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Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc

695 Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 697. ül eramus jussi, Jussi numina magna loci veneramur: 'et inde Heleno, veneranur Exsupero præpingue solum stagnantis Helori.

Hinc altas cautes projectaque saxa Pachyni
Radimus ; et fatis nunquam concessa moveri

700
Apparet Camarina procul, campique Geloi,
Immanisque Gela, fluvii cognomine dicta.
Arduus inde Agragas ostentat maxima longè
Mania, magnanimùm quondam generator equorum.
Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus :

705
Et vada dura lego saxis Lilybeia cæcis.
Hinc Drepani me portus et illætabilis ora
Accipit. Hic, pelagi tot tempestatibus actus,

Heu! genitorem, omnis curæ casûsque levamen, 710. Hic, O optime Amitto Anchisen : hìc me, pater optime, fessum 710 pater, doseris me fessum Deseris, heu! tantis nequicquam erepte perîclis.

NOTES. 696. Arethusa. This was a fountain on of Gelas, or Gela, a river not far from Ca. the west side of the island of Ortygia. The marina, near the mouth of which stood Ge. poets feigned that Alpheus, the river-god, la, once a large (immanis) and respectable being in love with the nymph Arethusa, city, founded by the Rhodians and Cretans. rolled his stream from Elis under ground, It was destroyed by the Agrigentini. pasing through the sea, without intermina 702. Dicta cognomine : called after the gling with it, and arose up in this fountain, name of the river. Iningling his waters with those of the nyinph. 703. Agragas : a city situated at the mouth What makes this fable the more absurd, is, of a river of the same name. It was built that the distance between the Peloponnesus on the summit of a hill, or mountain : hence and Sicily is not less than 450 miles. Egisse: called arduus, high. It was one of the largest in the sense of fecisse. Ore: in the sense cities of Sicily. Its horses were celebrated of fonting Indisi in the sense of aquis. for their performance ai the Olympic games.

698. Ersupero: in the sense of prætereo. Henco, quondam, &c. once the breeder of It is sometimes Syritten, uerupero. Helori. generous horses. Helorus, or Elorus, was a river falling into 705. Selinus : a city whose plains aboundthe sea, a little to the north of the promon-, ed in palm trees. Hence the epithet palmotory Pachynun. It overflowed its banks vą. Datis in the sense of faventibus, like the Nile of Egypt, and rendered the 706. Lilybeža : an adj, from Lilybeum, country fertile, through which it passed. the western promontory of Sicily, The Hence the epithèt stagnans, gverflowing — water litere is said to be shoal to the distance stagnating.

of three miles from the land, and the bottom 699. Pachyni. The southern pomonto- rocky. Hence lega: I coast, along the Liry of Sicily was called Pachynum Hodie, lyþeian shallows, dangerous (dura) with Capo Passaro.

Jatent rocks.: Rueus interprets dura by as101. Camarina. The name of a Take at pera. In this sense it will allude to the ine southern part of Sicily, near a.city of roughness of the sea, pccasioned by the the same name, built by the people of Syriz rocks lying on the bottom:

In the time of a.. plague, whieh the 707.. Portas Drepani. Drepanum (hodie, inhabitants imagined originated from its Trepani) & city and härvor a few miles to the stagnant waters, they consulted the oracle of north of the promoptory juste mentioned Apollo concerning the expediency of drain- Here Æneas lost his father. He therefore ing it. The oracle advised them to let it calls it illælabilis ord an«ánjoyous coast. reinain, alleging it would be better to endure It is said the inhabitants giill show his tomb. its noxious vapors, than to remove it. This 708. Actus : in the sense of jactatus. explains the words : nunquam concessa mo- 709. Levamen: in the sense of solatium. veri fatis ; never permitted by the fates to 710. Fessum : weary-worn out with toils be removed. However, the people inade and misfortunes. the experiment, and they found the words of 711. Ereple: voc. agreeing with optime the oracle true. For the enemy entered on pater. In placing the death of Anchises the ground where the lake stood, and took here, Virgil differs from Strabo, who reprothe city. Hodie, Lago di Camarina. Campi sents Æneas as arriving in Italy with his Galoi: the plains of Gelas. Geloi: an adj. father, and his son Ascanius.

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Nec vates Helenus, cùm multa horrenda moneret,
Hos mihi prædixit luctus ; non dira Celæno.
Hic labor extremus, longpum hæc meta viarum.
Hinc me digressum vestris Deus appulit oris.

Sic pater Æneas, intentis omnibus, unus
Fata renarrabat Divûm, cursusque docebat:
Conticuit tandem, factoque hìc fine quievit.

713. Dira Celeno non

prædixit 715

714. Hic fuit extremus labor

718. Fine narrationis

NOTES.

712. Moneret : in the sense of prædiceret. 717. Unus renarrabat : he alone related

714. Hic extremus: this line may be taken the purposes (decrees) of the gods (toward in two senses: either to mean the end of him,) and declared his wanderings. "Unus : Anchises' labor, and the termination of his in the sense of solus. long voyage, or that the death of his father

718. Quievit : he rested—he went to rest. was to Æneas the greatest of all his afflic. Segrais observes that the second and third tions, and the end of his voyage toward the books may be recited in two hours. The Italian coast. Rumus takes it in the former story did not appear long to Dido and the sense ; Mr. Davidson in the latter.

guests: for he ceased, intentis omnibus, and 715. Deus appulit: a god directed me, at midnight too, nor will they appeat long departing hence (from the coast and port of stomary reader of taste and judgment. Drepanum) to your shores.

QUESTIONS How did Æneas employ his time during Who were the founders of the Trojan his residence at Antandros?

race ? How many ships had he when he set sail? Of what country were they natives? At what time of the year did he set sail ? From Crete, to what country was he di

How long probably after the capture of the rected to sail? city ?

How did he receive this instruction ? To what place did he direct his course? What befel him soon after he set sail? What city did he found in Thrace?

What land did he first make ? What did he call the name of it?

In what sea are the Strophades ? What did he call his followers from this By whom were these islands inhabited ? circumstance?

Who was the chief of the Harpies? Did he soon abandon the idea of remain- Did she give to Æneas any intimadon of ing in Thrace?

suffering and want, before he should find a Why did he thus abandon it?

permanent settlement? Who was Polydos?

How was this prediction accomplished ? How came he byens death.

From these islands, which way did he diFrom Thrace, to what place did Æneas rect his course ? direct his course?

At what places did he land? Where is Delos situated ?

What games did he celebrate ? Of what cluster of islands is it one?

For what was this coast celebrated ? How was he here received ?

Between whom was the battle fought? Who was at that time king of the island ? From Actium, to what part of Epirus did. For what is this island famous ?

he proceed? What is the fable or story respecting it? What surprising news did he hear on en

From what Greek word is the name de- tering the port ? rived ?

Was the meeting of his friends very inWhat is the signification of that word ? teresting as well as unexpected ?

Did he consult the oracle of Apollo at What does Dr. Trapp observe of it? this place concerning the land destined to How was Andromache employed at that him?

time? What answer did he receive?

What effect had the sight of Æneas and How did his father Anchises interpret the Trojans upon her? that answer?

Leaving Epirus, what sea did he first pass From Delos, to what place did he sail ? over?

What prevented him from making a sét. How many miles is Italy from£pirus in Nement in Crete?

that place? What did he call the city, which he there What was the name of the promontory, founded?

where he landod ? Vhy did Eneas go to Crete?

What course did he then tako?

Wny did he not pass through the strait of Messina ?

Where does this strait lie?

What is the navigation of it-safe or dangerous ?

What renders'it dangerous ?

Why is Sicily sometimes called Trinacria?

What are the names of its threo promontories?

Where did Æneas first land on this island ?
What famous mountain was near?
How long did he remain ?
Was there an eruption at that time?
What effect had it upon the Trojans ?

What is the fabulous account of the cause of an eruption ?

Is this very far from the true cause ?

Who were the inhabitants of that part of Sicily?

Who was at that time their king ?

From what circumstance were they call. ed Cyclops?

How large was their eye said to be?

What was their employment according to the poets?

Who had been upon this coast a short time before the arrival of Æneas ?

To what place was Ulysses bound?

What misfortune befel him in the strait of
Messina ?

What did he do to Polyphemus ?
Why did he thus punish him?

From whom did Æneas receive this account of the Cyclops ?

How many of these giants were there then on the island ?

Who was Achemenides?

On what part of Sicily did Æneas afterward land ?

What is the name of the port:
What loss befel him here?

Does this close the account, which Æneas gave to Dido at her request?

When does the poem open?
Where was Æneas at that time?

LIBER QUARTUS.

This book opens with the love of Dido for Æneas, and her conference with her sister

Anna upon the subject. Juno perceiving her passion, conceived the plan of forming a connexion between them. To effect this the easier, she endeavors to draw Venus over to her views. In the mean time, Æneas and Dido prepare to go on a party of hunting; and while in the chase, Juno raises a violent tempest. The thunder rends the skies, and torrents of rain fall. The party seek shelter wherever they can. Through a device of Juno, Æneas and Dido repair to the same cave, where the goddess consecrates their nuptials. Fame immediately spread the news abroad; and it reached the ears of larbas, king of the Getuli, the reputed son of Jupiter Ammon. He had formerly proposed a match with Dido, who rejected his offers. As soon as he heard that she was married to a stranger, he was transported to rage, mingled with grief. In this state of mind he made complaint to his father, who, taking pity on him, sends Mercury to dissolve the match, and to order Æneas to prepare to leave Carthage for Italy. In obedience to his commands, he privately makes the necessary preparations for setting sail. Dido perceiving his movements, endeavors to dissuade him from his purpose, in the tenderest and most affectionate strain; but it had no influence over him. Being warned a second time, he weighs anchor in haste, and the love-sick Queen beholds him leaving her coast. The sight wrung her soul, and drew from her lips the most severe reproofs and bitter imprecations. She enjoins it upon her people to revenge the injury done to her, and to pursue his descendants with irreconcilable hatred. Having ordered a funeral pile to be erected, she ascends it, and with her own hand puts an end to her existence. The nature of tho subject renders this book highly interesting; and it is considered one of the finest in the Æneid.

At regina, gravi jamdudum saucia cura,

NOTES.

1. Regina. Dido, sometimes called Eliza, calls him Mellen. Her grandfather was was a Tyrian princess. Josephus informs Badezorus, and her great grandfather was us her father's name was Melginus. He Ithobalus, called in Scripture Ethbaal, whose obtained his information from the records of daughter Jezebel was married to Ahab, king the Tyrians: and Theophilus of Antioch of Israel. Virgil, however, makes the name

Vulnus alit venis, et cæco carpitur igni.
Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat
Gentis honos: hærent infixi pectore vultus,
Verbaque : nec placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5

6. Postera Aurora Postera Phæbea lustrabat lampade terras,

lustrabat terras Phæbea Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram : lampade

NOTES. of her father to be Belus. Æn. i. 625. Marole her arrival in Africa, found Carthage allius has given a list of the kings of Tyre, and ready built, and that she only fortified it, makes Belus an abbreviation of lihobalus, and added a tower or citade:, which she the father of Pygmalion and Dido; but he called Byrsa. This word is evidently from follows fabulous and traditionary accounts, the Hebrew Bosra, which means a fortificawhich should always be received with cau- tion, or fortified place. The Greeks, migtion, Among other things, what renders taking the meaning, or overlooking it, suphis account doubtful, is, that he brings Dido posed, from the similarity of the words, that upon the stage of action more than a hun- it was the same with their Byrsa, which dred years before the destruction of Troy. means a bull's hide. Virgil followed the re

After the death of his father, Pygmalion ceived opinion. See Æn. i. 367. It has been ascended the throne. He was an avaricious the general opinion that Virgil, in making prince, and stopped at nothing by which he Æneas and Dido cotemporary, is guilty of could increase his riches. He conceived the an anachronism. Bochart is positive of this, plan of murdering Acerbas, or Sicharbas, the and says that all the ancient chronologers beloved husband of his sister. Virgil calls of any credit, place the destruction of Troy, him Sichæus, softening the name to make at least 60 years before the reign of Saul, it flow more easily into his verse. Sichæus king of Israel ; and the time of Dido's buildwas the richest of all the Tyrians. Pyg- ing Byrsa, the fortress of Carthage, at least malion coveted his treasures ; but there was 200 years after it, making 260 years to inno way to possess them while he was living. tervene between the destruction of Troy, He therefore formed the purpose of taking and the building of Byrsa. In this case, tho away his life. He came upon him unex- destruction of Troy will be 1160 years bepectedly, and slow him while he was per- fore the Christian era. Sir Isaac Newton, forming his devotions before the altar. This however, in his chronology, has brought it atrocious deed, the base prince had the ad. down nearly 300 years; and thus makes dress to conceal, for some time, from his Æneas and Dido cotemporary. However sister. At length the whole matter was laid the case may be, it was undoubtedly a reopen to Dido by the ghost of her deceased ceived opinion among the Romans, that they husband, and she was admonished to flee

were cotemporary, and this was sufficient her country. Having collected what trea- for the poet; and even if he knew otherwise, sure she could on so sudden an emergency, he acted prudently in following the general and seizing some vessels that were then opinion, since it contributed so much to the ready for sea, she set sail, accompanied by embellishment of his poem. many of her countrymen : and, after a long

Jamdudum: a long while. Servius exand tedious voyage, she arrived in Africa. plains it by nimiùm, or vehementiùs. Though It appears to have been her purpose to join it were only a short time since Æneas came her countrymen, who, many years before, to Carthage, yet, with respect to Dido's under Xorus and Carchedon, had formed a

passion, and the impatience of her love, it settlement, to which they gave the name of

Cura : Utica, about 15 miles from the place where might be said to be a long time.

Ruæus saye, solicitudine. Tunis now stands. This place was afterward rendered famous by the death of tho

2. Alii vulnus: shu nourishes a wound in second Cato, who was hence called Cato, her veins, and is consumed by the secret fire Uticensis. Dido met with a welcome recep

of love. This is said in allusion to Cupid's tion, and was desired to build a city on the

arrow and torch; the former to wound, and spot where she landed. For this purpose, the latter to inflame. Cæco igni. Valpy she purchased a tract of country of the na- says,

a conecaled passion." tives, many of whom joined her, logether 3. Multa viri virlus: the many virtues of with some from Utica. She called her city tho hero, and the many honors of his race, Catharda or Carthage, which, in the Phæni- recur to her mind. By his father, Æneas cian and Hebrew languages, signifies a new descended from the royal family of Troy ; city. It stood about 700 years, and was and, by Venus his mother, from Jove himdestroyed by the Romans under Scipio, in self. the year of Rome 603, and before Christ 6. Phæbeå Lampade : with the lamp of 145. See Rollin's An. His. lib. ii. ch. 1. Phebus, that is, with the sun. By TapinoThere are some who say that Dido, on sis. Polo: in the sense of cælo.

15

8. Malè sana regina Cùm sic unanimem alloquitur malè sana sororem . alloquitur

Anna soror, quæ me suspensam Insomnia terrent ! 10. Quis novus hospes Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes ! 10 hic successit

Quem sese ore ferens! quàm forti pectore et armis ! 12. Eum esse genus Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse Deorum. Deorum

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille
Jactatus fatis ! quæ bella exhausta canebat !

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet,
16. Ne vellem sociare Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali,
me cui in jugali vinclo, Postquàm primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;
postquàm meus primus Si non pertæsum thalami tædæque fuisset ;
amor fefellit me

24. Sed optem vel Hric uni forsan potui succumbere culpæ. ima tellus dehiscat mihi, Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sichæi vel pater omnipotens adi- Conjugis, et sparsos fraternâ cæde penates, gat me fulmine ad um- Solus hic inflexit sensus, animumque labantem bras, y allentes umbras Erebi, profundamque

Impulit: agnosco veteris vestigia flammæ. noctem, priùsquàm, o Sed mihi vel tellus optem priùs ima dehiscat, pudor, ego violo te Vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras, 25

NOTES.

8. Malè sana : the love-sick queen address- tum signifies, sometimes, as in this place ed her concordant sister. Unanimem, here, distress-misfortunes-calamities. is very emphatical. It implies that there 14. Canebal : in the sense of narrabal. was such a harmony and agreement sub- 15. Sederet : in the sense of manerel. sisting between them, that they both seemed 16. Sociare: to connect myself in mar. to be animated with the same soul : (of riage with any one. unus and animus.) Malè sana : Malè, here, 17. Primus amor : after my first love dehas the force of non. The queen was so in ceived me, disappointed by the death of love with Æneas, that she disregarded the my husband. She had pictured to herself sober dictates of reason, and her better an uninterrupted course of conjugal felicity, judgment. Valpy says, “ with disturbed of which she was disappointed by the death mind.” Insomnia : dreams. Suspensam : in of her husband. This led her to enter into the sense of solicilam.

the resolution of never forming a second 11. Quem sese ferens ore : what an illus- connexion. trious person, showing himself (to be) by his countenance ! of how great fortitude and been weary (displeased) with the marriage

18. Si non perlæsum fuisset : if I had not prowess! The Quàm forti pectore et armis, is an

bed, and nuptial torch, perhaps, &c. Tæda. elliptical expression. It is thus filled : Quàm It was a custom among the Romans to carry forli pectore est ille ; et quàm fortibus armis. she was conducted to the house of her husThe preposition è, or ex, being still under- band. Hence it is often put for the nuptials stood, governing the ablati cases. By the

themselves. forli pectore, we are to understand his forti. tude in undergoing hardships, and support- 19. Potui : I might yield to this one fault. ing misfortunes : and by the armis, his cou.

Potui : in the sense of potuissem. rage and prowess in arms.

Second marriages were considered disre13. Timor arguit: fear shows a base and putable among the Roman women, as show. ignoble mind. As fear argues a base and ing a want of respect for the memory of the ignoble mind, so courage and valor bespeak deceased, and as conveying a suspicion of a noble and divine original. The poet has incontinency. filled the speech of Dido with these abrupt But culpa is sometimes taken simply for half sentences, and made her speak incohe. the indulgence of the passion of love, howrently, on purpose to show the confusion ever innocent. and perturbation of her mind.

21. Fraternâ cæde. Sichwus was murder 14. Exhausta : drawn out-endured to ed, by her brother, at the altar. Hence the the last. Not only begun, but accoinplished, murder is called fraternal. Fala : in the and with resolution brought to an end. Here sense of mortem. See note 1. supra. is plainly an allusion to the draining of some 22. Inflexit sensus : he alone hath changed

from exhaurio. Falis. The word fa- upon my wavering mind.
cup to the very last dregs. A parti- my inclinations, and mado an impression

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