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Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu, patriosque Penates.
Me, bello è tanto digressum et cæde recenti,

718. Nefas esset me Attrectare nefas ; donec me flumine vivo

digressum Abluero.

720 Hæc fatus, latos humeros subjectaque colla Veste super, fulvique insternor pelle leonis,

722. Fatus hæc, inSuccedoque oneri: dextræ se parvus lülus

sternor super latos huImplicuit, sequiturque patrem non passibus æquis.

meros, subjectaque colla Ponè subit conjux. Ferimur per opaca locorum : 725

726. Et nunc omnes Et me, quem dudum non ulla injecta movebant

auræ terrent, omnis so: Tela, neque adverso glomerati ex agmine Graii, nus excitat me, et reddit Nunc omnes terrent auræ, sonus excitat omnis

me suspensum, et pariSuspensum, et pariter comitique onerique timentem.

ter timentem comitique, Jamque propinquabam portis, omnemque

videbar 730 onerique; me, inquam,

quem dudum non olla Evasisse viam ; subitò cùm creber ad aures

injecta tela, neque Graii

NOTES.

717. Sacra: the holy, or sacred utensils; dies in water, before they performed acts of such as were used in offering sacrifices, and religion, especially if they had been pollu in other ceremonies of religious worship : ted with bloodshed. On such occasions. neu. plu, of sacer, used as a sub. Heyne they were obliged to use pure water, like thinks sacra here, and in verse 293, supra, that of fountains or running water. Hence means the images of the gods; thus ma- Æneas says: Donec abluero me vivo flumine king it the same with Penales. The reader until I shall have washed myself in pure or must judge for himself. His words are: living water. Flumine: in the sense of Sacra el Penates possunt pro eadem re haberi: aqua. Bello : in the sense of pugnâ. et sic de Deorum simulacris, etiam de Pena- 722. Insternor super : I am covered upon tibus ipsis.

my broad shoulders and bended neck with a Penales. This word is derived probably gra mend, &c.— I cover myself, &c. This use from penus, which signifies all kinds of food of the vend answers to the middle voice of or provisions for the use of man. The Pe- the Greeks. So imponere: be thou placed nates were usually worshipped in the inte- .-place thyself; verse 707, supra. Subjecta ; rior part of the house. Their number is in the sense of submissa. not known, nor is it certain what gods were 723. Succedo oneri. The meaning is: 1 so denominated. Some reckon Jupiter, take my father upon my shoulders—place Juno, and Minerva, among the Penates; myself under the load. others, Neptune and Apollo; others again, 725. Opaca locorum : the same as opaca Cælus and Terra: and Arnobius reckons loca. Or the word spatia may be underihe Dii Consentes, or Complices, among their stood, connected with opaca,

and

governing number. There were three orders of the locorum. Dii Penates. Those that presided over 727. Glomerati ex adverso : collected to. kingdoms and provinces, were called solely gether in hostile array. Here we have a Penales: those that presided over cities very beautiful image of our hero's pious only, were called Dii Patrii, domestic gods, and filial affection. With unshaken fortior gods of the country : those that presided tude he faced the greatest dangers, when over particular houses and families, were his own person only was exposed: now called Parvi Penates.

every appearance of danger strikes him It is not certain under what shape or with terror, on account of his dear charge. figure they were worshipped. Some sup- Adverso: in the sense of hoslili. pose it was under the figure of a young 729. Suspensum: in the sense of solicitum. man sitting and holding a spear. It is said 730. Videbar, &c. Ruæus interprets the that Dardanus introduced them from Sa- following words by, excessisse ex omnibus mothracia into Troy, and that Æneas took viis; which appears entirely inadmissible. them with him into Italy. See Geor. ii. 505. The meaning is : that he seemed to have

719. Nefas me: it is unlawful for me, ha- ' escaped all the danger of the way; when, to ving come, &c. In like manner, Homer his surprise, a frequent sound of feet sudmakes Hector say he was afraid of perform- denly struck his ears. ing religious worship to Jupiter, while his , 731. Viam. This is the common reading. hands were polluted with blood, Iliad vi. Heyne, at the suggestion of Markland, reads 334. It was the custom of the Greeks and vicem, in the sense of periculum; which is Romans, and most other nations, to wash preferable, if we had sufficient authority for their hands, and sometimes their whole bo- the substitution.

Visus adesse pedum sonitus: genitorque per umbram 733. Hostes propin- Prospiciens, Nate, exclamat, fuge, nate : propinquant quant

Ardentes clypeos atque æra micantia cerno. 735. Hic malè ami. Hic mihi nescio quod trepido malè numen amicum cum numen, necio quod Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque avia cursu 736 numen, eripuit mihi tre- Dum sequor, et notâ excedo regione viarum : pido 738. Conjux Creüsa

Heu! misero conjux fatone erepta Creusa substitit; incertum est, Substitit, erravitne viâ, seu lassa resedit, erepta-ne misero fato, Incertum : nec pòst oculis est reddita nostris. 740 erravit-ne viâ, seu Nec priùs amissam respexi, animumve reflexi,

741. Nec respexi, reflexive animum, eam esse

Quàm tumulum antiquæ Cereris, sedemque sacratam amissam, priùsquàm ve

Venimus : hìc demum, collectis omnibus, una nimus ad

Defuit ; et comites, natumque, virumque fefellit. 743. Uxor una defuit Quem non incusavi amens hominumque Deorumque ? Aut quid in eversâ vidi crudelius urbe ?

46 Ascanium, Anchisenque patrem, Teucrosque Penates 748. Recondo cos, in Commendo sociis, et curvâ valle recondo.

Ipse urbem repeto, et cingor fulgentibus armis. 750. Stat sententia re

Stat casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti 755. Ubique est hor. Per 'Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclis. ror; simul ipsa silentia Principio, muros, obscuraque limina portæ, noctis terrent animos. Quà gressum extuleram, repeto: et vestigia retro Inde refero me domum, Observata sequor per noctem, et lumine lustro. ul viderem, si fortè, si fortè Creüsa tulisset pe

Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 755 dem huc.

Inde domum, si fortè pedem, si fortè tulisset,

novare omnes

NOTES.

retreat.

732. Umbram: in the sense of déneoras. mind--reflected. Heyno reads ve. The

734. Cerno: I see their glittering shields common reading is que. and gleaming brass. Æra: brazen armour. 742. Tumulum. The hill, or eminence, on

735. Malè: in the sense of non. Malè which the temple of Ceres was situated. amicum: in the sense of inimicum, vel in- See 714. supra. festum.

745. Quem hominumque : whom both of 736. Confusam mentem. His mind was men and gods did I not blame? Amens: confused, and in a state of perturbation, for distracted in mind-deprived of my reason : fear that something might befall him in his of a, privativum, and mens.

He had retained his presence of 747. Teucros : in the sense of Trojanos. mind so far as to make good his escape in 750. Stat. Sententia, or some word of the best possible manner. Now, on a sud- the like import, is understood: my purpose den, he loses all recollection ; he forgets is fixed : I am resolved. While the mind is in himself;she knows not what he does: he is doubt and uncertainty, it reels to and fro deprived of that presence of mind which he from one thing to another, fluctuat, vacillat : had hitherto retained, by some unfriendly but when it is determined and resolved, then deity. In consequence of this he left the it stands still; it is at rest. Casus : in the plain road, laking the by-paths: nor did he sense of pericula. Reverti: in the sense of recollect to look back to see if his wife was redire. following him.

752. Limina: threshold-entrance. Avia : an adj. agreeing with loca under- 753. Extuleram gressum: where I had stood; out of the way: from the ordinary come out. A phrase. or common way. Of a, privativum, and via. 754. Lumine. Lumen properly signifies

737. Nola regione viarum ; simply, from light: it also signifies an eye. In this last the known or beaten way. ,

sense, Rueus takes it, and interprets it by 738. Misero fato. Some render misero, with oculisa It is perhaps better to understand it mihi understood. But miser signifies that of the light occasioned by the conflagration which makes miserable, as well as simply, of Troy. In this case, sequor, &c. may be miserable. In this sense it may be connect- rendered : I follow back my footsteps obed with falo: distressing fate. When thus served in the darkness, and search them out construed, it hath a peculiar force. Both by the light of the flames. Davidson agrees Ruæus and Heyne say, misero mihi.

with Ruæus. 741. Reflexi animum: turned back my 756. Si fortè, si fortè: if by chance, if by

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Me refero. Irruerant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant.
llicèt ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento
Volvitur ; exsuperant flammæ ; furit æstus ad auras.
Procedo ad Priami sedes, arcemque reviso.

760
Et jam porticibus vacuis, Junonis asylo,
Custodes lecti Phænix ek dirus Ulysses
Prædam asservabant: huc undique Troïa gaza
Incensis erepta adytis, mensæque Deorum,
Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis

765

765. Solidi ex anro
Congeritur. Pueri et pavidæ longo ordine matres
Stant circùm.

Ausus quinetiam voces jactare per umbram
Implevi clamore vias : mæstusque Creüsam
Nequicquam ingeminans, iterumque iterumque vocavi.

771. Infelix simulaQuærenti, et tectis urbis sinè fine furenti,

crum,atque umbra CreüInfelix simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra Creüsæ

sæ ipsius, et imago maVisa mihi ante oculos, et notâ major imago.

jor notâ visa est mihi Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit. ante oculos, quærenti Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis :

775 eam, et furenti

775. Tum illa coepit Quid tantùm insano juvat indulgere dolori,

sic affari me O dulcis conjux ? non hæc sinè numine Divûm

778. Nec fas est, aut Eveniunt : : nec te comitem asportare Creusam

ille regnator superi

NOTES.

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chance, she had returned thither. Tulisset friends in their expedition. It shows the
pedem : had returned, or gone thither. The judgment of the poet.
repetition of the si forlè, is emphatical. 773. Imago major notâ: her image larger

760. Procedo. Creusa was the daughter than life—than when alive. Spectres and
of Priam, by Hecuba ; which, perhaps, is apparitions are usually represented of a
the reason of his going to his palace in large size; fear having a tendency to en-
search of her.

large objects that are presented to the ima761. Asylo : in the sense of templo. Por- gination Oh arkness of the night has a ticibus : in the passages or aisles.

tende to enarge the appearance of ob763. Gaza. This word signifies all kinds jects seen obscurely and imperfectly. of rich furniture-wealth-property. It is This episode of Creüsa's death is introof Persian origin. Erepta, is connected duced, not merely for the importance of the with it.

event, but because it answered several im764. Mensæ Deorum. These were the portant purposes of the poet. It gave him tripods of the gods, which served for deli- an opportunity of more fully illustrating the vering the oracles, or for bearing the sacred piety of Æneas, by showing him once more vessels. Adytis: in the sense of templis. exposed to all tilne dangers of the war in

763. Undique. This word may imply, that search of his wife; hyd, in consequence of the things here mentioned were collected that, leads us back with his hero to visit from all parts of the town, and thrown in Troy smoking in its ruins, and makes us this place (huc,) or that they were piled up acquainted with several affecting circumhere all around--in every part of the building. stances, without which the narration would

tarile

770. Ingeminans : repeating her name in not have been complete. And then it makes vain-in vain, because she did not answer way for the appearance of ghost, that him. Mestus, agrees with ego, understood. affords comfort to Æneas in his distress, by Furenti: for currenti.

predicting his future felicity; and relieves 772. Infc!ic simulacrum : the unhappy the mind of the reader from the horrors of apparition—unhappy, not on her own ac- war and desolation, by turning him to the count, for she was blessed and at rest; but prospect of that peace and tranquillity which because she was the source of sorrow and Æneas was to enjoy in Italy; and of that unhappiness to her husband. Umbra. The undisturbed rest, and happy liberty, of which introduction of Creusa's ghost is extremely herself was now possessed in the other well timed. No other expedient could be world. found to stop the further search of Æneas 776. Insano dolori : immoderate grief. for his wife, and permit him to return to his Numine: in the sense of voluntate.

lved, toe

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7 then och

Isongten

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lura sunt

Olympi sinit te aspor- Fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi. tare hinc Creüsam, co- Longa tibi exilia, et vastum maris æquor arandum. 780 mitem tibi 780. Longa exilia fu- Inter opima virûm leni fluit agmine Tybris.

Ad terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva

Illic res lætæ, regnumque, et regia conjux 784. Parta sunt tibi Parta tibi : lachrymas dilectæ pelle Creüsæ.

Non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas 785

Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matribus ibo, 787. Ego quæ sum Dar- Dardanis, et Divæ Veneris nurus. danis, et

Sed me magna Deûm genitrix his detinet oris. 790. Deseruit me la- Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem. chrymantem, et volen- Hæc ubi dicta dedit, lachrymantem et multa volentem tem dicere

Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in auras. 791 792. Ibi conatus sum Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circùm : ter circumdare

Ter frustrà comprensa manus effugit imago,
Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.

Sic demum socios, consumptå nocte, reviso. 795
Atque hìc ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum
Invenio admirans numerum ; matresque, virosque,
Collectam exilio pubem, miserabile vulgus.

NOTES.

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779. Superi Olympi : of high heaven. 784. Dilectæ Creüse : for, or on account

780. Exilia : in the sense of itinera. It of your beloved Creüsa. implies that Æneas should be for a long 786. Servitum: to serve in the capacity of time destitute of any country, or fixed habi- a servant. The sup, in um, of the verb sertation. Æquor: properly any level surface, vio, put after ibo. whether land or water. It is often used in 787. Dardanis. Creusa, was the daugh, the sense of mare. Arandum : in the sense ter of Priam, and consequently descended of navigandum.

in a direct line from Dardanus, the founder 781. Ad: Heyne reads et. Some copies of the Trojan race: at least one of the have ut : that you may am e or come, &c. founders of it. See Æn, i, 1. Nurus: the In this case there must be a point daughter-in-law. Æneas was the son of after arandum. The usual reading ad. Venus and Anchises, which made Creüst

782. Lydius Tybris : the Tuscan Tyber the daughter-in-law to Venus. flows, with its gentle stream, between lands 788. Genitrix: Cybele. She is said to rich in heroes,

have been the mother of all the gods. The Tyber is here called Lydian, or Tus- 789. Serva: retain, or keep. Nati: As

It separated Tuscany from Latium. canius, who was the son of Creusa and The former having been settled by a colony Æneas, of Lydigns under Tyrrhenus, the son of 792. Cireumdare. The parts of the verb Atys, khag of Lydia, je Asia Minor. He are separated, for the sake of the verse, by called the inhabitants (yrrheni, after his own

Tmesis. name. Agmine: in the sense of cursu vel 793. Comprensa : a part. agreeing with flumine. Virûm. Vir, properly signifies a imago. Manus : acc. plu. Her image, seizman, as opposed to a woman-a hero. Also, ed in vain three times, escaped his hands

. the male of any kind or species of animals. 794. Par: in the sense of similis. SomArva: properly cultivated lands, from the no; a dream, verb aro.

796. Hrc admirans invenio, &c. The poet, 783. Res lætæ : prosperity. The same as by this circumstance, signifies how greatly rcs secundæ. Æneas, after his arrival in Aneas was beloved by the Trojans, and the Ital and the death of Tumus, married La- weight and importance of his character. It vinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of appears that this multitude, by resorting to Latium, and succeeded him in his kingdom. Æneas, and putting themselves under his

Æneas, in relating this prophecy to Dido,. protection, chose him their king; which apo plainly informs her that he was destined by pellation is given him throughout the Æneid, fate for Lavinia ; and, by so doing, pleads 4ffurisse: in the sense of advenisse. the necessity of his leaving Carthage. Dido, 797. Miserabile vulgus; a pitiable multitherefore, betrays herself by an indiscreet tude. They assembled, from all quarters, passion, and is not betrayed by any perfidy prepared in mind and fortune to follow me, Æneas. See lib. iv. passim.

to whatsoever countries I might wish to lead

9

799. Ni convenere 800 undique, parati animia

opibusque sequi me

Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati,
In quascunque velim pelago deducere terras.

Jamque jugis summæ surgebat Lucifer Idæ,
Ducebatque diem : Danaique obsessa tenebant
Limina portarum : nec spes opis ulla dabatur.
Cessi, et sublato montem genitore petivi.

NOTES.

them over the sea. Pubem : in the sense of city being completely in the possession of juventutem.

the Greeks. 801. Jugis summa Idæ. Mount Ida lay 804. Cessi : I yielded to my fate. Dr. to the east of Troy, and, consequently, Trapp renders it, I retired; but it is much Lucifer, Venus, or the Morning Star, as it is better to understand it as an expression of called when going before the sun, appeared the piety and resignation of Æneas, espeto those at Troy to rise from the top (jugis) cially if we consider what immediately preof that mountain. Summæ : in the sense of cedes : nec spes opis ulla dabatur. Genitore allæ.

sublato. This instance of filial piety is highly 803. Opis. Ruæus interprets this by auz- pleasing. A modern commander would ilii; but it may mean wealth-property: never have subunitted to the task of bearing and by the expression we may understand, such a load; but would have assigned it tu that there was now no hope of obtaining a servant, or imposed it upon a soldier. any more of their wealth or property, tho Ruæus says, ferens patrem.

QUESTIONS. What is the subject of this book ?

What office did Sinon perform upon this What is its character, when compared occasion ? with the rest?

Did the Grecian troops return from TeHow long did the siege of Troy continue? nedos, and join their friends ? How was it taken at the last?

How were they received into the city ? To whom was this horse designed as a In what state were the Trojans at this present?

time? In return for what?

Were they aware of any such treachery? What was the Palladium ?

Finding the city in the hands of the enemy, By whom was it taken from the temple of what course did Æneas pursue? Minerva?

What were some of his actions ? After building the horse, what did the Where were his last efforts made to avenge Greeks do?

his country? How far was Tenedos from Troas?

What became of Priam ? Did they pretend that they were about to What were the last actions of the aged return hoine, and relinquish the siege ? monarch?

Did this obtain belief among the Trojans? What particularly roused his indignation

What was the real object of the Greeks against Pyrrhus ? in building this horse?

By whom was Priam slain? Who acted a very distinguished part in What was the manner of it? this business?

What were the circumstances of it?
What is the character of Sinon?

Where was Æneas during these transacWho opposed the adinission of this horse tions? within the walls?

What did he do, after he beheld the death What prodigy happened just at this time, of Priam ? which overcame all doubts in the minds of Under whose conduct did he pass in safety the Trojans ?

through his enemies ? Who was Laocoon?

Did Æneas receive direction to leave the To what office had he been appointed by city, and to seek his safety in fight? lot?

How did he receive it? From whom? What was the design of offering sacrifice What was the determination of his father to Neptune at this time?

Anchises ?
What did this horse contain ?

What effect had his refusal upon the mind
How did it enter into the city?

of Æneas? Where was it placed ?

What did his wife Creusa do upon this How many names has the poet invented occasion? for this engine of destruction ?

How was the determination of Anchiscs, What time was the assault made upon the not to survive the capture of tho city, city?

changed?

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