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What were the prodigies that effected that What effect had her loss upon him at the change?

first? To what place did he retire?

How was his mind quieted ? How did he convey his father?

What directions did her apparition gire How his son Ascanius?

him? What direction did he give his wife After his return to the place of rendez Creüsa."

vous, did he find great numbers there col. Did he arrive in safety to the place ap- lected? pointed ?

Did they consider him their leader and What became of his wife?

king ? What did he do in consequence of her Were they prepared and willing to underloss ?

take any enterprise, he might think proper ?


Æneas, having finished the sack of Troy, proceeds to relute to Dido the particulars of his voyage. Having built a fleet of twenty ships near Antandros, he set sail in the spring, probably, of the year following the capture of Troy. He landed on the shores of Thrace, and there commenced the building of a city, which he called, after his own name, Ænos, and the inhabitants, Æneada. He was, however, soon interrupted in the prosecution of his work, by the shade of Polydorus, the son of Priam. He had been barbarously put to death by Polymnestor, king of Thrace, his brother-in-law, and buried in this place. It directed him to leave the polluted land, and to seek another clime for

his intended city. Having performed the funeral rites to Polydorus, he set sail, directing his course to the

south; and soon arrived on the coast of Delos, one of the Cyclades. Here he was hospitably received by Anius, king of the island, and priest of Apollo. He was directed by the oracle to seek the land of his and stors; there he should found a city, which should bear rule over all nations. This information was joyfully received. Whereupon, they concluded that Crete, the birth-place of Teucer, was the land to which the oracle

directed them. Leaving Delos, in a short time they arrive on the shores of Crete. They hail it with

joy as the termination of their wanderings. Here Æneas lays the foundation of a city which he called Pergama, and was preparing to enter upon the business of agriculture, when a sudden plague arose, which put an end to his prospects, and carried off many of his companions. In this juncture, it was agreed that he should go back to Delos, to obtain further instructions. In the mean time, in a vision, he was informed that Crete was not the land destined to hiin, and that the oracle of Apollo intended he should seek Italy, the land of Dardanus. This quieted his mind; and Anchises acknowledged that both Teucer and Dardanus were the founders of their race, and that he had been mis

taken in reckoning their descent in the line of Teucer. Æneas, without delay, leaves Crete; and in a few days arrived on the coast of the Stro

phades, in the Ionian sea, on the west of the Peloponnesus. Here he landed with his Alect, and found these islands in the possession of the Harpies. Çelæno, one of them, informed him, that, before he should found a city, they should be reduced to the necessity of consuming their tables. This was the first intimation which he had received of want

and sufforing, in the land destined to him.' It sunk deep into his mind. Leaving these islands, he directed his course westward, and soon arrived on the coast of

Epirus. Ho landed at Actium, ana celebrated the Trojan games. From Actium, he proceeded to that part of Epirus called Chaonia. On his entering the

harbor, he heard that Helenus, the son of Priam, sat upon the throne of Pyrrhus, and that Andromache had become his wife. Desirous of hearing the truth of this report, he proceeds direct to Buthrotus, the seat of government. Here, to his great joy, he finds his friends, and remained with them for some time. Helenus, at their departure, loads them with presents. Andromache gives to Ascanius alone, who was the exact

picture of her son Astyanax. From Epirus, Æneas passes over the Ionian sea, and arrives at the promontory läpygjum.

Thence he sails down the coast of Magna Græcia, and the eastern shore of Sicily, to tho promontory Pachynum; thence along the southern shore to the port of Drepanum, where he lost his father Anchises; which concludes the book.

This book Contains the annals of seven years, and is repleto with geographical and his.

torical information. Nor is it wanting in fine specimens of poetry, and in interesting incidents. The joy of Æneas at finding Helenus and Andrómachoʻon the throne of Epirus-their happy meeting—their tender and affectionate parting th3 description of

Scylla and Charybdis, and the episode of the Cyclops, aro all worthy of the poet, In this book, Virgil in a particular manner follows the Odyssey of Homer.

POSTQUAM rės Asià Priamique evertere gentem 1. Postquam visum Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum

est Superis evertere res Ilium, nis humo fumat Neptunia Troja : Diversa exilia, et desertas quærere terras, Auguriis agimur Divům : classemque sub ipsa

5 Antandro, ei Phrygiæ molimur montibus Idæ: Incerti quò futa ferant, ubi sistere detur ;

7. Ferart nos, ubi deContrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat æstas,

tur nobis sistere pedem Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat.



1. Res Asiæ : the power of Asia. tor-by the lambent flame on the head of

2. Immeritam : undeserving such a cala- Ascanius--and by the interview which he mity. The ruin of their country was owing had with the ghost of Creüsa. Ominibus to the crimes of Paris and Laomedon. See Deorum, says Ruæus. Geor. i. 502, and Æn. i. Visum Superis : it

6. Antandro. Antandros was a city of pleased, or seemed good to the gods. This the lesser Phrygia, at the foot of mount Ida, was a common mode of expression, when and a convenient place to build and equip a events were not prosperous. The verb est fleet. Molimur : in the sense of fabricamus. is to be supplied with visum. 3. Neptunia. Troy is here called Nepa surprised to hear Æneas express any doub!

7. Incerti quò. We may be somewhat tunean, because Neptune, with Apollo, it is said, built its walls in the reign of Laome. He had been distinctly informed by the

as to his course and intended settlement. don. Homer and Virgil ascribe the build. ing of the walls to Neptune alone. Ruæus ghost of his wife, that Ítaly was the place takes llium to mean the citadel of Troy, he could not therefore have given full cre,

destined for him in the counsels of the gods: and distinguishes it from the whole town, dence to the account; or the dangers and which is here expressed by, omnis Troja. difficulties of the undertaking might have Homer uses Ilios, and Ovid, Ilion. Fumat. filled his mind with anxious and distrustful

The present here is much more expressive apprehensions : or perhaps it is a passager than the past tense would have been: smokes to the ground.

which the author would have corrected, if 4. Diversa : in the sense of remola, or

he had lived to revise his work. longinqua. Although_the Trojans, under 8. Prima æstas. Scaliger thinks that different leaders, as Æneas, Helenus, and Troy was taken about the full moon, and Antenor, settled in different regions, yet near the end of spring, and that Æneas set diversa ecilia plainly refers to Æneas and his out the beginning of summer. But it is followers only, who were all appointed to evident that it would require a greater go in quest of the same settlement. Deser- length of time to build a fleet, and make tas terras : unoccupied-uncultivated lands; other preparations for his long voyage. If where they might settle in peace. Or, we

he be correct in the time of the capture of may suppose Æneas to speak the language Troy, the prima æstas, with more propriety, of his heart at that time. Having the dis- will mean the beginning of the summer of mal idea of the destruction of his country the following year. This better agrees with fresh in his mind, and the uncertain prospect history. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, inof a settlement in some unknown land, (in- forms us that he collected an army and forcerti quò fata ferant, ubi sistere detur,) it tified himself on mount Ida; but not thinkwas natural for him to have uncomfortable ing it prudent to engage the enemy, he caapprehensions of the country to which he pitulated on honorable terms; one of which was going ; to call it an exile, or place of was, that he should be allowed to depar banishment, a land of solitude and deser- from Troas with his followers without mo tion. Some read diversas, for desertas. lestation, after a certain time, which he em

5. Auguriis Divûm : by the intimations, ployed in building and equipping a fleet. or prodigies of the gods. This refers to 9. Fatis: quò fata vellent, says Ruæus. the several prophetic intimations given to Propter jussa et monita Deorum, says Heyne. him of his future fate by the ghost of Heo- Some copies have ventis

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Litora tum patriæ lachrymans, portusque relinquo,

10 Et campos, ubi Troja fuit : feror exul in altum, Cum sociis, natoque, Penatibus, et magnis Dis.

Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 14. Quam Thraces Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo:

Hospitium antiquum Trojæ, sociique Penates, 15 15. Fuit antiquum Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huc, et litore curvo hospitium Troja, cujus Mænia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis : que Penates erant socii nostris, dum fortuna fuit Æneadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. nobis

Sacra Dionææ matri, Divisque ferebam 22. Quo summo erant Auspicibus cæptorum operum : superöquě nientem 20 cornea virgulta, et myr

Calicolüm regi mactabam in litore tàurum. tus horrida densis Fortè fuit juxtà tumulus, quo cornea suinmo

NOTES. 10. Lachrymans. The shedding of tears There had been a long and friendly alliis an indication of compassion and humani- anco between the tu o countries, by virtue of ty. It is not inconsistent with true fortitude which the Thracians gave a hospitable reand greatness of mind, and no way unbe- ception to all strangers from Troy; and the coining a hero. But there is no necessity Trojans, in turn, repaid the kindness by of understanding it here, and in various civilities to the Thracians. This hospitaliother passages where it occurs, as if Æneas ty was sometimes between whole nations, actually shed tears. Ruæus takes it in the between one city and another, and somesense of lugens, grieving at the idea of times between particular families. Polymleaving his native country, and at the pros- nestor, king of Thrace, married Ilione, the pect of the dangers which were before him. daughter of Priam. By these means the

12. Magnis Dis. The great gods were two nations became related in their respecJupiter, Juno, Mars, Pallas, Mercury, and tive heads: and their gods might be said to Apollo; sometimes called the Dii majorum be allied, confederate, and friends, in consegentium. The Penales were domestic gods, quence of it. withont any particular name. The images

17. Prima mania: I place my first walls. of all these gods Æneas took with him into The city which Æneas first founded, we Italy, and introduced their worship, as we are told, he called Ænos. It was not far are told, into Latium, after he was settled from the mouth of the Hebrus, on the shore in that kingdom. Some take the Magnis of the Ægean sea. The tomb of PolydoDis to be the same with the Penatibus. rus was near this place. Ingressus : having See Geor. ii. 505. and Æn. ii. 717.

entered upon the business with fates unkind 13. Maxvortia terra : a martial land. -against the will and purposes of the gods, Thrace is so called, because said to be the who directed him to the land of Dardanus. birthplace of Mars. This was a very exten- 18. Fingo Æneadas: I call the inhabisive country, bounded on the east by the tants Arcada, a name derived from my Euxine sea, south by the Propontis, Helles

Fingo : in the sense of roco. pont, and Ægean sea, and on the West by 19. Dionææ : an adj. from Dione, the moMacedonia. Colitur : in the sense of habi- ther of Venus. Matri: to his mother, Venus. latur. Procul. This word sometimes sig- Sacra: in the sense of sacrificia. And ferenifies near, in view, as if pro oculis, as in bam: in the sense of offerebam. Ecl. vi. 16. In this sense it may be taken 20. Auspicibus : the favorers or patrons here; for Thrace was only a short distance of our work begun. It is put in apposition from the port where Æneas set sail. But it with Divis. may have reference to Carthage, the place 21. Mactabam: I was sacrificing a shining where he then was ; and then it may be bull to the high king of the gods. taken in its usual acceptation.

Servius tells us that a bull was one of 14. Acri Lycurgo: warliko Lycurgus. He those animals forbidden to be offered in sawas the son of Dryas. Being offended at crifice to Jove; and thinks Virgil, designBacchus, it is said, he banished him and his edly, makes Æneas offer here an unlawful votaries from his kingdom; and ordered all sacrifice, in order to introduce the inauspithe vines to be destroyed in his dominions. cious omen that followed. But La Cerda For whicn impiety the god deprived him of assures us, upon the best authority, that it his sight. Regnata, refers to lerra: govern- was usual to sacrifice bulls .to Jupiter, as ed, or rulod.

well as to the other gods. Nilentem. Ruxus 15. Hospilium : an ancient retreat of says, pinguem : and Heyne, candidum. Troy, and its gods were our friends, while 22. Tumulus : a rising ground, or hillock. fortune was with us.

Quo summo : on whose top. Cornea: an



Virgulta, et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus.
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere sylvam

24. Accessi ad locum, Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras : 25 conatusque sum convel

lero Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum. Nam, quæ prima solo, ruptis radicibus, arbos

27. Quæ arbos prima Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttæ,

vellitur solo, huic guttæ

er atro Et terram tabo maculant. Mihi frigidus horror Membranasit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 30 30. Coit circùm cor. Rursus erius lentum convellere vimen

31. Alterius arboris, Insequor, et causas penitùs tentare latentes :

et penitùs tentare laten

tes causas earum rerum ; Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis.

et ater
Multa movens animo, Nymphas vencrabar agrestes,
Gradivumque patrem, Geticis qui præsidet arvis, 35
Ritè secundarent visus, omenque levarent.

36. Ut ritè secunda. Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nixu

rent visus, levarentquo

malum omen
Aggredior, genibusque adversæ obluctor arenæ :
Eloquar, an sileam? gemitus lachrymabilis imo
Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fertur ad aures : 40

41. Quid, O Ænea,

lacoras miserum? Quid miserum, Ænea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto,

jam parce mihi Parce pias scelerare manus: non me tibi Troja

43. De stipite arboris, Externum tulit: haud cruor hic de stipite manat. sed de meo corpore.

NOTES. adj. of the corneil tree. Densis hastilibus. in time of peace. Its derivation is uncertain. The long and tapering branches of a tree Geticis : an adj. from Getæ, a people bormay not improperly be called hastilia, spears. dering upon the Ister, or Danube; here put There is a peculiar propriety in the use of for Thracian, on account of the vicinity of the word here, as being the spears with the two countries : or, because Thrace was which the body of Polydorus had been trans- thought to extend, indefinitely, to the North. fixed ; and had sprung up into a thick 36. Secundarent. Two omens were rebody of trees or shrubs. Horrida : awful. quired for confirmation: if the first happened Ruæus says, aspera,

to be unlucky, and the second prosperous, 24. Sylvam: in the sense, here, of ramos the latter destroyed the former, and was vel ramum.

termed omen secundum; and hence secundo, 26. Monstrum: in the sense of prodigium. to prosper. Æneas, therefore, wished to

27. Arbos: a shrub, bush, or small tree. have the omen repeated, that the bad or unSolo: from the earth. 28. Huic : in the sense of ex hâc. Liqu- taken away.

lucky import of it might be removed, or

Visus i vision, acc. plu. Leuntur : in the sense of defluunt. Atro san- varent: in the sense of averterent. guine: in the sense of alri sanguinis. The

37. Tertia hastilia : a third shrub or tree. prep. e or ex is understood. 29. Hatvor: in the sense of tremor. Mihi: Nitu : in the sense of vi.

38. Aggredior: I attempt, or try to pull in the sense of mea. 30. Sanguis gelidus : my blood, chilled up, &c. He exerted himself to eradicate

it, with his knees upon the ground, that he through tear, collects together-ceases to

might have the greater purchase, or power. flow in its regular course. 32. Insequor : I proceed to tear up. Vi- Adversæ : opposite, right against his knees.

40. Reddita : in the sense of emissa ex eo. men lentum : a limber, or pliant shoot or shrub.

42. Parce scelerare : forbear to pollute 34. Venerabar Nymphas. These rustic your pious hands. It was the law of the nymphs, to whom Æneas here prays, were Twelve Tables, and, indeed, it is the voice of probably the Hamadryades, whose destiny humanity, that no injury be done to the was connected with that of some particular dead: defuncti injuria ne afficiantur. The trees, with which they lived and died. ghost of Polydorus, therefore, calls out to Æneas might consider this horrid omen, as Æneas : parce jam sepullo: let me alone : an indication of their displeasure, for his leave me, at least, to my rest in the grave. offering to violate those pledges of their 43. Externum non. Polydorus was the existence. Movens : in the sense of volvens. son of Priam, and the brother of Creüsa, the

35. Gradivum patrem : Mars. We are wife of Æneas. He was therefore not a told that Gradivus was an epithet, or name, stranger or foreigner, in the truest sense of of Mars in time of war, as Quirinus was the word, to Æneas. Cicero makes him the




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Heu! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum 45. Ferrea seges te- Nam Polydorus ego : hic confixum ferrea texit lorum texit me confixum Telorum seges, et jaculis increvit acutis. hic

Tum verò ancipiti mentem formidine pressus 47. Pressus quoad mentem ancipiti

Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit. 49. Quondam infelix

Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno Priamus furtim mandá- Infelix Priamus furtim mandârat alendum

50 hunc Polydorum Threïcio regi ; cùm jam diffideret armis Threïcio regi alendum,

Dardaniæ, cingique urbem obsidione videret magno pondere auri

Īllē, ut opes fractæ Teucrûm, et fortuna recéssit,
53. Ille, nempe Polym- Res Agamemnonias victriciaquearma secutus,
nestor, ut opes Teucrúm Fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55 1
fractæ sunt

Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
Auri sacra fames! Postquam pavor ossa reliquit,

Delectos populi ad proceres, primùmque parentem, 59. Que sit eorum Monstra Deùm refero; et, quæ sit sententia, posco. sententia de iis.

Omnibus idem animus, sceleratâ excedere terrå, 60
60. Est idem animus
omnibus excedcre

Linquere pollutum hospitium, et dare classibus Austros.
Ergò instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus : stant manibus aræ,
Cæruleis mestæ vittis atraque cupresso :

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Bon of lione, the daughter of Priam, and gold, what dost thou not force the hearts of wife of Polymnestor, king of Thrace. Tulit: men to perpetrate! The word sacer signiproduced, or bore. Slipite: the body, or fies, usually, sacred, holy : here, accursed, trunk.

execrable. The word facere or perpetrare, 45. Ferrea seyes. To understand this pas- is to be supplied. Heyne says, ad quid: to sage, we may suppose that these darts were what, &c. thrown in upon the body of Polydorus as he 59. Monstra Deûm: the prodigies of the lay in the grave; which they pierced : and, gods. Primùm: in the sense of præcipuè. taking root in that place, sprang up, and Heyne says, primo loco grew in the form of sharp pointed javelins, 61. Hospilium: in the sense of lacum forming a shade over the tomb. Heyne Dare austros clasfibus: to give the winds to says: escreverunt in arbores unde jacula pe- the fleet. In the sense of dare vela venlis.

Ausler, is here taken for the wind in gene46. Increvil acutis: grew up into sharp ral: the species for the genus. The south javelins : into trees like sharp javelins. wind would have been against him, going

47. Pressus: in the sense of percussus. from Thrace to Delos. Ancipili : dubia, says Ruæus.

62. Inslauramus funus : we perform the 50. Mandârat : in the sense of miserat. funeral rites to Polydorus. He had not

51. Diffideret : in the sense of desperaret. been buried with the usual solemnities, a Dardaniæ : in the sense of Troja. See Æn. matter which the ancients considered of i. 1.

great moment. These rites were called 53. Opes Teucrûm : the power of the justa. Without them, they thought the soul Trojans was broken. Ui: in the sense of wandered 100 years without any rest. Virquando.

gil here gives a full account of the funeral 54. Res Agamemnonias : embracing (se- rites performed by the Romans, at the cutus) the Grecian cause, and their victo- interment of the dead. rious arms, he breaks every sacred obliga- 63. Ingens tellus : a huge pile of earth is tion. Againemnon was captain general of thrown up for the tomb. Arc stant mani. the Grecian forces in the expedition against bus. It appears that two allars were conTroy. His interest, therefore, is the general secrated to the Manes. See 305, infra, interest of the Greeks, Fas: properly a also, Ecl. v. 66. By manibus here, we are divine, or sacred law. By the murder of to understand the soul or spirit of Polydorus. Polydorus, ho broke through the ties of 64. Mæstæ: mournful--dressed in mournconsanguinity, hospitality, and friendship; ing. These fillets were of a deep purple or which are considered of a sacred nature. violet color-a color between blue and black.

57. Sacra fames auri: O cursed desire of Ruæus says, tristes.

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