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865

868. Cùm pater Æne. Difficiles quondam, multorumque ossibus albos ; as sensit ratem errare Tum rauca assiduo longè sale saxa sonabant: Auitantem, magistro a- Cùm pater amisso fluitantem errare magistro misso, et

870. O Palinure, in Sensit, et ipse ratem nocturnis rexit in undis, quit, nimiùm confise se Multa gemens, casuque animum concussus amici : reno cælo et pelago, nu. O nimiùm cælo et pelago confise sereno, dus jacebis in ignota Nudus in ignotâ, Palinure, jacebis arena. al ena.

NOTES.

870

charms, enticed men to debauchery. The adrift-to be carried here and there at the place of their residence was in the three pleasure of the winds and waves. islands called Sirenusæ, in the Sinus Pæsta- 870. O nimiùm confise: 0 Palinurus, trustnus,

in the Tyrrhene, or Tuscan sea. Their ing too much, &c. Æneas had been asleep; names were Leucosia, Ligea, and Parthe- and he speaks only by conjecture as to the nope.

cause of his misfortune, not knowing that a 865. Difficiles : dangerous on account of god had thrown him overboard. The truth the rocks and shoals. Albos ossibus : white of the case is this : Palinurus was overcome with the bones of ship-wrecked mariners.

by sleep in spite of his efforts to keep awake; 867. Assiduo sale: with a constant dash. and, in that situation, fell overboard. Some ing of the waves against the rocks.

say he was not drowned; but swam to the

Italian coast, and was there killed by the 868. Errare fluitantem: to stray, or go inhabitants. See Æn. vi. 38"

QUESTIONS. How does this book open?

What befel Nisus ? What is its nature and character?

Who was next to him? What happened to Æneas soon after he And why did not Salius obtain the prize! was out to sea ?

What was the third gamo? To what place was he forced to direct his What is the nature of the gauntlet fight? course?

Can it be practised in an improved state At what place in Sicily did he land? of society? How was he received by his friend Acestes? What did Lycurgus in regard to this kind What did Æneas do soon after his arrival of exercise ? How long had Anchises been dead? Who entered the list on the part of the Did he institute games in honor of him? Trojans in this game? How many kinds of games?

Had Dares distinguished himself in this From whom were they imitated ?

fight before? In honor of whom were Homer's games Whom had he slain on the plains of instituted ?

Troy? By whom were they instituted ?

With whom 'was he accustomed to conIn what book of the Iliad is the account tend at Troy? of them given?

Was Paris said to be superior to Hector What do you understand by carcer, when at the gauntlet? applied to races in general?

Who was the antagonist of Dares? What by meta.?

Who was Entellus ? Why is the word limen sometimes used What was his age? for the starting place?

What was the issue of the contest? What was the first game?

What was the fourth game? How many ships or galleys contended Where was the bird suspended ? for the prize?

Whose arrow cut the cord by which the Who was the first conqueror?

bird was bound? To what circumstance does the poet at- Whose arrow pierced her? tribute his victory?

Where was the bird at that moment? Who was the second victor?

Whose brother was Eurytion? Did Mnestheus make any animated ad- What is Pandarus said to have done dudress to his oarsmen?

ring the Trojan war? What did he call them?

Was he a distinguished archer? What effect had this address upon them? Is it said that he received divine honors: What was the second game?

Who last shot his arrow? Who entered the list for the prizes? What happened to it as it passed through Who took the first prize?

the air? How did it happen that Euryalus came In what light was this considered by out the first?

Æneas?

Could the soothsayers interpret the omen, What did he call it ? or prodigy, in a satisfactory manner? In the mean time, did the ghost of his

What was it afterward understood to father appear to him in a vision? point out?

What direction did it give him? What was the fifth game?

Having repaired his floet, to what placo Can you give me an account of this ca- did he direct his course? valcade?

In his voyage, did he lose his pilot over Who were the ders?

board ? How many turmæ, or companies, were How was that effected, and by whom? there?

Who were the Sirenes ?
At whose instigation was the fleet of How many in number were there?
Æneas set on fire?

What were they said to do?
Who was Iris?

How did Ulysses escape when he ap On what kind of business was she usu. proached their shores? ally employed?

What islands did they inhabit? How many suips were destroyed ?

What were they supposed to be? How was the fire finally extinguished ? What became of them at last?

What was the design of the Trojan wo- After his arrival in Italy, did Æneas fole men in burning their ships ?

low the direction of his father? Were they weary of their long voyage ? Who conducted him to the regions be

What effect had the loss of these ships low? upon the mind of Æneas ?

Who was this Sibyl! What course was he advised to pursue Where did she reside? by Nautes ?

What was the place whence she delivered Did he found a city for those who were her predictions? willing to remain in Sicily?

By what god was she inspired ?

LIBER SEXTUS.

This is one of those books which Virgil read in the presence of Augustus and Octavia.

The subject is the desceat of Æneas to the infernal regions. After his arrival in Italy, he ropaired immediately to the cave of the Sibyl, where he learned the difficulties that awaited him before his peaceful settlement. He then consults her about his intended descent. She informed him of the danger of the enterprise, and that he must, in the first place, obtain a golden bough from a certain tree which was sacred to Hecate. She then informs him that one of his friends lay dead on the shore, and directs him to perform his funeral rites, and afterward come and offer sacrifice. He returned to his companions, and found Misenus dead. Having found the golden bough, he goes to the Sibył, who conducts him down to hell. She describes to him the various scenes of those regions as they pass along, and shows him the several apartments; in one of which he sees Dido. He attempts to address her, but she turns from him in proud disdain. He then proceeds till he comes to the residence of his father ; who explains to him the nature of transmigration according to the notion of Pythagoras, and shows him the illustrious race of heroes that should descend from him. After which he returns to tho upper regions, through the ivory gate, and revisits his companions. This book is entirely episodical, and interrupts the thread of the story. It is probable that Virgil took the hint of conducting his hero to the regions of the dead, from Herculcs, Orpheus, Ulysses, and others, who had visited them before. This gave him an opportunity of elucidating the economy of those regions according to the doctrines of Pythagoras, Plato, and other philosophers; of inculcating, in the most forcible manner. principles of morality and religion ; of developing the leading incidents of Roman his

tory, and of flattering the vanity of his countrymen, and his prince. Bishop Warburton considers this book as an allegorical representation of the Eleusinian Mysteries, at one time very much celebrated through Greece. But there is a difficulty in this interpretation. A considerable portion of the book cannot be considered in that light: for it contains a biographical sketch of the principal characters, from Æneas down to the time of Augustus, and embraces the most important events connected with the Roman government. Besides, it is not certain that Virgil was ever initiated into those mysteries; and, as it were, it is doing injustice to his character to suppose he would

says he.

divulge them; when every one that was admitted, bound himself, in the most solem manner, to keep them secret, and from the knowledge of the vulgar. Heyne observes there is some resemblance between the mysteries and the machinery of the poet ; but to consider the book as an allegory, destroys the force and beauty of the whole. Per tandem omnis epica vis et poëtica suavitas, si res à poëta narrata ad allegoriam teroctar, Those who would see the substance of the arguments on both sides, may consult M'Knight on the Epistles--introduction to the epistle to the Epl ans.

SIC fatur lachrymans, classique immittit habenas :
Et tandem Euboïcis Cumarum allabitur oris.
Obvertunt pelago proras : tum dente tenaci
Anchora fundabat naves, et litora curve
Prætexunt puppes: juvenum manus emicapardens 5

Litus in Hesperium : quærit pars semina flamme,
7. Pars rapit sylvas, Abstrusa in venis silicis; pars densa ferarum
densa tecta ferarum, Tecta rapit sylvas, nventaque flumina monstrat.
monstratque

At pius Æneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 10. Immaneque all. Præsidet, horrendæque procul secreta Sibyllæ,

10 trum, secreta Sibylle Antrum immane, petit : magnam cui mentem animum que horrendæ procul; cui Delius vates inspirat

Delius inspirat vates, aperitque futura.
Jam subeunt Triviæ lucos, atque aurea tecta.

Dædalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minosa regna,
Præpetibus pennis ausus se credere cælo,

15 Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos,

NOTES. 1. Sic fatur. This refers to what he said keeps her consultors at an awful distance, in the two last lines of the preceding book. and fences the approaches to her cave with Onemiùm confise, &c. immittil: he gives Procul, O procul este, profani! full reins to his fleet. It implies that the 11. Cui magnam: whose great mind and wind was tair, and that the ships were un- soul Apollo inspires, Cui has the sense of der full sail.

cujus. Mens properly signifies the underThis is a common metaphor, taken from standing-animus, the soul. Delius vales: the horse and his rider.

Apollo. He is called Delian from Delos, 2. Euboicis : an adj. of Eubwa, an island the place of his birth. in the Ægean sea, lying to the east of 13. Trivia. Trivia, a name of Diana. Achaia; hodie, Negropont. From hence Aurea tecta. This was the temple built to Megasthenes, of the city of Chalcis, trans- Apollo by Dædalus. planted a colony into Italy, and built Cumæ, 14. Dædalus. An Athenian artist, who, a town in Campania. Hence, Euboicis oris having put to death Perdix, his sister's son, C'umarum.

for rivalling him in his art, fled to Crete : 4. Anchora fundabat : the anchor moored where he soon incurred the displeasure of the ships. Fundabat : in the sense of tene- Minos, then king of that island, for assisting bat.

his wife Pasiphaë, in carrying on her amours 5. Puppes : here used in its appropriate with Taurus : and, on that account, was sense—the sterns of the ships.

confined with his son Icarus in a tower. 6. Semina : the seeds—the sparks of fire. He escaped, however, by the help of wings.

8. Rapit : plunders the wood; for the He flew into Sicily, according to Pausanias purpose of collecting fuel. Ruæus says, col- and Diodorus ; but, according to Virgil and ligit ligna arborum. Densa tecta, &c. is put others, to Cume, where he built this temple in apposition with sylvas.

to Apollo, for conducting him safe in his 9. Arces : in the sense of templum. We flight through the airy element. are informed that a temple was built to 16. Fnavit. There is such a similitudo Apollo in this place, in the form of a cave, between sailing or swimming, and flying, that seemed to be hollowed out of a rock. that the terms which properly belong to the In the inmost part of this temple, was the one, are indiscriminately applied to the grotto, or cell, of the Sibyl.

other. A ship is said to Ay through the li40. Horrendæ procul. The avenues and quid element, and Mercury is said to swim approaches to her cell were awful and gloomy, through the air. Æn. iv. 245. And Dædafor a considerable distance. It is the pecu- lus, on wings, swam to the cold north, and liar characteristic of this Sibyl, that she consecrated remigium alarun, those wings

Chalcidicâque levis tandem superadstitit arce.
Redditus his primùm terris, tibi, Phæbe, sacravit
Remigium alarum ; posuitque immania templa.
In foribus, Tetum Androgeï: tum pendere panas
Cecropida jussi, miserum ! septena quotannis
Corpora natorum : stat ductis sortibus urna.
Contrà elata mari respondet Gnossia tellus.
Hic crudelis amor tauri, suppôstaque furto
Pasiphaë, mixtumque genus, prolesque biformis,
Minotaurus inest, Veneris monumenta nefandæ.
Hic labor ille domûs, et inextricabilis error.
Magnum reginæ sed enim miseratus amorem
Dædalus, ipse dolos tecti ambagesque resolvit,
Cæca regens filo vestigia. Tu quoque magnam
Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes.

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NOTES.

on which he had cut his way through the side arose the island of Crete-Pasaphaë, air, as oars divide the water. But what gives the wife of Minos—the Minotaur--the Laa greater propriety to these phrases, is, that byrinth, and the ingenious workmen (DæDædalus was the inventor of navigation by dalus) explaining its mysteries to Theseus; the use of sails; and that his wings were all these were in carved work. Posuit : in nothing else than the sails of the ship, in the sense of ædificavit. Pendere prenas : to which he escaped from Crete. Enavil : in make retribution or satisfaction for the the sense of adrolavit.

crime. 17. Chalcidica: an adj. from Chalcis, a 21. Cecropidæ : the Athenians so called city of Eubea. See 2. supra. Chalcidica from Cecrops, their first king. He built the arce: the city of Cuma. Here Dædalus city of Athens, and called it Cecropia. first landed in Italy; and built the temple 23. Gnossia tellus : Crete. Gnossia : an to Apollo, which Æneas is about to enter. adj. from Gnossus, a city of that isländ. It is said that he first went to Sardania, and 24. Amor tauri. Pasiphaë, the fe of from thence to Italy. Redditus : having Minos, and daughter of the Sun, was fabled arrived.

to have fallen in love with a beautiful bull, 20. Androgeï: gen. of Androgeus. He and to have gratified her passion by a conwas the son of Minos; and frequenting the trivance of Dedalus, who shut her up in a public games at Athens, contracted a friend. Wooden cow, From this unnatural conship with the sons of Pallas, brother to nexion sprang the Minotaur, a monster half Ægeus, king of Athens. Not having as yet man and half bull, that fed on human flesh; acknowledged Theseus to be his son; and and devoured the Athenian youth, whom suspecting Androgeus to have entered into a Minos shut up in the Labyrinth. The truth conspiracy with his nephew to dethrone him, of the story is this: Pasiphaë fell in love Ægeus employed assassins to take away his with a nobleman of the court, whose name life. To revenge this atrocious deed, Minos was Taurus ; and made Dedalus her confimade war upon him, and forced him to sue dant, who kept it concealed, and even lent

for peace. This was granted on the condi- his house to the lovers. Supposita furto. i . tion that he should every year, or, as others This refers to Pasiphaë's being shut up in

say, every third, or ninth year, pay a tax of the wooden cow that she might receive the seven of their young men, and as many vir- embrace of the bull—substituted through gins, who were chosen by lot as victims, for artifice or contrivance in the room of a cow. the preservation of their country. Some 26. Inesl : ' in the sense of sculptus est. say that Androgeus having been repeatedly Veneris nefanda: of execrable lust. victorious at the public games of Greece, 27. Labor domûs, &c. By these we are excited the envy and jealousy of some per- to understand the Labyrinth. See Æn. v. sons, who procured his death. However 588. the case may be, his death brought upon the 28. Miseratus magnum: Dædalus, pitying Athenians a war with Minos, his father, then the great love of the queen, discovers (to king of Crete.

Theseus) the deception and intricacies of The death of Androgcus was represented the structure, &c. Theseus, the son of on the gates or doors of the temple, the Ægeus, king of Athens, proposed to go to Athenian youth sent as an expiation for the Crete, along with the victims, to fight the barbarous deed, and the urn from which Minotaur in the Labyrinth. Ariadne, the the fatal lots were drawn. On the opposite daughter of Minos and Pasiphaë, whoni Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro.

Bis patriæ cecidêre manus. Quin protinus omnia 34. Ni Achates præ- Perlegerent oculis ; ni jam præmissus Achates missus ad Sibyllam ab Afforet ; atque unà Phæbi 'I'riviæque sacerdos, 35 Ænea, jam afforet, at. que unâ Deiphobe filia Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit

Deiphobeglauci, fatur quæ talia regi: Glauci, sacerdos

Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare juvencos

Præstiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentes. 40. Sacerdos affata Talibus affata Ænem, nec sacra morantur Æneam talibus verbis Jussa viri, Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. vocat Teucros

Excisum Euboïcæ latus ingens rupis in antrum ; 41. Ingens latus Eu. boicæ rupis excisum est Quò lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum; in

Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllæ.

Ventum erat ad limen, cùm virgo, Poscere fata 46. Cui fanti talia an- Tempus, ait : Deus, ecce, Deus ! Cui talia fanti te fores, subitò non est Ante fores, subitò non vultus, non color unus, unus vultus, non unus

Non comptæ mansêre comæ : sed pectus anhelum, color; comæ non sêre comptæ ; sed pectus Et rabie fera corda tument; majorque videri, anhelum est, et ejus fera Nec mortale sonans : aflata est numine quando 50 eorda

rabie : Jam propiore Dei. Cessas in vota precesque, cæpitque videri major Tros, ait, Ænea ? cessas ? neque enim antè dehiscent vita, nec vox ejus est 80

Attonitæ magna ora domûs. Et talia fata, nans momale.

52. Antè quàm emia Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit seris vota precesque.

Ossa tremor; fuditque preces rex pectore ab imo: 55
Phæbe, graves Trojæ semper miserate labores,

45

man

tument

NOTES.

Virgiltere calls regina, fell in love with The- rious sculpture of the temple, had not Achaseus, and taught him how to vanquish the tes, &c. Protinùs: in the sense of in ordine. Minotaur, and also gave him a clew, which Perlegerent : in the sense of perlegissent. she had received from Dædalus, whereby he 35. Aforet: in the sense of redivisset. could extricate himself from the Labyrinth. 38. Intacto : untouched by the yoke. It was agreed as a condition of the combat, 39. Bidentes : in the sense of oves. that if Theseus killed the Minotaur, the 40. Nec viri morantur: nor do the men Athenian youths should be released, and his (the Trojans) delay to perform her sacred country freed from that humiliating condi- commands concerning offering sacrifice. Sa. tion. Theseus was victorious. By the clew cerdos. The daughter of Glaucus. She was we are to understand the plan and contri- the priestess, attendant upon the Sibyl, who vance of the Labyrinth. Enim: in the was at this time in her cell or cave. Antrum. sense of equidem.

This is the same with alta templa in the pre29. Resolvit: in the sense of explicuit. ceding line. By this we are not to understand 30. Cæca: in the sense of incerta. the temple of Apollo already mentioned,

31. Icare. Icarus, as the fable goes, was but the residence of the Sibyl—ber care, the son and associate of Dædalus. He at- here called lemplum. tempted to make his escape from Crete by 45. Ventum erat : they had come to the the help of wings, but being unable to ma- entrance of the cave, when, &c. Fata: in nage them with dexterity, he wåndered from the sense of oracula. Est is understood with his way, and fell into the Ægean sea, and tempus. was drowned. “He gave name to Icarus, an 46. Ecce, Deus : behold, the god, the god island between Sarhos and Mycene.

is here--Apollo. 33. Patriæ manus cecidere. Dedalus at- 47. Subilò non vultus : suddenly her countetempted to represent the calamity (casus) of nance changes, and her color comes and goes. Icarus, but his grief and sorrow prevented 50. Quando jam afflata est : when now sbe \ him. He attempted it twice, and twice his is inspired with a nearer influence of the god hands failed; otherwise Icarus would have Apollo. Cessas : dost thou delay to go into made a distinguished figure in the carved vows and prayers? Neque: in the sense of work.

34. Perlegerent omnia : the Trojans would 57. Qui dirêrti Dardana tela : who didst have examined all the carved work and cu. direct the Trojan darts, and the hands of

non.

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