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321. O Priameia vir- Dejecit vultum, et demissâ voce locuta est

390 go, una felix, ante alias o felix una ante alias Priameïa virgo, virgines

, jussa mori ad Hostilem ad tumulum Trojæ sub mænibus altis, hostilem 325. Nos vectæ per

Jussa mori : quæ sortitus non pertulit ullos, diversa æquora, patriâ Nec victoris heri tetigit captiva cubile! incensà, enixæ servitio, Nos patriâ incensâu diversa per æquora vectæ,

325 tulimus fastus Achillea Stirpis Achilleæ fastus, juvenemque superbum stirpis 330. Ast Orestes, in

Servitio enixæ tulimus : qui deinde secutus flammatus magno amore Ledæam Hermionem, Lacedæmoniosque Hymenæos, conjugis ereptæ à se, et Me famulam famuloque Heleno transmisit habendam. ayitatus furiis scelerum, Ast illum, ereptæ magno inflammatus amore

330 cxcipit illum, nempe, Conjugis, et scelerum furiis agitatus, Orestes Pyrrhum,

NOTES.

an arrow.

dromache, who had been his wife. Servas. children. In this last sense, perhaps, te This is the usual reading: but Heyne ob- are to take it here. For it is said, she bore serves that some copies have servai. This a son to Pyrrhus, called Molossus, who gave renders the passage somewhat easier : does his name to a part of Epirus. Some, how. Hector's Andromache preserve the marriage ever, understand it of labor and toil in geof Pyrrhus ?-Is she joined in marriage with neral: laboring in servitude. Ruxus says, Pyrrhus?

parientes in caplivilale : bringing forth chil. 320. Demissa voce : in a low voice. dren in captivity.

321. Priameža virgo: Polysena, the 328. Hermionem. Hermione was the daughter of Priam and Hecuba. Achilles daughter of Menelaus, king of Sparta or fell in love with her; and being invited to Lacedæmon, and Helen, the daughter of Troy by Priam for the purpose of celebra- Jupiter and Leda; hence the adj. Ledæam, ting their nuptials, while in the temple of Ledæan. She was betrothed by Tyndarus Apollo, where the marriage was to have to her cousin Orestes, in the absence of her been performed, he was killed by Paris with father, who, it seems, had promised her to

Achilles, with his last breath, Pyrrhus, while he was at Troy. After his conjured his son Pyrrhus to revenge his return, ho went to Sparta, and carried off death upon Priam's family, and to immolate his spouse. This so enraged Orestes, that Polyxena at his tomb, whenever Troy he followed Pyrrhus to Delphi, where he should be taken. This accordingly he did. went to consult the oracle of Apollo con. Quinctilian quotes this passage as an in- cerning his future race, and there slew him. stance of Virgil's talent at the pathetic. In Hymencos: marriage-match: also nuptials. order, says he, to show the extremity of 329. Transmisil : in the sense of dedil, Andromache's misery, he makes her even vel tradidit. Habendam : to be had-posenvy the fate of Polyxena, who, in the eyes sessed_enjoyed. of all the world besides, was most wretched 331. Conjugis: namely, Hermione. Agiand miserable. How wretched then must

tatus furiis : hurried on by the furies of Andromache's condition have been, if, his crimes. Orestes, it is said, slew his mowhen compared to her, even Polyxena was ther Clytemnestra, for assisting Ægistus,in happy! Instit. Lib. vi. cap. 3. Una: in procuring the death of his father Agamemthe sense of sola,

After which he is said to have been 323. Quæ non perlulit: who hath not haunted and tormented by the furies, (the borne any lots. The Grecian princes, after remorse and stings of a guilty conscierce the capture of Troy, cast lots among them- for imbruing his hands in his niother's blood selves for the captivos.

It is said he was acquitted the cow 324. Nec captiva : nor as a captive, halb the Areopagus at Athens; and, after the touched the bed of a victorious lord. This death of Pyrrhus, he married Hermione, is the calamity from which Andromache and added the kingdom of Sparta to his declares Polyxena happy, in being delivered own hereditary dominions. by death.

The furies were three in number, Aleclo, 325. Nos veciæ: in the sense

ego vecta. Tisiphone, and Megara. After they ceased 326. Fastus : acc. plu. pride-haughti- to torment Orestes, they received the name ness. Stirpis Achillea : Pyrrhus, the off- of Eumenides, which implies benevolence spring of Achilles. Some read faslum. and compassion. He built a temple to them,

327. Enitæ : a part, of the verb enilor, and offered them sacrifices. They were agreeing with nos vecla, above. It signifies represented as holding a burning torch in to labor and toil with our hands in gene

one hand, and a whip in the other. The ral; also the pain and labor of bearing stings and remorses of conscience were tho

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Excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras.
Morte Neoptolemi, regnorum reddita cessit
Pars Heleno ; qui Chaonios cognomine campos,

334. Pars regnorum Chaoniamque omnem Trojano à Chaone dixi: : 335 reddita cessit Heleno : Perganiaque, Iliacamque jugis hanc addidit arcem.

qui dixit campos Chao

nios cognomine, omSed tibi qui cursum venti, quæ fata, dedêre ?

nemque illam regionem Aut quis te ignaruin nostris Deus appulit oris ?

Chaoniam
Quid puer Ascanius ? superatne, et vescitur aura ? 339. Quid puer Aeca-
Quem tibi jam Troja-

340 nius agit?
Ecqua jam puero est amissæ cura parentis ?
Ecquid in antiquam virtutem animosque viriles,
Et pater Æneas, et avunculus excitat Hector ?

345. Cùm heros Pe. Talia fundebat lachrymans, longosque ciebat

lenus Priamides affcrt Incassùm fletus; cùm sese à mænibus heros 345 sese à menibus, multis Priainides multis Helenus comitantibus affert,

comitantibus eum Agnoscitque suos, lætusque ad limina ducit ;

349. Et agnosco par. Et multùm lachrymas verba inter singula fundit.

vam Trojam, Pergama. que parva

simulata Procedo, et parvam 'Trojam, simulataque magnis inagnis Pergama, et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivuin, 350

350. Dictum cognoAgnosco : Scææque amplector limina portæ.

mine Xanthi

NOTES. furies of Orestes, which the poet calls the mante Crcüsa. But at the time of the sack Furia scelerum, the furies of his crimes. It of Troy, Ascanius was several years old, and is probable that he pictured to his iinagina- able to accompany his father. Æn. ji. 724. tion this notion of his being haunted by the Others have added: obsessâ est enixa Creusa : furies, armed with all those terrors, with whom Creüsa bore you, Troy already being which they were represented by the poets. besieged during the siege of Troy. This Suetonius says of Nero: Sæpe confessus ex- probably is the sense, but it has not the agilari se maternâ specie, verberibus furia poetic spirit of Virgil. rum, ac tædis ardentibus.

341. Cura : in the sense of dolor, vel soli332. Excipit: surprised-cauglit. Ad citudo. patrias aras : at his country's altars. The temple of Apollo at Delphi was nearly in

342. Ecquid. This word is used hero the centre of Greece, the country of Pyrr- merely as an interrogative, in the sense of

vel num. hus. In this sense Ruaus and Turr.ebus understand the expression. Others take the

Dr. Trapp, in his translation of the words to mean : at his father's altars; be- Æneid, makes a number of excellent recause Achilles was slain at the altar of marks upon this interesting interview beThrymbran Apollo, at Proy; and he, at tho tween Æneas and Andromacho. He con. altar of Apollo at Delphi.

cludes by saying: " That man surely can 333. Reddita : in the sense of data. Cessi!: have no idea of friendship, nor of human sc!l to Helenus.

nature itself, who is not sensibly touched 335. Dixit : in the sense of vocarit, vel with this whole passage ; which to me is the nominarit. Chaone. Chaon was the son of most affecting in all the Æneid.” Animos: Priam, and consequently the brother of He- courage. Antiquam virtutem : in the sense lenus, who slew him, while hunting, acci- of ritulem majorum. Excitat is to be condentally; and in memory of him, he called nected with each nominative case. Eum, his kingdom Chaonia.

vel illum, is understood after the verb. 336. Jugis : in the sense of monte. Ad- 344. Fundebat : in the sense of dicebal. didit : in the sense of condidit.

Ciebat : in the sense of excit: bat, vel more338. Appulit : in the sense of duxit, vel bat. Longos: in the sense of multos. Heindirerit. Ignarum: Rueus says, inscium. sius reads largos.

339. Superat : in the sense of superest. 348. Mullum : an adv. in the sense of coVescitur : in the sense of spirat.

piosè, vel abundè; or rather in the sense of 310. Quem tibi, &c. This, and somo mullas, agreeing with lachrymas. other imperfect lines in the Æneid, is a proof 349. Simulata : resembling-looking like. that Virgil did not put the finishing stroke 350. Arenlem: in the sense of parvum. to this part of his works. It was his inten- It was small, and perhaps, at some seasons tion, if he had lived, to revise it. To com- of the year, dry. plete the sense of the line, something inust 351. Amplector, &c. It was a custom, be supplici. Coinc have added : peperit fu- when persons were going from home, or re

ап,

Necnon et Teucri sociâ simul urbe fruuntur.
Illos porticibus rex accipiebat in amplis.
Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi,

Impositis auro dapibus, paterasque tenebant. 366 356. Jamquo unus Jamque dies, alterque dies processit ; et auræ dies, alterque

Vela vocant, tumidoque inflatur carbasus Austro.

His vatem aggredior dictis, ac talia quæso : 360. Qui sentis numi- Trojugena, interpres Divûm, qui numina Phæbi, na Phæbi, qui sentis tri- Qui tripodas, Clarii lauros, qui sidera sentis, 360 podas, et lauros Clarii Et volucrum linguas, et præpetis omina pennæ, Apollinis, qui sentis

Fare, age (namque omnem cursum mihi prospera dixit
Relligio ; et cuncti suaserunt numine Divi

Italiam petere, et terras tentare repôstas : 365. Harpyia Coleno Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celæno 360 sola canit novum prodi. Prodigium canit, et tristes denuntiat iras, gium

Obscænamque famem) quæ prima pericula vito?

NOTES.

ui.

'turning, to embrace the pillars and threshold of their flight. The former was called exof their houses

gurium; the observation of which constitu. 354. Aulaïd for aulæ. The gen. of the ted the art of the augures: the latter was called first declension was sometimes formed in auspicium; the observation of which con

Sce Grammar. Bacchi: Bacchus, the stituted the art of the auspices. god of wine, by meton. put for wine itself.

Omina præpetis penne : the omens of the Libabant pocula. It was customary at enter- swift wing-widely extended wings. The tainments, after the first table or course, to

augurs were certain persons, who pretended introduce wine, with a libation to the gods; to foretell future events, principally from the which consisted in pouring a few drops upon noise of certain birds. Romulus created the altar, or upon the table. Libabant : in three; Servius Tullius added another, and the sense of bibebant,

Sylla appointed six additional ones. So that 355. Impositis auro: served up in gold- the number in his time was ten. They genein golden dishes. 357. Tumido Austro: by the rising wind. better to make their observations.

rally sat upon some tower, or high place, tho Auster here is put for wind in general. Carbasis: the canvass, of which the sails wero

362. Prospera relligio: favorable or propiinade.

tious auspices and predictions have direct353. Aggredior: I address the prophet

ed (dixit) my whole course. Numine : in

the sense of auctoritate. Some take this Helenus.

for omnis relligio dirit mihi prosperum cus360. Qui senlis numina : who knowest the will of Phæbus. The verb sentis is to

sum : by hypallage. Here relligio is to be be supplied with each accusative following. the oracles, and the various intimations

taken for the responses and predictions of The poet here enumerates five ways of di- which he had received : all which declared vination. First, by the immediate inspira- that he should arrive safe in Italy. Ruæus tion of the gods-senlis numina Phabi. Second, by sitting upon the Tripod. Third, says, ceremoniæ propitiæ. by burning laurel. Fourth, by contempla- 364. Repôslas: by syn. for reposilas. It ling the stars. Fifth, by tho observation of may mean remote, or at a distance : also birds.

reserved, laid up in store. In this sense 360. Tripodas. The tripod was a kind of Ruæus takes it here. In either case it will three footed scool, upon which the priestess be true, as it respects the land of Italy, whiof Apollo sat, when she delivered the ora- ther he was going. Tentare: to search cles. Clarii. Clarius was an epithet of out-to find : in the sense of petere. Apollo, from Claros, a city of Greece, where 365. Nefas dictu: horrible to be told. he had a celebrated temple. One way of Nefas here is taken as an adj. indeclinable ; divination was, to burn a branch of the the same as nefandum. laurel treo. If it made a crackling noise, it 366. Canit: in the sense of prædicit, was a good omen; but if not, it was consi- 367. Obscænam : in the sense of rabidam dered a bad one.

vel vehementem. Quæ pericula prima vilo? 361. Linguas rolucrum. The omens What dangers first do I shun?-what are were taken from birds in two ways ; from the first, or chief dangers, which I have to the sounds they uttered, and the manner avoid?

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Quxlve sequens, tantos possim superare labores ?

Hic Helenus, cæsis primùm de more juvencis, Exorat pacem Divûm, vittasque resolvit Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phæbe, Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit: Atque hæc deinde canit divino ex ore sacerdos : Nate Deâ ; nam te majoribus ire per altum Auspiciis inanifesta fides: sic fata Deùm rex Sortitur, volvitque vices : is vertitur ordo. Pauca tibi è multis, quò tutior hospita lustres Equora, et Ausonio possis considere portu, Expediam dictis : prohibent nam cætera Parcæ

370

371. Ipseque ducit me manû ad tua limina, o Phæbe, suspensum multo numine

274. Manifesta fides 375 est mihi te ire

377. Expediam dictis pauca tibi, è multis, quò tu tutior lustres hospita æquora

NOTES. 368. Quid sequens: following what coun- 376. Sortilur. This alludes to the custom sel, can I surmount, &c.

of consulting the oracle, which was some370. Resolvit villas : the priest, in per- times done by casting or drawing lots: orforming sacrifice, had his head bound about dinat, says Heyne. with fillets: now he is about to prophesy, 377. Hospita : an adj. intervening. Rulie unbinds, and takes them from his head. aus interprets it by, quæ excipient le: which Paceir : favor-grace.

shall receive you. 372. Suspensum: in the sense of solicitum, It is plain that the seas over which ne was vel trepidantem. Multo numine : at thy aw- to pass, were those that intervened, or lay ful majesty—thy mighty power. Ruæus between Epirus, and that part of Italy to says, ob magnan revereniiam Dei.

which he was bound. These would be the Some copies have suspensus, which means Ionian sea, lying between Epirus and the that Helenus was full of anxiety, perturba- extremity of the peninsula ; that part of the tion, and awe, from the power or influence Mediterranean lying to the east and south of the god. But suspensum is the better of Sicily; and the Tuscan sea, lying between reading, referring to Æneas, who had good Sicily, Italy, and the islands of Sardinia and reason to be in awful suspense and anxiety Corsica. Lustres: in the sense of naviges. about his future fortune, which the god was Valpy takes hospita, in the sense of ignota : about to declare to him by the mouth of to which he was a stranger. lelenus.

379. Parce prohibent: the fates forbid 373. Canil : in the sense of cloquitur. that you should know the rest. Pierius ob

374. Majoribus auspiciis: may mean, with serves, that in most of the ancient copies the grtaler auspices, signs, or manifestations. there is a full stop after scire; Servius apAmong the various omens or signs, which proves of it, and it appears the best. The were thought to give insight into futurity, sense is easier, and we avoid any inconsome were considered more important than sistency. If we make both the verbs, prohiothers. Of these were visions, appearances bent and vetat, refer to Helenus, there will in the heavens, Etc. which all along had ac- be an inconsistency. For, would Juno forbid co:npanied Æneas. But auspicium signifies hiin to declare what he did not know him. any event or fortune. If this be the inean- self? Besides, he had just said that he would ing here, which inost probably is the case, only inform him of a few of the events that then majoribus auspiciis will be, for greater were to befall him; which certainly implies or more important events—for better for that he knew the rest, but was restrained by tune-for more prosperous days. This is heaven from communicating them to him. the opinion of Heyne.

Some of these events it was not proper for 375. Sic rer Deûm: thus the king of the him to know; because the accomplishment gods dispenscs his decrees, and fixes (volvit, depended on his own free will. Others rolls) the series of events: this order (or Juno prevented him from revealing, that ho course of things) is fixed.

inight be the more perplexed with doubts It is plain the poet hath hero in view the and uncertainty; and the more surprised fabulous story of the Parcu, who were and unprovided against the calamity when thought to preside over the events of human it came. Of this kind is the interpretation life; and to order, or fix, whatever befell to of Celæne's prophecy, which Helenus apevery individual froin his birth to the close pears to have understood : for he forbids of his life. The first was represented as him to be much concerned about it, for the holding the distaff; the second as drawing gods would find a way to extricate him from out, or turning off (rolvere,) and fixing the it: verse 394, infra. course of events; the third as cutting the Another particular is the death of Anthread. See Ecl iv. 46.

chiscs. Æneas does not question the fore. Scire : Helenum farique vetat Saturnia Juno. ,

SEO 381. Principio, longa Principio, Italiam, quam tu jam rere Propinquam, via invia longis terris Vicinosque, ignare, paras invadere portus, procul dividit Italiam à Longa procul longis via dividit invia terris. vir, jam rere esse propin. Antè et Trinacriâ lentandus remus in undă, quam, parasque invadere Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus æquor,

385 vicinos portus.

Infernique lacus, Æææque insula Circæ, 386. Infernique lacus Quàm tutâ possis urbem componere terrå. transeundi suni, insulaque Exæ Circa adeun: Signa tibi dicam : tu condita mente teneto. da est, antè quàm tu pos- Cùm tibi sollicito secreti ad fluminis undam Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus,

390 389. Cùm ingens sus, Triginta capitum fuetus enixa jacebit, inventa tibi sollicito ad Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati; undam secreti fluminis sub Litoreis ilicibus,

Is locus urbis erit ; requies ea certa laborum. enixa fætus triginta ca- Nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros. pitum, jacebat solo re- Fata viam invenient, aderitque vocatus Apollo. 395

sis

NOTES.

knowledge of Helenus concerning that event: tory, which, from her, was called Circe's he only complains that he did not reveal it Mount. Hodie, Circello. to himn : verse 712. infra. Expediam: in 387. Componere: in the sense of condere. the sense of explicabo.

Tuta terra : in a safe land. This, perhaps, 381. Rere : in the sense of putas. is said in allusion to his being obliged to

382. Invadere: to take possession of—to abandon the settlements he had made in enter.

Thrace and in Crete. In Italy he shoul) 333. Longa via invia: a long voyage, find a sure and permanent residence. interrupted by extensive lands, separates 388. Condila : in the sense of reposita . Italy at a distance from you, which, &c. it agrees with ea, understood. Invia: in the sense of perdifficilis. Æneas' 339. Tibi sollicito-inrenta : found by you voyage was much lengthened by his being solicitous—anxious-musing. The dat, is obliged to sail round the southern part of frequently used by the poets in the sense of Sicily; the islands that lay in his course, the abl.; also, in the sense of the gen. Ad and other lands, rendered long, difficult, undam fluminis. The river Tiber is bere and dangerous; and much interrupted and meant. turned from a direct course.

390. Sub litoreis : under the holm-trees 384. Trinacria : a name of Sicily, (used shading the river-growing on the banks of here as an adj.) taken from its triangular the river. form. Its three promontories were Pelorus, 391. Enita fætus : having brought forth Pachynus, and Lilybeum. Remus lentandus: a litter of thirty hcad. ihe oar must be bent in the Sicilian sea. 392. Recubans: this I take in the sense This implies that they were to labor hard at of prostratus, flat (at full length) on her side,

The verb est is to be supplied, in reference to the manner of her lying; 385. Æquor Ausonii salis : the susface of that being the position of the female when the Italian (Tuscan) sea is to be sailed over. she gives suck to her young. Jucebit solo Salis: gen. of sal : by meton. put for the recubans, alba : shall lie on the ground flat sea. Æquor is here used in its proper sense on her side; herself white, and her pige and meaning.

white around her teats. In this ordo of con. 386. Inferni lacus : the infernal lakes struction, recubans conveys an addicional must be passed, and the island of Æxan idea to that already communicate by the Circe must be approached, before that (antè verb jacebit, and is very significant. In the quàm) you can, &c. Helenus here intimates usual ordo it is mero tautology. This cirto Æneas his descent to hell, which is the cumstance of finding a white sow, with thirty subject of the 6th book.

pigs, was founded an ancient historical traCirce was a celebrated sorceress, the dition. Alba, a city built by Ascanius, and daughter of the sun, and the nymph Perse. made the seat of his gorernment, took its Sho is bero called Ævan, from Æa, an name from this omen of the white sow and island and city of Colchis, not far from thin her pigs, as Varro infornis us. river Phasis. She married a king of Samura- 394. Morsus: the eating, or consumption lia, whom she poisoned. After wl she of your tables. fled into Italy, to a muntain and promon- 395. Aderit: in the sense of adjuvabit.

the oar.

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