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Pallentes umbras Erebi, noctemque profundam,
Antè, pudor, quàm te violo, aut tua jura resolvo.
Jlle meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores

28. Ile Sichæus abstuAbstulit ; ille habeat secum, servetque sepulchro.

lit meos amores, qui Sic effata, sinum lachrymis implevit obortis.

30 Anna refert: O luce magis dilecta sorori,

31. O lu, magis dilecSolane perpetuâ merens carpère juventâ ?

ta sorori lucê, sola-ne Nec dulces natos, Veneris nec præmia nôris ?

merens carpere in perId cinerem, aut Manes credis curare sepultos ?

petuâ juventâ ?

34. Credis cinerem Esto: ægram nulli quondam flexere mariti, 35 Sichæi, aut sepultos Non Libyæ, non antè Tyro : despectus ļarbas,

36. Esto: Jarbas deDuctoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis

spectus est, aliiquc ducDives alit: placitone etiam pugnabis amori?

tores Nec venit in mentem, quorum consederis arvis ? Hinc Getulæ urbes, genus insuperabile Bello, 40 Et Nuinidæ infræni cingunt, et inhospita: Syrtis : Hinc deserta siti regio, latèque furcntes t

NOTES. 26. Erebi : the place of the dead—the in- undertake the business ; upon this the queen fernal regions.

rebuked them, and declared that if the safety 27. Antè. The antè here is plainly ex- of his country required it, any one should pletive. Priùs goes before it, and is to be be willing to give up even his life. They connected with quàm. Some copies have then opened the whole matter, saying, the riolem and resolvam. Pudor: in the sense very thing she had enjoined on others, she of pudicitia.

had to perform herself, if she would consult 30. Implevit sinum : she filled her bosom the good of the city. Being taken by this with flowing tears. Servius and Turnebus device, after much lamentations, and many take sinum, here, for the cavity of the eye. invocations of her husband, she declared But the common import of the word is much that she would obey the call of her country. inore expressive, as it shows her tears to be Having passed three months in this manner, inuch more copious, and paints her passion she caused a funeral pile to be erected in as more violent. Refert : in the sense of one part of the city, as if to appease the respondel. Luce : in the sense of vita. Manes of her departed husband, and to offer

32. Sola-ne carpère: will you fade and sacrifices for him before her nuptials. She wither away, mourning alone as a widow ascended the pile, and taking a sword in her through all your youth, &c. Ruæus says, hand, said to her people, that she would go an sola consumeris dolens per totam juventu- to her husband as they required, and, with lem. But carpere may be used in the sense her own hand, put an end to her existenco, of the Greek middle voice. The meaning While Carthage remained, she was worshipis obvious.

ped as a goddess. 35. Nulli mariti : no suitors moved you 37. Terra dives triumphis. It appears from sorrowing—while your loss was fresh in Serrius, that the Africans were the inventors your memory, and your grief unabated. of triumphal shows. Some say they never Marili : in the sense of proci. Ægram: in triumphed. But Justin tells us that Asdruthe sense of dolentem. Te is understood. bal, in particular, was honored with four

36. Iarbas. Among the many who made triumphs. Placito : in the sense of grato. suit to Dido, was Iarbas, a rich and power- Ne is interrogative. ful prince of Africa, and reputed son of 40. Getulæ urbes. The Getuli werc a Jupiter Ammon. But Justin gives a very brave and warlike people, to the south of different account of the matter from the one Carthage. Hinc, when it has its corresgiven here by the poet. He says, Iarbas, "pondent hinc, the former is rendered, on the having gotten ten of the principal one sidewant the latter on the other

side ginians, demanded of them Dido in mar- 41. Numidæ. The Numidians, again, wcro riage; and, in case of a refusal, he threaten- a people fierce and uncivilized, lying to the ed to declare war against them. Fearing westward. Inhospila Syrtis. Both the to deliver the message to the queen, they greater and the less Syrtis lay in the Sinus said the king demanded a person who might Libycus, to the north and east of Carthage, teach him and his people the arts of civilized and rendered the navigation dangerous. life; but that no one could be found who was 42. Deserta sili: rendered descrt by willing to leave his relations and friends to drought.



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Barcæi. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam,

Germanique minds? 45. Ego equidem reorDis equidem auspicibus reor, et Junone secunda, 45 Niacas carinas tenuisse Huc cursuin Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas. cursum huc vento, Dis Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes! quæ surgere regna auspicibus, et Junone secunda.

Conjugio tali! Teucrûm comitantibus armis,
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus !
Tu modò posce Deos veniam, sacrisque litatis,
Indulge hospitio, causasque innecte morandi;
Dum pelago desævit hyems, et aquosus Orion ;

Quassatæque rates, et non tractabile cælum. 54. Animum jam in

His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore, censum amore

Spemque dedit dybiæ menti, solvitque pudorem. 55 59. Sed Junoni ante

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras omnes, cui jugalia vin- Exquirunt : mactant lectas de more bidentes cla sunt curæ.

Legiferæ Cererii Phæboque, patrique Lyæo 60. Pulcherrima Dido Junoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curæ. ipsa pateram Ipsa tenens dextrâ pateram pulcherrima Dida dextrâ fundit vinum inter media cornua can

Candentis vaccæ media inter cornua fundit : dentis vaccæ :

Aut ante ora Deûm pingues spatiatur ad aras,

NOTES, 43. Barcæi. These were a people to the 54. Incensum : burning, or inflamed with east, inhabiting a dry and barren country. love.

Quid dicam: why shall I mention the 55. Dubiæ : wavering. Soirit pudoren. wars arising from Tyre, and the threats of removed her scruples in regard to disrespect your brother ? Justin says, when Pygmalion to the memory of her late husband. Valpy. understood that Dido had fled her country, 57. E.xquirunt pacem per aras: they seek and faken with her much treasure, he deter- peace by the altars. This refers to the way mined to pursue her; but was dissuaded of prying into the entrails of the victims, in from his purpose by his mother, and the order to know the will of the gods. Biden. threats of the gods.

tes lectas de more. It was a regulation that 45. Juntne secunda. Juno is here parti- no victims should be offered to the gods, but cularly named, because she presided over such as were without blemish. Bidentes inarriage, and because Carthage was under properly sheep of two years old. her peculiar protection. Auspicibus : in the 58. Legiferæ Cereri. Ceres was the sense of fauloribus, vel auctoribus. Secunda: daughter of Salurn and Ops, and the god. in the sense of propitia.

dess of husbandry. It is said, she was the 49. Quantis rebus : by what noble deeds first institutor of laws, especially those of will the Carthaginian glory exalt itself, the marriage. See Ecl. v. 79. Phabo. Dido arms of the Trojans accompanying yours? offers sacrifices to Phæbus, as the god who

50. Sacris litatis : sacrifices being offered. presided over futurity, that he might send The proper signification of litare, is, to pro- her favorable omens. See Ecl. iv, 10. To pitiate by sacrifice. Sacris : in the sense of father Bacchus, as the god of mirth and rictimis.

jollity, that he might crown the match with 51. Innecie: devise causes for detaining joy. See Ecl. v. 69. And especially (anlę him.

omnes) to Juno, as the goddess who presided 52. Desavil. Ruæus takes this in the

over nuptials. Cui vincla jugalia curæ : to sense of desæviel, the present for the future. whom the marriage knot is for a care. See

53. Non tractabile: in the sense of procel- Æn. i. 4. losum, vel savum. Cælum : the air or weather. 61. Fundit, &c. This was according to Æneas arrived in Africa, it is probable, in the manner of the Romans performing sathe latter part of autumn, some time before crifice. After the immolatio, which consistthe quepach of winter It appears to bet eden towing cornnd Frankincense, to the ofiaronigonin him durna thes getser why the moon astich was made of pleasant part of the season, until the navi- bran or meal inixed with salt and water) gation should become dangerous, and when upon the head of the victim, the priest it would be impudent to set sail ; in the sprinkled wine between the horns. hope that having passed so long a time 62. Spatiatur : she walks before the with them, he might be persuaded finally to images (ora) of the gods, &c. It was a settle at Carthage, and give over his intend- custom among the Romans for matrons to eci purpuse of settling in Italy.

walk on holy days, in a grave and soleinn


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Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis
Pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta.
Heu, vatum ignaræ mentes ! quid vota furentem,
Quid delubra juvant ? est mollis flamma medullas
Intereà, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.
Uritur infelix Dido, totâque vagatur
Urbe furens: qualis conjectâ cerva sagittà,
Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cressia fixit
Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum
Nescius : illa fugâ sylvas saltusque peragrat
Dictæos: hæret lateri lethalis arundo.
Nunc media Æneam secum per mænia ducit;
Sidoniasque ostentat opes, urbemque paratam.
Incipit effari, mediâque in voce resistit.
Nunc eadem, labente die, convivia quærit;
Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores
Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore.
Pòst, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim
Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos;
Sola domo mæret vacuâ, stratisque relictis
Incubat : illum absens absentem auditque videtque :
Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta,
Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem.
Non cæptæ assurgunt turres, non arma juventus
Exercet, portusve, aut propugnacula bello
Tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta, minæque
Murorum ingentes, æquataque machina cælo.

74. Nunc Dido ducit Æneam secum

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manner, before the altars, with torches in stars disappear in the superior light of the their hands, Ora : in the sense of statuas, sun, they are said to set; so when the sun vel imagines.

disappears, and withdraws his light, they 63. Instaurat : she passes the day in of- become visible, and are said to rise. The ferings. Ruæus says, reroval sacrificia per same may be said of the moon, Vicissim: đi.

after having given light in her course. 64. Inhians : prying into-exploring at- 82 Relictis stratis. The couch on which tentively. Spirantia : throbbing—palpita- Æneas had been sitting, and which he had ting. Exta: properly the part which we just left to retire to rest. call the lungs, including the heart, liver, &c. 84. Capla : taken, or captivated with the 65. Vatum : in the sense of extispicum. resemblance of his father, she hugs, &c. 66. Mollis flamma est :

a gentle flame

88. Pendent : stand, or remain. InterEsl : in the sense of edit. Fu- rupta : in the sense of imperfecta. Ingentes renlem: in the sense of amantem. Tacitum: mine murorum. Heyne takes this simply concealed,

for the high walls, (alti muri,) which by 69. Qualis cerva.

This is a very proper their altitude, presented a threatening ascomparison, and agrees almost in every cir- pect. Valpy is of the same opinion : but (umstance. There is a peculiar beauty in most interpreters take minæ murorum to be the hârit lateri lethalis arundo, which strong- the fortifications built upon the walls, which ly images the fast hold that the arrows of presented a threatening appearance to an Cupid had gotten of Dido's heart. Cressia: enemy. Hortensius and Ruæus are of opian adj. Cretan.

nion, they were huge and unfinished parts 71. Ferrum : in the sense of arundinem. of the wall, which seemed to threaten a

74. Monia: properly the fortifications of min, and presented a terrific appearance. a city. Ruæus says, munimenta.

89. Machina. By this we are most pro77. . Eadem: the same entertainment she bably to understand the engines used in had received the preceding night.

raising stones, beams, and timber generally, 81 Luna obscura vicissim: the moon, in for carrying on the building. Heyne says, turn obscure, withdraws her light. This molesædifcium, referring to the buildings shows the approach of day. When the themselves.

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90. Quam (Didonem) Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri simul ac Saturnia, cha- Chara Jovis conjux, nec famam obstare furori, ra conjux Jovis, persen- Talibus aggreditur Venerem Saturnia dictis : famam obstare ejus fu. Egregiam verò laudem, et spolia ampla refertis rori, aggreditur Vene- Tuque puerque tuus, magnum et memorabile numen ; rem talibus dictis: verò Una dolo Divům si fæmina victa duorum est :

95 tuque tuusque puer re- Nec me adeò fallit, veritam te menía nostra, fertis egregiam laudem et ainpla spolia, mag

Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altæ. num et memorabile nu. Sed quis erit modus ? aut quo nunc certamina tanta ? men ; si una fæmina Quin potiùs pacem æternam pactosque hymenæos victa est dolo duorum Exercemus ? habes, totâ quod mente petîsti :

100 Divûm. Nec adeò fal- Ardet amans Dido, traxitque per ossa furorem. tra mænia habuisse do Communem hunc ergò populum, paribusque regamas mos alte Carthaginis Auspiciis : liceat Phrygio servire marito, suspectas.

Dotalesque tuæ Tyrios permittere dextræ. 98. Modus nostre con- Olli, sensit enim simulata mente locutam,

105 tenlionis

Quò regnum Italiæ Libycas averteret oras, 103. Liceat Didoni servire

Sic contrà est ingressa Venus : is talia demens 107. Contrà Venus Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello? ingressa est respondere Si modò, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur. olli sic; enim sensit eam Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam

110 locntam esse simulatà Esse velit Tyriis urbem, Trojâque profectis ; mente, quò averteret



90. Peste : in the sense of amore. Rudus

99. Hymenæos: match. says, veneno.

102. Regamus hunc populum. The mean93. Spolia: in the sense of victoriam.

ing plainly is : Let us rule this people (com. 94. Numen. This is the reading of munem) composed of Trojans and CaribaHeyne, after Pierius, Heinsius, and Burman- ginians, with equal authority and power.

It is also approved by Valpy, though Let them be both equally under our proteche retains the common reading, nomen. In tion and auspicious influence. Auspiciis : a note upon this passage, he has reumen, and in the sense of potestate. observes that vestrum is understood. * Your divine power will be nobly employed,” says

103. Phrygio. Servius, and some others, he. Heyne makes this turn to the words: say, that Phrygio, here, is a word of conMagnum verò et memorabile erit numen ves- tempt, and implies that Æneas was in exile trum, si vos duo Dei circumveneritis unam

and in slavery, as the Phrygians then were. fæminam. He takes numen in the sense of But Virgil uses the words Phrygius and potestas, vel potentia. Nomen is the com- Trojanus promiscuously. Beside, Juno plays mon reading. This part of Juno's speech the hypocrite, and would, therefore, industriis extremely satirical. Tuus puer: Cupid. ously avoid every expression that might be He was the son of Jupiter and Venus.

offensive, or render her suspected. The 98. Aut quò nunc: or, for what purpose expression servire marito is in allusion to one now are so great contentions ! Juno and of the three ways of contracting marriage Venus took opposite sides in the affairs of among the Romans, (viz.) Coemplio: when Æneas and the Trojans. The former is the parties solemnly bound themselves to always represented their bitterest enemy,

each other by the ceremony of giving and and the latter their warmest friend. The taking a piece of money. By this the wowhole of Juno's speech is artful, and the man gave herself over into the power of the plan deep laid. She now proposes to lay man, and entered into a state of liberal serdown their arms, to conclude a lasting peace vitude, or subjeetion to him. -to form a match between Æneas and

104. Dotales: as a dowry. Dos is properDido, and by these means unite the Trojans ly the patrimony of the wife-anything with the Carthaginians into one people. given to the husband with the wise. Tyrios, This plan, could she have brought it about, nempe, regnum Carthaginis. would have been to her a complete victory over her antagonist. The common reading

105. Olli : for illi, by antithesis. is certamine tanto. Heyne reads certamina 110. Feror incerta fatis, si : Iam rendered tanla, which is much easier, and he says, is uncertain by the decrees of the gods, whethe true reading.

ther, &c.

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cas oras

Miscerive probet populos, aut fodera jungi.

regnum Italiæ ad LibyTu conjux : tibi fas animum tentare precando. Perge ; sequar. Tum sic excepit regia Juno: 114

113. Tu es ejus conMecum crit iste labor : nunc quâ ratione, quod instat,

jux; fas est tibi tentare

115. Nunc, adverte tu, Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo.

docebo paucis verbis, qua Venatum Æneas, unàque miserrima Dido,

ratione, id, quod instat, In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus

possit confieri.
Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem.
His ego nigrantem commixtà grandine nimbum, 120
Dumtrepidant alæ, saltusque indagine cingunt,

121. Dum alæ trepiDesuper infundam, et tonitru cælum omne ciebo. dant, cinguntque saltus Diffugient comites, et nocte tegentur opaca.

indagine, ego desuper

infundam his nigrantem Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem

nimbum, grandine comDevenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125 mixta, et ciebo omne Connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo.

cælum tonitru. Hic Hymenæus erit. Non adversata, petenti

125. Si tua voluntas

sit certa mihi Annuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis.

128. Cytherea non adOceanum intereà surgens Aurora reliquit.

versata annuit ei petenti, It portis, jubare exorto, delecta juventus

130 atque risit dolis repertis, Retia rara, plagæ, lato venabula ferro, Massylique ruunt equites, et odora canum vis. Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi Peporum expectant : ostroque insignis et auro Stat sonipes, ac fræna ferox spumantia mandit. 135 Tandem progreditur, magnâ stipante caterva,


NOTES. 114. Excepit: replied answered. . 127. Hic Hymenous erit: this shall be a

117. Venatum: a sup. in um, of the verb marriage. Some tako the meaning to be l'enor, put after the verb ire. Dido is here that Hymen should be present. But this called miserrima, most unhappy, on account would be unnecessary, since the nuptials of the issue of her love.

were to be performed by Juno, without the 119. Titan: in the sense of Sol. See Ecl. assistance of any other. See Geor. iii. 60. iv. 6. and Geor. iii. 48. Radijsque : and Cytherea, a name of Venus. See Æn. i. shall have disclosed the world by his beams. 229. The poeks pretended that light sunk into 130. Jubare: in the sense of luce vel diluthe ocean every night, and was every morn- . culo. ing brought from hence by the returning 131. Retia rara: the wide nets, the toils,

Hence the propriety of the verb exth the spears of broad point, and the Massilian lerit.

horsemen, &c. rush forth. 121. Dum ale. By ala, Servius under- 132. Odora vis canum. Vis is here used stands the horsemen, or riding hunters, who in the sense of copia, or multitudo. And are termed ale, wings, because they covered odora, in the sense of odororum, by antiptosis : the foot as the cavalry of an army. Or alæ a multitude of strong scented dogs. Mas.' may signify the horsemen in general spread syli. They were a people of Africa, placed over the ground, like stretched out wings. by Virgil to the westward of Carthage. Lit

Trepidant very strongly expresses the hurry tle is known concerning them. and bustle of a company of horsemen, flying 133. Primi: in the sense of primores. and scampering over the ground in quest of 135. Stat sonipes insignis : her horse their prey. Indagine. By this some under- stands ready, richly decked in purple and stand the arranging of the hounds, and the gold. Stat: in the sense of adest. To take placing of them in proper places for taking it literally would ill agree with the fine the game: but Ruæus, and most commen- image of the courser here given ; ferox mantators, take it for the nels and toils in which dit spumantia fræna. Insignis: in the sense the game was taken. For ala, Ruæus has of ornatus. equites.

137. Circumdata Sidoniam: covered with 126. Jungam: I will join them in firm a Tyrian cloak. The chlamys was both a wedlock, and will consecrate her to be his military and hunting dress. It was a loose own. I will give her over to be his peculiar upper garment, which covered the breastproperty.

plate, and folded about the left arm to de

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