty
Junoni infernæ dictus sacer: hunc tegit omnis
Lucus, et obscuris claudunt convallibus umbræ. 140. Non datur su- Sed non antè datur telluris operta subire,
140 bire operta loca telluris Auricomos quàm quis decerpserit arbore fætus. antè quàm quis Hoc sibi pulchra suum ferri Proserpina munus
Instituit. Primo avulso, non deficit alter
Aureus; et simili frondescit virga metallo. 145. Ergò vestiga ra- Ergò altè vestiga oculis, et ritè repertum
145 mum oculis altè, et ma- Carpe manu : namque ipse volens facilisque sequetur, nu ritè carpe eum reper. Si te fata vocant; aliter non viribus ullis
147. Vocant te ad ine Vincere, nec duro poteris convellere ferro. feros.
Prætereà jacet exanimum tibi corpus amici,
Sedibus hunc refer antè suis, et conde sepulchro 153. Deinde duc ad Duc nigras pecudes : ea prima piacula sunto. aram nigras
Sic demùm lucos Stygios, regna invia vivis
128. Revocare gradum: to return-lo re- combat with the priest of her temple, and if trace your steps; a phrase. Superas auras : he overcame him, to take his place. to this upper world—the upper regions of 138. Junoni: Proserpine. She is here light; they are so called in reference to the called Infernal Juno; as Pluto is sometimes regions below.
called Stygius Jupiter. 132. Cocytusque : and Cocytys gliding 141. Auricomos fætus : the golden bough. along with its gloomy stream, flows around Fætus: the young of any thing animate or them. Cocytus, a river in Campania in Ita- inanimate. Here, a bough, shoot, or scion. ly, but by the poets feigned to be a river in
142. Suum: in the sense of charum. hell. Sinu : in the sense of fleru.
143. Instituit: in the sense of jussit. Pri134. Innare: in the sense of navigare. Ruæus says, uno.
mo avulso : ramo is understood. For primo, Insano : vast-mighty. Ruæus says, vano.
144. Frondescit : in the sense of pullulal. 135. Accipe: in the sense of audi, vel Virga : in the sense of ramus. When one disce. 137. Ramus aureus : a bough, golden both shot forth of the same form, shape, and
bough was plucked, another immediately in its leaves and limber twig, &c. lies con- color. cealed in a shady tree. This is considered by some a mere fiction of the poet, but pro- you, if, &c.
146. Sequetur : will follow—will yield to bably it is founded on some historical fact, 148. Avellere : in the sense of ampulare er refers to some fabulous tradition, which vel cædere. it is not easy to find out. Servius thinks it 150. Incestat : defiles. Funere: in the alludes to a tree in the midst of the sacred
sense of cadavere. Consulta: advicegrove of Diana, not far from Aritia, a city counsel. of Latium, where, if a fugitive came for
151. Pendes : in the sense of hares. sanctuary, and could plack a branch from 152. Suis sedibus : to his own proper the tree, he was permitted to fight a single place to the earth.
Aspicies. Dixit; pressoque obmutuit ore.
160 Quem socium exanimem yates, quod corpus humandum 161. Quein socium Diceret. Atque illi Mişenum in litore siccoy
vates diceret este exaniUt Fenêre, vident indignâ morte peremptum
mem, quod corpus hu.
mandum esse Misenum Æoliden, quo non præstantior alter Ære cieranros, Martemque accendere cantu.
165 Hectoris hic magni fuerat comes. Hectora circum Et lituo pugnas insignis obibat et hasta.
167. Et obibat pugPostquam illum victor vità spoliavit Achilles,
nas circum Heotora, mDardanio Æneæ scse fortissimus heros
signis lituo et hastå. Addiderat socium, non inferiora secutus.
175. Circùm illum Præcipuè pius Æneas. Tum jussa SibyHx, Haud mora, festinant flentes aramque sepulchri
177. Tum flentes fesCongerere arboribụs, cæloque educere certant
tinant exsequi jussa Si
Atque hæc ipse s«o tristi cum cordé volutat, 185
NOTES. 156. Defixus lumina: a Grecism. Or, in the in use at first; before those instruments sense of figens oculos in terram, says Ruæus. came to be made of brass.
160. Serebant mulla: they made many 172. Vocat: he challenges the gods to a conjectures—they talked much, &c.
trial of music. 164. Æoliden. Misenus is here called 173. Triton æmulus: Triton envious (jcathe son of Æolus, the fabulous god of the lous of his fame) drowned in the foaming winds ; because he excelled in blowing upon waves the man taken by surprise among wind instruments. Præstantior : more ex- the rocks. Triton was the son of Neptuno pert. The verb erat is understood.
and Amphitrite. He was half man and 165. Martemque accendere cantu. This half fish; and was Neptune's trumpeter. hemistich Virgil is sajd to have added in 175. Fremebant : in the sense of lamenlathe mere heat of fancy, while he was re- bantur. citing the book before Augustus ; having
177. Aramque sepulchri: the funeral pile, left the line imperfect at first. Ærc: with so called because built in the form of an his brazen trunpet. Any thing made of altar. Ingentem pyram, says Heyne. brass may be called æs.
130. Sonat : in the sense of procumbit. Tra. 167. Lituo. The lituus was a trumpet bes: for arbores. Fissile robur: the fissile oak. not so straight as the tuba, nor so crooked as 183. Primus : chief in command-capthe cornua. It was used, for the most part, tain of the company. by the cavalry. Obibat pugnas: simply, he 184. Accingiturque, &c.: and is arrayed
with equal arms. By armis, we are to un. 170. Inferiora: in the sense of inferiorem derstand the axes, and other implements
for cutting and preparing wood for the fu. 171. Personat æquora : he makes the sea neral pile of Miserius. resound, &c. Concha. Shell trumpets were 186. Ore. This is the common reading :