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Exigit; et, mostam dictis aggressa sororem,
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat:
Inveni, germana, viam, gratare sorori,
Quæ mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantemot
Oceani finem juxta Solemque cadentem,

Ultimus Æthiopum locus est : ubi maximus Atlas
A xem humero torquet, stellis ardentibus aptum.
Hinc mihi Massylæ gentis monstrata sacerdos,
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi.
Quæ dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 485 487. Hæc promittit so
Spargens humida mella, soporiferumque papaver.

posse solvere illas mentes, Hæc se carminibus promittit solvere mentes,

quas velit; ast immittere

duras curas aliis Quas velit; ast aliis duras immittere curas;

492. Q chara germana, Sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retrò :

testor Deos et te, tuumNocturnostne ciet Manes. Mugire videbis

490 que dulce caput, me inSub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos.

vitam accingier ad has Testor, chara, Deos et te, germana, tuumque

494. Tu secreta erige

pyram in interiore tecto Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes.

sub auras; et superimTu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras

ponas arma viri



476. Erigit: she concludes—fixes upon. whose flocks produced wool of a reddish Aggressa : in the sense of compellans. color, somewhat resembling gold, which

477. Serenat spem fronte : she brightens, Hercules plundered, having slain their keep(or clears up) hope on her countenance. She er, whose name was Draco. The Greek shows it on her countenance. Vultu : viword for sheep, signifying also apples, made sage-looks.

the poets feign that Hercules stole the apples 481. Æthiopum. Æthiopia is properly a of the Hesperides: and their keeper's name country of Africa, now called Abyssinia. being Draco, led them to pretend they were But the name was frequently applied by the kept by a dragon. Sec Ecl. vi. 61. ancients to any country lying in a warm cli- 486. Soporiferum papaver. As the dragon mate. Æthiops is compounded of two Greek was always to be awake, a question arises, words, and means a person of a tawny com- how the priestess came to feed him with plexion-one scorched by the heat of the poppy. To solve this there are several con

jectures. Some will have it that poppies 482. Aptum : fitted-adorned—bespan- mixed with honey, was his food, and had no gled with refulgent stars. See 247, supra. effect to lay him asleep. Others say it was Arem : for cælum.

to procure sleep for him at certain intervals. 483. Massylæ gentis. The Massyli or Servius thinks that the poppy, which proMasæsyli were a people between the rivers

cures sleep to men, has a contrary effect Malva and Mulucha, both of which fall into upon dragons, and keeps them awake. the Mediterranean. Hence the adj. Massy- Others again, to avoid this difficulty, make lus. Sacerdos: in the sense of saga. Mon- a full stop after ramos, connecting this line strata : was shown to me. Est is under- with the following one. Some again think stood.

it is only mentioned to show the skill of the 484. Custos templi Hesperidum. The gar- Sorceress, that she was even able to lay the dens of the Hesperides, Virgil places in Mau; wakeful dragon asleep. But as this animal ritania, near the shore of the Atlantic, and had a hundred heads, we may suppose that not far from the town of Lixus. There they kept awake and slept by turns. She are, however, various opinions respecting is said to be the keeper, custos, of the temtheir situation. The Hesperides were the ple, because she gave food to the dragon, fabled daughters of Atlas, or of Hesperus, and supported lim. his brother, and the nymph Hesperis. Their father gave thein gardens, in which were 487. Solvere mentes : to freo minds from trees producing golden apples, Hercules, a love by her magic rites (carminitys) or at the command of Eurystheus, king of My charms, cena, stole the apples, having slain the 493. Accingier invitam : that I was undragon that kept them. These apples were willing to betake myself to these magic arts. sacred to Venus.

Accingier : by paragoge, for accingi. The The truth of the matter is this : the Hes. verb here is used in the sense of the Greek perides were shepherdesses of noble birth, middle voice. It has a reflux signification.

Erige: et arma viri, thalamo quæ fixa reliquit 495
Impius, exuviasque omnes, lectumque jugalem,
Quo perii, superimponas. Abolere nefandi-

Cuncta viri monumenta jubet monstratque sacerdos. ;

Hæc effata silet: pallor simul occupat ora.

Non tamen Anna novis prætexcre funera sacris 500 501. Nec concipit tan- Germanam credit : nec tantos mente furores tos furores esse in ejus Concipit ; aut graviora timef, quàm morte Sichæi. mente ; aut timet gra. Ergò jussa parat. viora quàm quæ evenerant morte Sichæi. Ergò

At regina, pyrå penetrali in sede sub auras parat quæ jussa erant Erectå ingenti, tædis atque ilice sectâ,

505 504.

Ingenti pyrå Intenditque loeum sertis, et fronde coronat erectâ in penetrali sede Funerea : super exuviás, ensenique relictum, sub auras, è tædis atque Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri.

509. Effusa quoad Stant aræ circùm : et crines effusa sacerdos, crines

Tercentum tonat ore Deos, Erebumque, Chaosque, 510
Tergeminamque Hečaten, tria virginis ora Dianæ.
Sparserat et latices simulatos fontis Averni;
Falcibus et messæ ad Lunam quæruntur ahenis
Pubentes herbæ, nigri cuin lacte veneni.


495. Arma viri. The sword which Æne. that definite number is used for an indefinite as loft hanging in Dido's bedchamber. number. Erebum. Erebus was the son of

498. Jubet : the priestess orders and di- Chaos and Nor. For aiding the Titans in rects me to burn all the memorials of the their war against the gods, he was changed cursed man. These she had just mention- into a river, and placed in the lowest part of ed-his sword—his clothes—the bridal bed, hell. He is one of the infernal gods. Chaos. &c,

He was the most ancient of the gods, and 500. Prælexere : in the sense of celare. the father of them all, according to Hesiod.

504. Penetrali sede: in the inner court- Geor. iv. 347. middle of the palace.

511. Hecalen. Hecate is called tergemi505. Tædis. The tæda or teda was a tree nam from the circumstance of her having of a resinous nature, of which torches were threc names." In heaven she is called Luna; made. The ilex was a species of oak called on the earth Diana ; in hell Proserpina. the holm. Of these two kinds of wood the Hecate was not so properly her name, as funeral pile was constructed.

an epithet given her to denote her hundred 506. İntendit: in the sense of cingit. various qualities; or because she was ap

508. Efigiem: she places his image on peased by a hundred victims. From a Greek the bed upon his clothes and sword. word signifying a hundred. The goddess

One of the rites of magic was to prepare was painted with three heads, one of a an image of the person against whom the horse, another of a dog, and another of a enchantment was designed, either of wax or Hence tria ora virginis : the triple wool, and use it in the same manner as they form of the virgin, would have used the person himself if he 512. Sparserat: she had sprinkled the fichad been present. Or, super may be taken titious (or substituted) waters of the lake in the sense of insuper (moreover;) or su- Avernus. In performing magic rites, those per-locat may be considered a compound materials requisite to the occasion, that word in the sense of superimponit. The could not be conveniently procured, were meaning will then be, that the image, the allowed to be emblematically represented; clothes, and sword, were placed upon the as in the present case. Averni. Avernus, bed without any reference to their situation. a lake in Campania, fabled to be the en

510. Tonat ore: she thunders out with trance of hell. Its waters were of a very her voice three hundred gods. Servius in-, noxious quality, which occasioned an unforms us, that in the sacred rites of Hecate wholesome atmosphere; insomuch so, that in particular, they used to imitate thunder; it was shunned by birds of every kind. Its which gives a reason for the use of the word' name is of Greek origin. See Geor. iv. tonat. Hortensius would read sonat. We 493. are not to suppose that the priestess invoked 514. Pubentes herbæ full blown herbs, the precise number of three hundred gods cut by moonlight, are sought for. The


Quæritur et nascentis equi de fronte revuleus, 515

515. Et amor equc Et matri præreptus amor:

revulsus de fronte nas

centis equi, et præreptus Ipsa molâ manibusque piis, altaria juxta,

matri Unum exuta pedem vinclis, in veste recinctâ,

517. Dido ipsa mori'Testatur moritura Deos, et conscia fati

tura, exuta quoad unum Sidera : tum, si quod non æquo fædere amantes 520 pedein vinclis, in reCuræ numen habet justumque memorque, precatur.

cincta veste, stans justa

altaria, molt piisque Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem manibus, testatur Deos, Corpora per terras, sylvæque et sæva quiêrant

et sidera conscia fati. Equora : cùm medio volvuntur sidera lapsu :

Tum precatur numen, Cùm tacet omnis ager, pecudes, pictæque volucres, 525 si quod justumque meQuæque lacus latè liquidos, quæque aspera dumis

mosque habet amantes

junctos non æquo fædere Rura tenent, somno positæ sub nocte silenti

curæ sibi. Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum.

526. Quæque latè teAt non infelix animi Phænissa : neque unquam

nent liquidos lacus, quæSolvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem

530 que tenent rura aspera Accipit. Ingeminant curæ, rursusque resurgens

duinis, omnes positæ sub

silenti nocte lenibant cuSævit amor, magnoque irarum fluctuat æstu.

ras somno; et corda ob Sic adeò insistit, secumque ita corde volutat:

lita sunt laborum. En! quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores


dews, which were thought to distil from the it as a description of night in general; but moon upon herbs, were reckoned favorable only of a calm and serene one, in order that for magic. Those herbs, however, were to he might set off to greater advantage the be cut with brazen sickles, ahenis falcibus. opposite image of Dido's anxiety and disLacle: in the sense of succo.

quietude. And indeed nothing could give 516. Et amor revulsus : and the love (of us a more lively idea of her restless situation, the mare) torn from the forehead of a newly than thus to set it forth in opposition to the foaled colt.

The poet here means what is universal quiet and repose which reigned called the hippomanes; of which there are over all nature beside. She is so far from two kinds. See Geor. iii. 280. el sequens. partaking of the blessings of sleep with the The one here meant is very different from rest of the world, that the silence and solithe one there described. According to the tude of the night, which dispose others to account given of it by the ancients, it was rest, only feed her care, and swell the tumult a lump of flesh growing on the forehead of of her passion. the foal just brought forth, which the mare 524. Lapsu : in the sense of cursu. presently devours, or else she loses all af. 527. Tenent : in the sense of incolunt. fection for her young, and denies it suck. 528. Lenibant curas, &c. This beautiful Its being so greedily sought after by the line Heyne marks as spyrious, and conmother, is the reason of its being called her cludes the sentence at silenti. It is not love. The circumstance just mentioned gave found in some ancient MSS. rise to the vulgar opinion of its efficacy in 529. Phænissa. Dido is so called, bephiltres, love potions, and magic riles. cause she was a native of Phænicia, a coun

518. Escuta pedem. It appears from this try lying on the eastern shore of the Medipassage that Dido put herself in the habit terranean ; within the boundaries of which of a sorceress. According to Ovid, it was was the kingdom of Tyre. The words their custom to strip bare one of their feet, leniebat curas are to be supplied. and to be clad in a loose flowing robe. Ru- 530. Noctem : in the sense of quietem. æus takes recincta, in the sense of succincta ; 532. Irarum : passions—affections. Amor but in this he differs from most commenta- sævit. Here love is represented as a mighty tors. Heyne takes it in the sense of solula. sea, which had been for some time calm and

520. Non æquo fædere : by this we are to still; but now begins to rise in furious waves, understand an inequality in the love and af- and rack her soul with a variety of tumulfection of the parties--in an unequal match: tuous passions. Volulal. in the sense of where love is not reciprocated.

cogitat. 522. Nox erat. The whole of this de. 534. Rursus-ne irrisa, &c. Ruæus and scription is a most beautiful, and, at the Servius take rursus in the sense of vicissim: same time, perfect image of nature. Dr. ehall I in turn have, &c. Dido had rejected Trapp objects to it as imporfect. But it is the match of Iarbas and others; and shall to be obrerved that the poet did not design she now pay court to them, as they had

Experiar? Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535
Quos ego sum toties jam dedignata maritos ?

Iliacas igitur classes, atque ultima Teucrùm 538. Quiane jurat me Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat antè levatos, cos antè levatos fuisse Et benè apud memores veteris stat gratia facti? meo auxilio ; et gratia Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet ? ratibusque superbis 540 veteris facti

stat apud eos Invisam accipiet ? nescis heu, perdita, necdum benè memores ejus.? 540. Autem fac me

Laoinedonteæ sentis perjuria gentis ? velle sequi eos, quis Quid tum ? sola fugâ nautas comitabor ovantes ?

543. Quid tum agen. An Tyriis, omnique manu stipata meorum, dum est? ego-ne

Insequar ? et quos Sidoniâ vix urbe revelli,

545 fugâ comitabor 544. An stipata Tyriis,

Ri:rsus again pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ? oinnique manu ineorum

Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. civium insequar eos Tu lachrymis evicta meis, tu prima furentem

His, germana,


oneras, atque objicis hosti. Non licuit thalami expertem sinè crimine vitam 550 552. Fides promissa

Degere more feræ, tales nec tangere curas ? Sichæo cineri non ser

Non servata fides cineri promissa Sichæo.

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 556. Forma Dei re- Æneas celså in puppi, jam certus eundi, deuntis eodem vultu ob- Carpebat somnos, rebus jam ritè paratis.

555 tulit se huic in somnis, Huic se forma Dei, vultu redeuntis codem, visaque est rursus ita

similis Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est ; Mercurio quoad omnia, Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque, coloremque,

vata est.


eum :


formerly done to her? Irrisa : mocked- 546. Rursus agam: shall I again conduct despised. Ruæus says, contemnenda. on the sea, those whom with difficulty I forced

536. Dedignata sum : disdained as hus- from the Sidonian city? Sidonia : an adj. bands.

from Sidon, which formed a part of the 537. Ultima : the lowest_basest.

kingdom of Tyre: here in the sense of Ty533. Quia-ne jurat : because it delighted ria. Revelli : this expresses the difficuity of me formerly, that they should be relieved by her former enterprise. my assistance; and the grateful remem

248. Tu, Germana, evicta: thou, O sister, brance of my former deed remains with them, duly mindful of it? Dido here speaks rentem: in the sense of amantem.

overcome by my tears, thou first, &c. Fu

Dido ironically. Some copies have exilio, in allu- here alludes to the speech of her sister. See sion to the friendly retreat which Dido gave to Æneas and his followers: but au.cilio is not bear to see her pine away in mournful

verse 32. supra, and following. Anna could the most approved reading.

widowhood, and therefore dissuaded her 541. Invisam: hated-an object of their from it, and encouraged a love for Æneas. aversion. Some copies have irrisam. This is the reading of Ruæus. Heyne reads, in

550. Non licuit : was it not lawful for visam, and assures us it is the best,

me, without blame, to lead a life free from the 542. Necdum sentis, &c. Here Dido al marriage bed, &c. Some copies have erperludes to the well known story of Laomedon, lam vitam : a life having experienced the who defrauded the gods, Neptune and Apolo marriage bed. But the other is evidently lo, of their hire for building the walls of

the most approved reading. Troy. See Geor. i. 502. Laomedonteæ : an

Though Dido here seemingly approves of adj. in the sense of Trojane.

a single life; by representing it as the life 543. Ovantes: in the sense of lætantes, vel of a savage beast

, she in fact condemns it

; ļriumphantes. It is applicable to mariners and insinuates that marriage is the most in general, who usually set out with accla- perfect society, and distinguishes the life of mations of joy: but here it is to be con

man from that of brute animals, sidered in that particular, in which Dido 551. Tangere : to know, or experience. viewed them as triumphing over her in their 558. Similis Mercurio omnia : like Mer. departure. Insequar. Some copies have in- cury in all things. All the commentatora ferar. This is the reading of Heyne, and make this god to be Mercury himself, except Valpy after him.

Catrou. He thinks it to be some other gode 544. Stipata : in the sense of comitata. who assumed the likeness of Mercury.

Et crines flavos, et membra decora juventæ :
Nate Deâ, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos ? 560
Nec, quæ circumstent te deinde pericula, cernis ?
Demens ! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos ?
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat,

563. Illa Dido certa Certa mori, varioque irarum fluctuat æstu.

mori versat dolos Non fugis hinc præceps, dum præcipitare potestas ? 565 Jam mare turbari trabibus, sævasque videbis

566. Dum potestas Collucere faces ; jam fervere litora flammis;

est libi præcipitare
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem.
Eia age, rumpe moras : varium et mutabile semper
Femina. Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atræ.

Tum verò Æneas, subitis exterritus umbris,
Corripit è somno corpus, sociosque fatigat:
Præcipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris :
Solvite vela citi. Deus æthere missus ab alto,
Festinare fugam, tortosque incidere funes,

576 Ecce iterum stimulat. Sequimur te, sancte Deorum, 576. Ecco Deus mi. Quisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes. sus ab alto æthere ite

rum stimulat me festiAusis, ô, placidusque juves, et sidera cælo Dextra feras ! Dixit: vaginâque eripit ensem

nare fugam, incidereque

tortos funes.
Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580
Idem omnes simul ardor habet: rapiuntque, ruuntque :
Litora deseruere : latet sub classibus æquor.
Adnixi torquent spumas, et cærula verrunt.

583. Carula maria. Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile :



560. Sub hoc casu : in this juncture or gods, whoever thou art, &c. This mode of crisis of affairs.

expression is in imitation of the Greeks. 561. Deinde: this appears to be in this 578. O adsis : O may thou be propitious. place entirely expletive. Videtur otiosum esse, 579. Dextra sidera : favorable, ar propisays Heyne.

tious stars in the heavens. Feras: give563. Versat : in the sense of mcdilatur.

grant. 566. Turbari trabibus : to be in commo- 580. Feril : in the sense of secat. Fultion with ships. Heyne says, impleri navi- mineum : shining, glittering. Ruæus says, bus Carthaginiensium: and Ruæus, agilari coruscantem. remis.

582. Deseruere litora. This change of the 567. Fervere : to glitter-to shine with tense adds much to the description. They flames. The meaning is, that as soon as hale off, and hurry away; and no sooner the morning shall return, Dido will pursue have they done this, than they have left the you with her ships, with torches and with shore, and are completely out to sea. flames. You must weigh anchor and be 505. Et jam Aurora : and now Aurora, gone.

leaving the saffron bed of Tithonus, first 570. Fæmina: a woman is something al. spreads the earth over with early light. Ti. ways variable, and subject to change. This thonus was either the son or brother of Lais a singular construction. Mercury here omedon, king of Troy. On account of his insinuates that hatred may succeed to Dido's beauty and gracefulness, Aurora fell in love love for him; which might induce her to with him, and endued him with immortality; seek revenge. Umbris : apparition. but not thinking to bestow on him perpetual

572. Fatigat : arouses his companions. youth and beauty, he grew so weak and ex

573. Vigilale: wake quick-in haste. hausted by old age, that he wished for morTranstris : the seats or benches on which the tality. But the goddess not being able to rowers sat.

restore it to him, in pity to his case, changed 575. Torlos funes : the ropes, or cables, by him into a grasshopper. See Geor. iii. 48. which the ships were moored. Dr. Bentley. This is a most beautiful circumlocution to thinks the anchors are intended; but how denote the early dawn, when the earth belørlos can be applied !o them, I see not. comes first enlightened by the beams of a

576. Sancte Deorum: O holy one of the


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