Page images




Arma procul, paulùm aspectu conterritus hæsit,
Continuitque gradum : mox sese ad litora præceps
Cum fletu precibusque tulit: Per sidera testor,
Per Superos, atque hoc cæli spirabile lumen, 600 600. O Teucri, inquit,
Tollite me, Teucri ; quascunque abducite terras :

testor vos per sidera, per Hoc sat erit. Scio me Danais è classibus unum,


602. Scio
Et bello Hiacos fateor petiise Penates.
Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri,
Spargite me in fluctus, vastoque immergite ponto. 605
Si pereo, manibus hominum periise juvabit.
Dixerat : et genua amplexus, genibusque volutans
Hærebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus,

608. Hortamur Hortamur ; quæ deinde agitet fortuna, fateri.

fari, qui sit, et ex quo Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud multa moratus, 610 sanguine cretus est; de

inde fateri, quæ Dat juveni, atque animum præsenti pignore firmat. Ille hæc, deposità tandem formidine, fatur:

614. Achemenides est Sum patriâ ex Ithacâ, comes infelicis Ulyssei,

nomen mihi : profectus Nomen Achemenides : Trojam, genitore Adamasto

sum Trojam Paupere, mansissetque utinam fortuna ! profectus. 615

616. Hìc socii imme

mores mei deseruêre me Hìc me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt,

in vasto antro Cyclopis, Immemores socii vasto Cyclopis in antro


NOTES. 597. Hæsit: hesitated-paused.

into a vessel, he gives them the dreadful 599. Testor: in the sense of precor. narration of Polyphemus, informs them that

600. Hoc spirabile lumen : by this vital this was the island of the Cyclops, begs light of heaven-by this light (air) of hea- them to leave it instantly, and concludes ven, which we breathe, and by which we most pathetically, that if he must die, it live. Lumen: in the sense of aër, vel would be some comfort to him to perish by

the hands of men, and not by monsters. 603. lliacos Penales. The Penates pro- 607. Amplexus : embracing our knees, perly were the household gods—the gods of and falling upon his own knees, he clung one's country. Hence the word came to to us. Servius observes, that the several signify, one's house and country, and what. members of the body were consecrated to ever a person held most dear, by meton. particular deities: the ear, to memory ; the See Æn. ii. 717.

knces, to mercy; the right hand, to faith. 604. Pro quo: for which—for his being a Suppliants were accustoined to throw, or Greek, and having taken part in the war cast themselves upon their knees, and emagainst Troy. Sceleris injuria. Ruæus says, brace those of the person of whom they iniquilas criminis. Si scelus meum tantum asked or begged any thing. est, says Heyne,

603. Crelus : in the sense of ortus. 605. Spargite: in the sense of projicite : 610. Haud multa moralus : delayed not tear me in pieces, and cast mo into the sea.

a moment. 606. Si pereo, &c. Dr. Wharton makes 611. Præsenti pignore. The right hand the following reflections upon this passage. among all nations is considered a pledge of Nothing, says he can more forcibly strike the friendship. Præsens here signifies, readyimagination, than these circumstances of propitious. So adsum, I am present, signithe wandering Trojans, sheltered in a wood, fies also, to favor—to be propitious. upon an unknown coast, and hearing strange 613. Ithacâ : an island in the Ionian sea. and terrible noises during a dark and moon. It formed a part of the dominion of Ulysless night; and not knowing whence the

Hodie, Isola del Compare. dreadful sounds proceeded, or by what they 614. Adamasto: Adamastus my father bemight be occasioned. At daybreak, how ing a poor man. He mentions his poverty as sudden and great the surprise, to see the an excuse for his going to the war; it was ghastly figure of a man, who first runs to- not his choice. Sinon pleads the same exwards them with great precipitation, as if cuse. See Æn. ii. 87. Ulinam: I wish the to beg some assistance; but suddenly starts same state of poverty had remained to me! back at the sight of Trojan habits and arms. 617. Cyclopis. Polyphemus is here meant. At last, recovering himself a little, he re- It is said he was the son of Neptune and solves to flin ghimself into their hands, what. Thoosa, the daughter of Phorcys. It is erer might be the consequence. Received said that Ulysses, on his return from Troy,


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]




618. Ejus domus in- Deseruere. Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis,
tus est opaca, ingens, et Intus opaca, ingens : ipse arduus, alta que pulsat
plena sanie

Sidera ; Dî, talem terris avertite pestem!
Nec visu facilis, nec dictu affabilis ulli.

Visceribus miserorum, et sanguine vescitur atro.
623 Egomet vidi, cùm Vidi egomet, duo de numero cùm corpora nostro,
ille resupinus in medio Prensa manu magnâ, medio resupinus in antro,
intro frangeret duo cor-
pori de nostro numero,

Frangeret ad saxum, sanieque aspersa natarent prensa magnâ manù, ad Limina: vidi, atro cùm membra Auentia tabo

Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentibus artus.
628. Fecit id quidem Haud impunè quidem : nec talia passus Ulysses,
haud impunè: nec Ulys- Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto.
ses passus est talia

Nam simul expletus dapibus, vinoque sepultus
Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antrum
Immensus, saniem eructans ac frustra cruento
Per somnum commixta mero; nos, magna precati
Numina, sortitique vices, unà undique circùm
Fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto
Ingens, quod torvâ solum sub fronte latebatge





visited Sicily, and the straits of Messina. 632. Immensus. Some read immensum, He lost a part of his fleet in the whirlpool to agree with antrum. But immensus is preof Charybdis. This was a dangerous place ferable, referring to the dimensions of Poto all who attempted to pass the straits. It lyphemus. Frusta commista : pieces of gave rise to this proverb : Incidit in Scyllam, human bodies) mingled with bloody wine. qui vult vitare Charybdim, implying that in Per somnum is to be connected with erue. avoiding one evil, we frequently fall into lans. a greater. But no whirlpool is now to be 634. Sorliti vices : having drawn by lot found, sufficiently large to answer to the our parts to act, all at once, we surround description given by the poets and other an- him from all quarters, and dig out, &c. cicnt writers. It is probable some change Donatus thinks it should be tenebramus, inhas been effected in this part of the sea in stead of terebramus: we darken, or extin. the course of time.

guish the light of his eye : which would 621. Nec facilis visu: nor is ko easy to express, as he thinks, the quickness and be looked upon, nor easy to be spoken to celerity of their action. But Homer, by any one. His terrific aspect fills you whom Virgil here follows, expressly men. with dread, and deprives you of the power tions the circumstance of the boring out of of speech. Servius says: Cujus possit eliam the monster's eye; and compares the acaspectus ferre formidinem ; and Stephens: tion of Ulysses and his companions to a Cujus aspectum quidem facile quis sus- carpenter boring a piece of timber. Cirtineat.

cùmfundimur, is probably here used in the 625. Limina aspera.

Limen properly sense of the middle voice of the Greeks. signifies the threshold of the door ; also the 636. Latebat : lay concealed; because door itself, by meton. If it be taken in this his eye was shut in sleep. Quod solum, sense here, then limina aspersa sanie nalarent &c. The Cyclops are represented as have may mean: the door being bespattered ing only one eye, and that one in their with the blood, trickled or ran down. Ruæus forehead. This is doubtless a fiction. No says, porta. It may be taken either way. such people ever existed. Eustathius er.

627. Manderel : in the sense of devoraret. plains the fable thus : that in violent pas629. Ithacus : a name of Ulysses, from sion, men see only one single object, as that Ithaca, his native island. Tunto discrimine: passion directs ; in other words, see with in so important a crisis—in so great dan- one eye only: and further, that passion ger.

transports men into savages, and renders 631. Inflexam : bent, or reclined. Per- them brutal and sanguinary, like Polyphesons in a complete state of intoxication are mus; and he, who by reason cxtinguishes unable to hold their heads erect. They re- that passion, may be said to put out that cline them either upon their shoulders or eye. Others explain it by alleging that breast. This was the case with Polyphe- Polyphemus was a man of uncommon wismus. His head was reclined before he lay dom and penetration, who is therefore re down to sleep.

presented as having only one eye, and that

Argolici clypei aut Phæbeæ lampadis instar :
Et tandem læti sociorum ulciscimur umbras.
Sed fugite, 6 miseri, fugite, atque ab litore funem

Nam, qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro
Lanigeras claudit pecudes, atque ubera pressat ;
Centum alii curva hæc habitant ad litora vulgò
Infandi Cyclopes, et altis montibus errant.
Tertia jam Lunæ se cornua lumine complent, 645
Cùm vitam in sylvis, inter deserta ferarum
Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopas
Prospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisco.
Victum infelicem, baccas, lapidosaque cordata
Dant rami, et vulsis pascunt radicibus berbæ. 650
Omnia collustrans, hanc primùm ad litora classem
Conspexi venientem : huic me, quæcunque fuisset,
Addixi : satis est gentem effugisse nekandam.

653. Satis est mihi, Vos animam hanc potiùs quocunque absumite leto.

effugisse Vix ea fatus erat, summo cùm monte videmus 655 655. Cùm videmus Ipsum inter pecudes vastâ se mole moventem

summo monte, pastoPastorem Polyphemum, et litora nota petentem :

rem Polyphemum ip

sum, moventem se
Monstrum horrendum, informe, • ingenş, cuị lumen

Trunca manum pinus regit, et vestigia firmat.
Lanigeræ comitantur oves : ea sola yoluptas, 660

660. Comitantur eum.

ea est sola voluptas ipsi Solamenque mali : de collo fistula pendet.


[ocr errors]

near hi rain, to denote his superior wis- 649. Infelicem: poor-scanty. Corna :
dom agacity; but that Ulysses out the fruit of the corneil tree. It is round,
witted w, and was said, for that reason, and protected by a hard shell.
to put out his eye.

650. Pascunt : in the sense of nutriunt.
637. Phæbeæ lampadis : the lamp of Phæ- Dant: in the sense of præbent.
bus-the orb of the Sun. The Grecian

651. Collustrans : in the sense of circumshield was large enough to cover the whole spiciens. man: and as that was of an oval form, the

652. Addiri me huic: I have surrendered comparison denotes both the figure and mag- myself ¥o it, whatever it may be-I have nitude of this eye.

given myself up into your hands; do with 639. Miseri. He calls them miserable, or

me as you please. unfortunate, in having come to this coast, life of mine by any death rather than leave

654. Vos potiùs absumile : take away this and being exposed to such danger. Sed fugite. This interruption in his speech is sters of rapacity. Avšumile : in the sense

me behind to die by the han is of these monextremely beautiful. The fear of the Cy- of perdite. clops, and the recollection of the dangers, which he had escaped, rush upon his mind, taken out.

658. Cui lumen : whose eye had been and stop him for a moment, to give the The dat. is frequently used by the poets in

Cui: in the sense of cujus. Trojans advice to flee immediately. He the sense of the gen. Est is to be supplied then resumes the subject.

with ademptum. He informs them that there were on the island a hundred other infandi Cyclopes, hand. From this we may form some idea

659. Trunca pinus : a cut pine guides his horrid Cyclops, such, and as huge as Poly- of his stature. His staff is the trunk of a phemus.

pine. Heyne reads manu : in his hand. 645. Tertia cornua Luna, &c. By this wo 661. Mali : in the sense of miseriæ vel aru to understand that it had been about dcloris. Fistula pendet de collo. These three lunar months since he had been in that words are probably spurious. They are unhappy situation : cùm traho vitam, &c. left out in some editions. Heinsins, Do647. Deserta lustra: the deserted dens, or natus, and Heyne reject them. Nor does

Homer mention any such circumstance

[ocr errors]


Postquàm altos tetigit fluctus, et ad æquora venit,
Luminis effossi fluidum lavit inde cruorem,
Dentibus infrendens gemitu : graditurque per æquor

Jam medium, necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit. 665 666. Nos trepidi cæpi- Nos procul inde fugam trepick celerare, recepto cul inde, supplice, sic Supplice sic merito, tacitique incidere funem merito, recepto à nobis Verrimus et proni certantibus æquora remis.

669. Polyphemus sen- Sensit, et ad sonitum vocis vestigia torsit. sit hoc, et toisit Verùm ubi nulla datur dexttå affectare potestas, 670

670. Nulla potestas Nec potis Ionios fluctus æquare sequendo ; datur illi effectare nos Clamorem immensum tollit, quo pontus et omnes dextrâ ; nec potis est

673. Exterrita fuit Intremuere undæ, penitùsque exterrita tellus penitùs

Italæ, curvisque immugitt Ætna cavernis.
At genus è 'sylvis Cyclopum et montibus altis 673
Excitum ruit ad portus et litora complent.
Cernimus adstantes' neguicquam lumine toryo

Etnæos fratres, cælo capita alta ferentes,
679. Tales quales cùm Concilium horrendum : quales cùm vertice celso
aëriæ quercus, aut coni- Aëriæ quercus aut coniferæ cyparissi

680 682. Acer metus agit

Constiterunt, sylva alta Jovis, lucusve Dianæ. socios præcipites excu

Præcipites metus acer agit quòcunque rudentes
Excutere, et ventis intendere vela secundi




whom Virgil here imitates. Ea sola voluptas, 677. Lumine : in the sense of oculo. Ne &c. probably refers to his sheep.

quicquam : in vain; because we were out of 663. Inde : in the sense of deinde. Or, their reach. perhaps it may be considered merely ex

679. Concilium : in the sense of turbam. pletive. 665. Fluclus : in the sense of aqua.

680. Coniferæ cyparissi: such hen 668. Cerlantibus : in the sense of laboran- stand together with their lofty tops, &c.

the aërial oaks, or cone bearing

esses tibus. 669. Sonitum vocis. This may refer to

The cypress tree bears a fruit resembling the the sound of their voices. For though it is figure of the cone; hence called conifera. said they went off silently, this can only sylva Jovis : and the cypress was sacred to

quercus was sacred to Jove; hence alla mean, they did it with as little noise as posa Proserpina or Diana; hence lucus Diane. sible. There must have been some, so give the necessary orders. But more probably to 682. Præcipites : in the sense of celeres. the sound of their oars; for vox sometimes Quocunque: for quocunque modo, in any signifies any sound whatever.

direction or way whatever. 670. Afectare extrâ : to grasp or seize 683. Excutere rudenies. Rudentes may with his right hand.

be taken for those ropes, which seamen call The common reading is dextram, but this the sheeis. By the help of these, they draw iz more difficult. Heyne reads dextra; in the sail when they wish to go near the which is approved by Valpy, although he wind; or let it out when they sail before it, retains desrtram. Davidson observes some or with a fair wind. It is usually fasten. ancient copies have dextrâ altrectare. ed to the extremity of the sail, or to the

671. Fluctus : in the sense of mare. He boom or yard which extends the sail. That could not equal the depth of the sea. it does not here mean the cables, will ap

673. Undæ intremulere. Dr. Trapp says, pear, when we consider that they had al. this is a most noble hyperbole. Somo there ready cut their cables, incidere funem, verse are, who think it too bold. But they not 667 supra, and were out at sea. Erculere only forget the prerogative of poetry, but the rudentes, therefore, will be, to let out, to loose real nature of fear; which always swells or extend the sheets, so as to sail before the and heightens its object. Penitüs : in the wind. This is more fully expressed by sense of intime.

intendere vela secundis vintis, to spread the 574. Immugiit : in the sense of remugiit. sails to the favorable winds. It was not so

675. Genus: in the sense of gens. Some much the object of Æneas, in this juncture, copics read gens.

to proceed on his direct course, as to sail in

Contrà, jussa monent Heleni Scyllam atque Charybdim :
Inter utramque viam, leti discrimine parvo,

Ni teneant cursus ; certum est dare lintea retrò.
Ecce autem Boreas angustā à sede Pelori

690. Relegens retrorMissus adest : vivo prætervehor ostia saxo

sùm litora errata jam Pantagiæ, Megarosque sinus, Tapsumque jacentem.

antè à se Talia monstrabat relegens errata retrorsùm

690 694. Fama est AlpheLitora Achemenides, comes infelicis Ulyssei.

um amnem Elidis egis

se sibi occultas vias huc Sicanio prætenta sinu jacet insula contra

subter mare; qui amnis Plemmyrium undosum : nomen dixere priores

exiens è tuo ore, 0 AreOrtygiam. Alpheum fama est huc, Elidis amnem, thusa, nunc

NOTES. any direction, so as to escape the hands of closed on each side with a steep rock. Tho the Cyclops. Heyne says, explicare, inten- prep. è, vel et, is understood before viro dere, evolvere rudentes. See 267. supra. saco. Megaros Sinus : the bay of Megara.

684. Contrà jussa Heleni: on the other This bay lies between the river Terias and hand, the commands of Helenus warn (my Syracuse. In this bay was Tapsus, a penincompanions)0 Scylla and Charybdis. That sula, which lay low, and almost level witin they may not hold their course in either the sea. way, in so great danger (small a distance) 690. Monstrabat: Achemenides pointed of death, it is determined to sail backward. out to us these things, as he was sailing That we may not pass near Scylla and Cha- back along the shores, along which he had rybdis, nor near the monster Polyphemus, wandered before. and his associates ; in either way, we should Virgil hero follows the opinions of those be in imminent danger of death, we deter- who make Ulysses to have sailed from the mine to spread our sails backward. The country of the Lotophagi in Africa, to the usual explication of this passage refers southern part of Sicily; and turning the ulramque viam, to Scylla and Charybdis : promontøry of Pachynum, sailed along the implying that the passage between the rock eastern shore, and visited Ætna, and the Scylia and the whirlpool Charybdis was country of the Cyclops. The course of dangerous, and parùm à morte distare. The Æneas being to the south, was the reverse explanation, referring utramque riam Luth of that of Ulysses. Achemenides, therefore, to the straits of Messina, and the Cyclops, might be said to sail back again, with the appears the easiest. In order to shun the greatest propriety.' Dr. Wharton observes, dangers of each, they determined to sail that "irgil is an exact observer of probabiliback into the open sea, or from whehce they ty. If it should be objected by any one,

The wind probably at that moment that Æneas was a perfect stranger to this blew from the south, and prevented them coast, and could not be supposed acquainted from pursuing their direct course. But with the several places, which he passed; shifting to the north, they changed their an answer is at hand: Achemenides, who purpose, and sailed down the eastern shore had lately passed along the same shores, of Scily. This, and the two following lines, pointed tigem out to him. Heyne conjectures are an interpolation. 691. Infelicis: unfortunate. This may

685. Discrimine : in the sense of spatio, refer in general to the disasters he suffered vel distantia: also, of periculo:

in his return from Troy; and particularly 686. Ni: in the sense of ne. Lintea : the loss of a part of his feet in the straits of in the sense of rela.

Messina. The return of Ulysses from Troy, 687. Pelori. Pelorus is the northern pro- is the subject of the Odyssey, montory of Sicily, forming, with Italy, the strails of Messina, so called from a city of front of the Sicilian bay, over against bois

692. Insula prælenda : an island lies in that name on the Sicilian shore. These terous Plemmyrium. This was a promonstraits are about one mile and a half wide. The wind blowing from them, was fair for tory near Syracuse, against which the waves him to sail down the eastern shore of Sicily,

from the sea beat. Hence the epithet undo

sum. Between this promontory and Syraaccording to the direction of Helenus. It is here called Boreas, because it came from

cuse lay the island of Ortygia. the north. Æneas speaks of this wind as a

693. Priores: in the sense of majores. person sent, or commissioned by Heaven to 694. Alpheum. Alpheus, a celebrated river aid and assist him : Missus adest. Angusta of the Peloponnesus, rising from the mounsede. Ruæus says: angusto frete.

tain Stymphalus, running in a westerly di 689. Pantagia ostia. Pantagia was a rection, passing through a part of Arcadia small river, whose mouth (oslia) was en- and Elis, falls into the Sinus Cyparissæus.


« PreviousContinue »