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Persolvant grates dignas, et præmia reddant
Debita : qui nati-coràm me cernere letum
Fecisti, et patrios fædâsti funere vultus.

639. Funere ejus filii At non ille, satum quo te mentiris, Achilles

540 540. Adquo mentiris Talis in hoste fuit Priamo; sed jura fidemque

te satum esse. Supplicis erubuit; corpusque exsangue sepulchro Reddidit Hectoreum, meque in mea regna remisit. Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelle sine ictu Conjecit: rauco quod protinus ære repulsum, 545 545. Quod repulsum Et summo clypei nequicquam umbone pependit.

est protinûs Cui Pyrrhus: Referes ergo hæc, et nuntius ibis

547. Cui Pyrrhus TePelidæ genitori :. illi mea tristia facta,

spondit Degeperemque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 549

549. Memento narra

re illi mea tristia facta, Nunc morere. Hæc dicens, altaria ad ipsa trementem

Neoptolemum esse
Traxit, et in nulto lapsanter sanguine nati:
Implicuitque coman lævâ ; dextrâque coruscum

553. Ac abdidit cum Extulit, ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit, ensem.

lateri Priami tenùs caHæc finis Priami fatorum : hic exitus illum

pulo

NOTES.

sometimes signifies, in proportion to-cor- was slain. Virgil, however, forbears to responding to. In the present case it is also mention these circumstances, and attributes emphatic. Ausis. Ausum is properly a the restoration of Hector's corpse to the part. of the verb audeo; used as a sub. generosity, justice, and sense of honor, of

538. Qui fecisti me coràm, &c. Priam Achilles, in order to set the character of does not complain of his killing his son; Pyrrhus in a more forcible light. but for the barbarity in making him to be Achilles had it in his power to have dethe witness of so shocking a sight-for tained the aged monarch, or to have put him slaying him before his eyes.

to death; but he blushed (erubuit) at the 539. Fædâsti patrios : hast defiled a fa- thought of violating the laws of nations, ther's face with the dead body of his son. which forbid all violence to the person of a Funus, says Servius, is a carcass or dead king; which require the forms of burial to body, warm and newly slain. When car- be allowed to the dead, and the laws of ried out to receive funeral rites, it is called humanity to be observed even to an enemy, Ersequiæ; the ashes of it, when burned, when disarmed: those laws he observed, are called Reliquiæ; and the interment of and that faith (fidem) which is due to a it is called sepulchrum.

suppliant, whose person has always been 540. At Achilles ille, quo: but Achilles held sacred by the laws of hospitality himself, by whom, you falsely say, you was

544. Ictu : in the sense of impetu. begotten, was not such toward Priam, his 545. Repulsum: it was so repelled, that

it fell short of wounding him. It, however, This is a severe sarcasm; as if he had pierced the boss of his buckler, and hung said: you claim descent from Achilles, but there harmless, having produced no effect. your actions give you the lie; no man of 546. Umbone. Umbo was the middle part humanity could beget such a son. Satum: of the shield. This rose or projected forin the sense of genitum.

ward from the plane of the shield, in a curved 542. Erubuit jura: he blushed at the or circular form. By summo umbone, we laws of nations, and the faith due to a sup- are to understand the farthest point of propliant-he had regard to the laws, &c. The jection; which was also the centre of the word erriburt is extremely beautiful and ex. shield. Here the spear of Priam stuck. It pressive.

is sometimes taken for the whole shield, by After the death of Hector, Achilles bound synec. his dead body to his chariot, and drew it 547. Ibis nuntius: you shall go a mes round the tomb of Patroclus, whom Hector senger to my father Achilles, whom you had slain, and around the walls of Troy, for so much praise, and tell him that his son several days in succession. At this piteous has degenerated from the virtues of his fasight, Priam was induced to go to Achilles, ther. and beg the body, that it might receive the 548. Tristia : foul-horrid. Ruæus says rites of sepulture; who, after much en- indigna. treaty, and many rich presents given him, 554. Falorum: in the sense of vita. This restored the body on the twelfth day after it was the end of the life of Priam. Hic esi

enemy.

555

560

Sorte tulit, Trojam incensam et prolapsa videntem
Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum
Regnatorem Asiæ : jacet ingens litore truncus,
Avulsumque humeris caput, et sinè nomine corpus.

At me tum primùm sævus circumstetit horror :
560. Subiit mihi in Obstupui : subiit chari genitoris imago,
mentem

Ut regem æquævum crudeli vulnere vidi
Vitam exhalantem : subiit deserta Creusa,
Et direpta domus, et parvi casus lüli.
Respicio, et, quæ sit me circùm copia, lustro.

Deseruere omnes defessi, et corpora saltu 566. Dedere ea ægra Ad terram misêre, aut ignibus ægra dedêre. ignibus

Jamque adeò super unus eram, cùm limina Vestæ

565

NOTES.

tus tulit: this death carried him off (sorte) a name. The head being the index of the by divine appointment. This is a singular person, that being cut off, there is no means idiom. The several circumstances here left to come at the name, or to distinguish mentioned in the death of Priam, aggravate the person.

Or, sinë nomine may mean, the cruelty of the action, and set forth the without honor-despicable. ferocious temper of Pyrrhus. He drew him 561. Ul: in the sense of cum. (traxit,) trembling with age and decay of 562. Creüsa. The daughter of Priam and nature, to the very altar where he had fled Hecuba, and wife of Æneas. She perished for safety, and slipping (lapsantem) in the in the sack of Troy. Direpta : plundered. blood of his son; the sight of which was 563. Casus: in the sense of periculum. worse than death: then he twisted his hair 565. Saltu: by a leap or spring. with his left hand, and, with his right hand, 566. Ægra : faint-worn out with fadrew his glittering sword from its scabbard, tigue, so that they could fight no longer. and plunged it into his body up to the hilt. 567. Jamque adeò : and so I was now reHere we have a lively picture of a man lost maining alone, when I behold Helen, &c. to all sense of humanity, and capable of The parts of the verb supersum are here seperpetrating the most atrocious deeds. It parated, for the sake of the verse, by Tunesis. shows, also, the pen of a master. A painter Some critics have doubted the genuinecould copy it.

ness of this passage concerning Helen down 556. Pergama : neu. plu. properly the fort to the 588th line inclusive. The reasons as. of Troy. It is frequently taken for the city signed are three. First: What is here said itself, by synec. Here it is used in its appro- of her fearing the resentment of Menelaus, priate sense and meaning, as distinguished contradicts what he says of her, (lib. vi. from the city.

525.) having sought to make peace with 555. Videntem : it agrees with illum. him by betraying Deịphobus. Secondly:

557. Superbum regnatorem: the proud ruler That Virgil here outrages the character of over so many nations and countries of Asia. his hero, by making him entertain a thought Priam is said to have once reigned over of killing a woman, and perpetrating the Phrygia Major and Minor : which included deed in the temple of Vesta. Thirdly: That the greater part of Asia Minor, or Natolia. Virgil cannot be supposed so unacquainted Ruæus interprets the words thus: Kegem with the history of Helen, as not to know Asia, clarum propler tot gentes, et lot regiones. that she left Troy long before it was taken. Jacet ingens truncus: he lies a large trunk In answer to the first objection, it may be upon tho shore. Some think the poet had said that, though she endeavored to ingrahere in his view, the circumstances of the tiate herself with Menelaus, by betraying death of Pompey, whose head his assassins Deïphobus to him, it does not follow that cut off, and threw his body on the shore. he was entireiy reconciled to her. And we Others say that Priam was not slain at the are told by Euripides that he carried off altar; but drawn by Pyrrhus to the tomb of Helen as a captive along with the Trojan his father, which was on the promontory of women, with a view to have her put to Sigæum, and there slain to appease his death by the Greeks whose sons had fallen Manes. He may have been slain at the al. in the war. To the second objection, it may tar, and his dead body afterward cast upon be replied, that Æneas did not put her to the shore. This supposition will make the death; and even if he had, the deed might poet consistent and intelligible. Regnatorem have been palliated, in a good degree, by a put in apposition with illum.

consideration of the circumstances of tho 558. Corpus sinè nomine: a body without case, In the hurry and confusion of min.

880

Servantem, et tacitam secretà in sede latentem
Tyndarida aspicio: dant clara incendia lucem
Erranti, passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 570 . 570. Mih: erranti, fo.
Illa, sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros,

rentique oculos

Ezi. Nla, communis Et pænas Danaûm, et deserti conjugis iras

Erinnys Trojæ et ejus Permetuens, Trojæ et patriæ communis Erinnys,

patriæ, permetuens TeuAbdiderat sese, atque aris invisa sedebat.

cros infestos sibi ob everExarsere ignes animo : subit ira cadentem

575 sa Pergama, et Ulcisci patriam, et sceleratas sumere pænas. Ss Scilicet hæc Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas

577. Hæc-ne scilicet, Aspiciet? partoque ibit regina triumpho?

inquiebam, incolumis as

piciet Spartam
Conjugiumque, domumque, patres, natosque videbit,
Iliadum turbâ et Phrygiis comitata ministris ? 580
Occiderit ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni?
Dardanium toties sudarit sanguine litus ?
Non ita : namque etsi nullum memorabile nomen

583. Non ita eril Femineâ in penâ est, nec habet victoria laudem; namque Extinxisse nefas tamen, et sumpsisse merentis 585

NOTES.

885 gled passions with which his mind must then 573. Permeluens: dreading-greatly fearhave been racked, who could have blamed ing. The per in composition increases the him if he had avenged his own and his coun- signification of the simple word. Helen try's sufferings upon her, who was justly proved fatal both to Greeco and Troy; to chargeable with the guilt of so many thou- the former, in the loss of so many heroes; sand deaths, and the utter desolation of a 'to the latter, in being the cause of its ruin whole innocent people—a once flourishing She is therefore styled the common fury. and powerful kingdom? But when, instead Erinnys, a name common to the three furies, of giving way to the first emotions of a just See Geor. i. 278. resentment, he checks himself, deliberates 574. Invisa: hated-an odious sight; raupon the merits of the action, and is at length ther than unseen, as Ruæus has it. prevented from doing it by the interposition 575. Ignes erarsere: flames flashed in my of his goddess mother; or, in other words, mind. Ira subit: my resentment rose to by the force of superior judgment, there is avenge my falling country. no reason even for the severest critics to 576. Sumere sceleratas pænas : to take secensure his conduct. Lastly: Herodotus vere punishment. Or, perhaps, to take puinforms us that he learned from some Egyp- nishment of such a cursed woman. The tian priests, who had received the same from same as, sumere pænas de scelerata fæmina. Menelaus himself, that the Trojans had sent Ruæus says, panas sceleris. Heyne, pænas Helen to Egypt before the Greeks rede- sumplas à scelerala. manded her. Of this fact, the historian ap- 577. Mycenas : Mycene was not the place pears to have been fully convinced. But of her own nativity, but of Menelaus, her whether Virgil was acquainted with this husband. She was born at Sparta. Scilipiece of his bistory or not, it is sufficient cet hæc: shall she, indeed, in safety behold? that he had poetical tradition on his side; &c. These are all animated interrogatories, and that he is supported by the authority of and show the mind of Æneas hurrying from Homer and Euripides. A moment's atien- object to object, and agitated with a tide of tion to the style and manner of expression passions. At last he concludes it must not in these lines, will convince any one that be. She must suffer the punishment due to they are no interpolation. Unus: in the her crimes. sense of solus.

578. Parto triumpho: having obtained a 563. Servantem limina Vestæ; the verb triumph—a triumph being obtained. servare signifies to look after any thing with 580. Comitata turbâ : accompanied by a anxiety, and solicitude ; with a jealous eye, train of Trojan matrons, and Phrygian serand watchful of every danger. Limina: in vants, shall she see her former marriage bed? the sense of templum.

&c. Iiadum: gen. plu. of Ilias, a Trojan 569. Tyndarida : acc. of Tyndaris, a name woman. Conjugium : prislinum conjugem, of Helen, the daughter of Jupiter and Leda; says Heyne. Patres : for parentes. so called, because Tyndarus, king of Sparta, 582. Dardanium : an adj. the same as married Leda, her mother.

Trojanum. 572. Deserti conjugis : her deserted, or 583. Nomen : glory-renown. abandoned husband, Menelaus.

585. Tamen laudabor: nevertheless, I shall

590

595

Laudabor panas; animumque explêsse juvabit 587, Meorum civium. Ultricis flammæ, et cineres satiâsse meorum.

Talia jactabam, et furiatâ mente ferebar, 589. Cùm alma pa.

mihi se, non antè oculis tam clara, videndam rens, non visa tam clara meis oculis antè, obtulit

Obtulit, et purâ per noctem in luce refulsit se videndam mihi, et re- Alna parens, confessa Deam; qualisque videri fulsit per noctem Cælicolis et quanta solet ; dextrâque prehensum

592. Continuit me pre- Continuit, roseoque hæc insuper addidit ore: hensum dextrâ 596. Non aspicies pri

Nale, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras ? ùs, ubi liqueris parentem

Quid furis ? aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit? Anchisen, fessum Non priùs aspicies, ubi fessum ætate parentem

598. Circùm quos, Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creusa, omnes Graiæ acies er: Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes undique Graiæ rant undique 600. Tulerint eos, et

Circùm errant acies: et, ni mea cura resistat, inimicus ensis hauserit

Jam

flammæ tulerint, inimicus et hauserit ensis. eorum sanguinem.

Non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacænæ, 602. Sed inclementia Culpatusve Paris : Divûm inclementia, Divûm, Divûm, Divûm, inquam, Has evertit opes, sternitque à culmine Trojam.

604. Namque eripiam pice: namque omnem, quæ nunc obducta tuenti omnem nubem,quæ nunc

Mortales hebetat visus tibi, et humida circùm obducta hebetat Caligat, nubem eripiam : tu ne qua parentis

all

polo NOTES

60)

605

be praised for having put an end to the from his present object, and to direct his remonster of wickedness, and taken vengeance gard to his own-to his aged father, his of one so justly deserving it. Nefas, very for- infant son, and his beloved wife, who othercibly expresses the enormity of her crimes: wise might have fallen victims to the fury she was wickedness itself.

of the Greeks. We are told that Helen was first ravished 593. Addidit hæc: she added these words. by Theseus. Afterward she married Mene- 595. Tibi: in the sense of tua : thy care laus, whom she left for Paris. She also -regard. Quonam : the compound in the committed incest with her son-in-law Ory- sense of the simple quò. thus, the son of Paris and Enone. It is 597. Superet: in the sense of superest. also said that she had an amour with Achil. 600. Tulerint: would have carried them les. She may truly be called (nefas) a off-consumed them. monster of wickedness. Merentis : part. of 601. Lacænæ Tyndaridis : of Spartan HeMereor, agreeing with ejus understood: oflen. See 569. supra. Invisa tibi: hatefui her deserving or meriting it.

or odious to you. 586. Juvabit: it will delight me to have 602. Divûm inclementia. This reading is satisfied my desire of burning or ardent re- much more einphatic than verùm inclemenvenge. Flammæ may here be used in the tia Divûm, as in the common editions: and sense of flammeæ vel ardentis. Animum: it is supported by the authority of ancient in the sense of desiderium. Animus may manuscripts: it is the reading of Heyne signify any affection of the mind; especially and Valpy. Homer makes Priam exculpate in the plural. For ultricis flamma, Ruæus Helen, and lay the blame of the destruction says, ardentis ultionis. Heyne says, flammâ of his country to the gods themselves. Iliad sive irá ultrice (hoc est) ultione.

iii. 164. 589. Clara : manifest-clear: attended 603. Has opes: in the sense of hanc po. with evident marks of Divinity.

tentiam. Opes, is, properly, power acquired 591. Confessa Deam: manifesting the god. by wealth. dess. Qualisque, et quanta : such, and as 604. Quæ nunc obducta: which now spread illustrious as she used to be seen, &c. Ve- before you, looking earnestly, blunts your nus was the most proper deity to interpose mortal sight, &c. This passage Milton apin behalf of Helen, whom she had long pro- pears to have had in view, where the angel tected, and had conferred on Paris, as a re- prepares Adam for beholding the future viward for his adjudging the prize of beauty sion of his posterity, and their history; to her, rather than to Juno or Minerva. which he is going to set before him. See Seg Æn. i. 27. This interposition of Venus Paradise Lost, lib. xi. verse 411. Humida: was very seasonable in another respect; to moist-impregnated with vapor so as to incheck the ardor of his soul, to divert him crease the darkness.

Jussa time, neu præceptis parere recusa.

inortales visus tibi tuen Hìc, ubi disjectas moles, avulsaque saxis Saxa vides, mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum ;

608. Hìc, ubi vides

moles disjectas, saxaque Neptunus muros, magnoque emota tridenti

610 avulsa saxis, fumumque Fundamenta quatit, totamque à sedibus urbem

undantem mixto pulEruit. Hic Juno Scæas sævissima portas

vere, Neptunus quatit Prima tenet, sociumque furens à navibus agmen muros Troja, fundamenFerro accincta vocat.

taque emota magno tri

denti Jam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas

615
Insedit, nimbo effulgens et Gorgone sæva.
Ipse Pater Danais animos viresque secundas
Sufficit : ipse Deos in Dardana suscitat arma.
Eripe, nate, fugam, finemque impone labori.
Nusquam abero, et tutum patrio te limine sistam. 620
Dixerat: et spissis noctis se condidit umbris.
Apparent diræ facies, inimicaque Trojæ
Numina
magna Deûm.

624. Omne Ilium vi Tum verò omne mihi visum considere in ignes sum est mihi

NOTES. 610. Hre Neptunus qualit: here Neptune boar : they were armed with sharp and shakes the walls, &c. "Neptune took an ac- crooked claws. tive part against the Trojans, having become Medusa having been ravished in the temtheir enemy on account of the perfidy of plc of Minerva by Neptune, the goddess Laomedon. See Geor. i. 502. This fable gave her serpents the quality of transforming is explained by supposing that Laomedon men into stones at the sight of them. Peremployed the money which had been des- seus cut off her head by the aid of Minertined for the service of that god, in building va's buckler, which, being so finely polished, the walls of Troy. Emola : in the sense of that it reflected the image of the Gorgon's evulsa.

head, secured him from the fatal influ612. Hic Juno: here Juno, most fierce, ence of her eye. This head Minerva af. occupies the Scæan gate in front, &c. It is terward wore u. n her shield or buckler, to most probable that prima, here, has reference render her more awful and tremendous. See to the place of her standing, before, or in Lexicon, sub Ægide. front of the gate. It may, however, mean 617. Pater ipse : the father himself gives that Juno was the first, or chief, in urging on

courage and successful strength to tho the Greeks in the work of destruction. We Greeks. Juno and Minerva opposed the are told the gates of Troy were six in num- Trojans from selfish motives, because they ber: the gate of Antenor; the gate of Dar- had been slighted by Paris; but Jove was danus; the Ilian; the Catumbrian; the Tro- an enemy to them, because their cause was jan; and the Scæan. Through this gate unjust, in detaining Helen against the laws the Trojan horse is said to have entered. of nations, when properly demanded. On which account, it is probable, the poet

620. Abero: in the sense of relinquam. placed Juno at this gate, clad in armour, and

622. Dire facies: horrid images appearcalling upon her Greeks.

the images of desolation, death, and despair.

623. Magna numina Deûm. The Ro615. Pallas. She is sometimes called

mans divided the gods into two classes : the Tritona: hence the adj. Tritonia. See 171. Dii majorum, and the Dii rninorum gentium. supra.

In the first were ranked Jupiler, Neptune, 616. Efulgens nimbo: resplendent with Minerva, and Juno. The three last, in an a cloud. By nimbo, in this place, Servius especial manner, are represented as hostile understands a lucid circle, resembling a dia- to Troy; and Jove, on this occasion, is opdem about the head, to distinguish the gods posed to them also. The magna numina from mortals. Gorgone: the three daugh- Deúm may simply mean the great gods; or ters of Phorcus and Ceto, Medusa, Euryale, rather, the great powers of the gods, hostile and Stenyo, were called Gorgones, Gorgons, to Troy. The overthrow of Troy is all or terrible sisters. The name is of Greek along represented to have been effected, not derivation, and signifies fierceness. It is said so much by the power of the Greeks, as by they had but one eye, which served them the power of the gods. I am now persuaded all by turns. They had great wings: their of the inutility of making any further resistheads were attired with vipers instead of ance, since it evidently appears that the hair: their teeth were tusks like those of a great powers of the gods are against us.

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