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Obsedere alii telis angusta viarum
Oppositi : stat ferri acies mucrone corusco
Stricta, parata neci: vix primi prælia tentant
Portarum vigiles, et cæco Marte resistunt.

335
Talibus Otriadæ dictis, et numine Divûm
In flammas et in arma feror : quò tristis Erinnys,
Quò fremitus vocat, et sublatus ad æthera clamor.
Addunt se socios Ripheus, et maximus annis

339. Ripheus, et Iphi. Iphitus, oblati per lunam, Mypanisque, Dymasque, 340 tus maximus annis, HyEt lateri agglomerant nostro : juvenisque Choræbus

panisque, Dymasque ob

lati per Lunam addunt Mygdonides : illis ad Trojam fortè diebus

se socios mihi
Venerat, insano Cassandræ incensus amore;
Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat:
Infelix, qui non sponsæ præcepta furentis

345 345. Infelix juvenis ! Audierat.

qui non
Quos ubi confertos audere in prælia vidi,
Incipio super his : Juvenes, fortissima frustrà
Pectora, si vobis audentein extrema cupido est

f*349. Si certa cupido Certa sequi; quæ sit rebus fortuna, videtis.

350 est vobis sequi me au

dentem extrema; vos viExcessêre omnes adytis arisque relictis

detis, quæ fortuna sit Di, quibus imperium hoc steterat: succurritis urbi

nostris Incensæ : moriamur, et in media arma ruamus.

十 7

NOTES.

332. Angusta viarum: the narrow places, 347. Audere in prælia: to have courage or passages of the streets. Loca seems to for fight-to be ready to engage. Quos: be understood. It is used in the sense of in the sense of illos. angustas vias.

348. Super his : upon these things. HavCæco Marte : in the blind (doubtful) en- ing observed them collected together, and counter. It is so called on account of the prepared for fight, he then begins. Or, sudarkness of the night; or becausn it was per his may be in the sense of ad hæc, to sudden and unexpected, and resistance could these things—to their readiness and courage not, therefore, be made with any prospect for fight, he begins. Servius takes them of success. Marle: in the sense of pugna differently. I begin in these words, the more vel certamine.

to animate them. In this case, super inust 336. Nurine: impulse, or will of the be for insuper; in the former, a prep. Dagods.

vidson follows Servius. Heyne has post 337. Erinnys: this is a common name of hæc-inde. the three furies. See Geor. i. 278. In ar- 248. Juvenes, pectora : there is a great ma: in the sense of in pugnas.

confusion, and neglect of order and method, 339. Maximus annis. Some read armis: in this speech, to mark the hurry and disbut the former appears to be the true read- order of Æneas' mind. O youths, souls ing from verse 435, seq. Heyne has armis. most valiant! Frustra : in vain; because

340. Oblati: meeting me by the light of they could not save their country. the moon.

349. Certa cupido : a fixed, determined 341. Agglomerant: in the sense of adhæ- resolution. Audentem : in the sense of tenrent.

tantem. Cupido : in the sense of animus. 343. Insano: in the sense of magno, or 351. Omnes Di, quibus : all the gods, by uehementi. Virgil has here applied to Choræ- whom this empire stood, have departed bus, what Homer says of Othryoneus. from, &c. It was a prevailing opinion that

He was passionately in love with Cassan. a city, or place, could not be taken, while dra, the daughter of Priam, and hoped to its tutelary divinities remained in it. It was become his son-in-law: with that view he the practice, therefore, of the besiegers to came to his assistance. He was the son of invite, or call them away. For this reason Mygdon.

the Romans took care to conceal the Latin 345. Furentis: furens here means inspi- name of the god under whose protection red-prophetic. Sponsa: properly a woman Rome was; and the priests were not allowpromised, or betrothed in marriage; from ed to call the Roman gods by their names, the verb spondeo : also a young married lest, if they were known, an enemy might

solicit and entice them away. To this cus

woman.

per tela

Una salus victis, nullam sperare salutem.
Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde lupi ceu 356

Raptores, atrâ in nebulâ, quos improba ventris 357. Quos improba Exegit cæcos rabies, catulique relicti rabies ventris exegit et Faucibus expectant siccis: per tela, per hostes antris cæcos periculo, Vadimus haud dubiam in mortem, mediæque tenemus quos-que catuli relicti in antris

Urbis iter : nox atra cavâ circumvolat umbrâ. 360 359. Sic nos yadimus Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando

Explicet ? aut possit lachrymis æquare labores?
Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annos :

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim 365. Domos hominum, Corpora, perque domos, et relligiosa Deorum 365

Limina. Nec soli pænas dant sanguine Teucri: ..

Quondam etiam victis redit in præcordia virtus, 368. Ubique est crude- Victoresque cadunt Danai : crudelis ubique lis

Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago, 370. Androgeos pria. se Danaûm, magnâ comitante caterva,

370 'mus Danaûm offert se Androgeos offert nobis, socia agmina credens, nobis, magna caterva Inscius ; atque ultrò verbis compellat amicis : comitante eum, credens nostra agmina esse socia

Festinate, viri : nam quæ tam sera moratur :
Segnities ? alii rapiunt incensą feruntque

et per

NOTES. tom the poet may here allude; or rather to has in charge his aged father, his wife, and the poetical fiction, that when Troy was infant son; and endeavors to shun them by like to be taken, the gods were seen carrying tracing out tho by-paths and unfrequented away their statues from the temples.

lanes. 354. Una salus ; the only safety to the

361. Fando: in the sense of verbis. vanquished, is, to hope for no safety. This 362. Labores : disasters-toils. is the same argument which the brave Le- 365. Inertia corpora. By these bodies, it onidas used to animate his men to sell their is most probable, we are to understand the lives as dear as possible. Una: in the sense feeble and helpless part of the inhabitantsof sola.

old men, women, and children; and all who 355. Inde ceu lupi: after that, as ravenous did not take up arms in defence of their wolves in a dark night, which excessive country: they were slain (sternuntur) every hunger hath driven out blind to danger, &c. where, in their own houses, in the streets, Improba rabies ventris : excessive greediness and in the temples whither they had fled for of the belly-pressing hunger. Raptores: protection. They are called inertia in opin the sense of rapaces, ravenous, rapacious. position to those who dared to make resistDr. Trapp objects to the justness of this ance, and nobly die. This is much better simile; but the comparison does not lie in than to take corpora in the sense of cadavera, the action, but in the manner of performing as is usually done; for then the epithet inerit. As hungry rapacious wolves are forced tia would be quite useless and superfluous. from their retreats precipitately into danger, 366. Relligiosa limina : the sacred temwithout fear or dread, so we rush desperate- ples of the gods. Limen, the threshold, by ly on our foes, looking death and danger in synec. put for the temple. Dant pænas santhe face. The poet mentions another cir- guine; simply, suffer punishment with their cumstance. Catuli relicti : their whelps, blood-by shedding their blood. left behind, wait with parched jaws. By 367. Præcordia

: in the sense of corda, which he intended to represent those animals vel pectora. in their fiercest and most ravenous state; 369. Plurima imago: very many forms of and, therefore, the more proper to denote death. This mode of expression is common the fierceness and rage of men driven to with Virgil, and is conformable to the Latin despair. In atra nebula : in the dark night; idiom. Šo multa virtus,multusque honos. because in the night, or dark weather, they Æn. iv. 3. Such expressions, however, conare the fiercest and least mindful of danger. vey an idea of plurality rather than of uni

359. Vadimus : we march to certain death, ty; and, our language, require to be renand take the way through the middle of the dered in the plural number. city. This circumstance is mentioned to 271. Socia: friendly. Androgeos took show their courage and intrepidity. After them to be of the party of the Greeks. ward he is afraid of the enemy, when, he 374. Nam quæ segnilies : what sloth so

1 Pergama: vos celsis nunc primùm à navibus itis ? 375 Dixit: et extemplò (neque enim responsa dabantur Fida satis) sensit medios delapsus in hostes. Obstupuit, retròque pedem cum voce repressit. Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem

379. .Veluti homo qui Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repentè refugit 380 nitens humi pressit anAttollentem iras, et cærula colla tumentem.

quem improvisum er

aspris sentibus Haud secùs Androgeos visu tremefactus abibat,

381. Refugit eum atIrruimus, densis et circumfundimur armis :

tollentem Ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos Sternimus: aspirat primo fortuna labori.

385 Atque hic exultans successu animisque Choræbus, O socii, quà prima, inquit, fortuna salutis

387. O socii, qua forMonstrat iter, quàque ostendit se dextra, sequamur.

tuna prima monstrat no

bis iter salutis, quàque Mutemus clypeos, Daņaûmque insignia nobis

dextra ostendit se, Aptemus : dolus, an virtus, quis in hoste requirat? 390 390. Quis requirat in Arma dabunt ipsi. Sic fatus, deinde comantem hoste, an sit dolus, an Androgei galeam, clypeique insigne decorum

virtus. Ipsi occisi Induitur: laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. Hoc Ripheus, hoc ipse Dymas, omnisque juventus 394. Ripheus facit Læta facit: spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 395 hoc, Dymas ipse facit Vadimus immixti Danais, haud numine nostro : Multaque per cæcam congressi prælia noctem

hoc

sum esse.

NOTES. late detains you. Rapiunt : in the sense of 386. Animis: courage—boldness. rastant. Ferunt : in the sense of evertunt. 388. Dextra : in the sense of propitia.

376. Extemplò sensit: he instantly per. 389. Insignia Danaûm : the armour of ceived that he had fallen into the midst of the Greeks. This seems to allude to the enemies. Delapsus: in the sense of delap- figures, or images, engraven upon their buckA Grecism.

lers—those of the Greeks having the figuro 377. Fida : in the sense of amica. Neque: of Neptune, and those of the Trojans the in the sense of non.

figure of Minerva. Putting on the Grecian 378. Repressit pedem : he retreated back figures, was the same thing as putting on with his words. “As soon as he perceived their armour. his mistake, he retreated back.

Zenobius tells us, that Coræbus was noted 379. Aspris: by syncope

for
asperis.

This simile is taken from Homer, Iliad iii. verse

for stupidity: as an instance, he mentions

that he used to amuse himself on the sea 33. But Virgil is very happy in the appli- shore by counting the waves as they dashed cation, and has improved upon the original, by the addition of several circumstances that against it. He came to the assistance of

Priam just before the city was taken; and heighten the comparison, and give it more

now he shows his stupidity and want of force and likeness. 380. Nilens humi: walking

on the ground, nature, and which in the event proved fatal

foresight in suggesting a plan, rash in its steps upon a snake unseen, &c.

to him and his associates. 382. Haud secùs: no otherwise-just so.

383. Circumfundimur: this verb here has 390. Requirat : ask-demand. an active signification: we encompass them 393. Induitur comantem: he puts on the with our weapons close joined. Or, it may waving helmet of Androgeos. Induitur is have the sense of miscemur, as Ruæus in- plainly to be taken actively, in the sense of terprets it.

induit. Comantem: waving with a hairy 384. Captos formidine. Mr. Davidson ob- crest. The crests of their helmets were seryes: by this we are to understand that made of the hair of beasts. Decorum inthey were so under the power of fear, as signe clypei : the beautiful, or comely figure not to be able to exert themselves_enchain- of his shield; i. e. his beautiful shield-his ed, arrested, or nonplussed by fear; and so shield richly ornamented. enslaved to it, that ihey could obey nothing 396. Haud nostro numine: not with our but its impulse. Ruĝus interprets it by god. This is an allusion to their having percitos metu.

put off their own armour, on which was en385. Aspirat: in the sense of favet. La- graven the figure of Minerva, their guar bori: in the sense of conatui.

dian goddess and protectress, and put on the

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Conserimus, multos Danaûm demittimus Orco.

Diffugiunt alii ad naves, et litora cursu 400. Pars præ turpi Fida petunt: pars ingentem formidine turpi ormidine

Scandunt rursus equum, et notâ conduntur in alvo.

Heu, nihil invitis fas quenquam fidere Divis! 403. Ecce Cassandra Ecce trahebatur passis Priameža virgo Priameïa Virgo passis Crinibus à templo Cassandra adytisque Minervæ, crinibus

Ad cælum tendens ardentia lumina frustrà,
406. Lumina, inquam: Lumina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palmas.
namn,

Non tulit hanc speciem furiatâ mente Choræbus,
Et sese medium injecit moriturus in agmen.
Consequimur cuncti, et densis incurrimus armis.
Hic primùm ex alto delubri culmine telis

Nostrorum obruimur, oriturque miserrima cædes, 412. Ex facie nostro- Armorum facie, ei Graiarum errore jubarum.

Tum Danai gemitu, atque ereptæ virginis irâ, 413. Danai commo:i gemitu, atque irâ virgi- Undique collecti invadunt: acerrimus Ajax, nis ereptæ ex suis mani- Et gemini Atridæ, Dolopumque exercitus omnis. bus

Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 416. Ceu adversi ven- Confligunt, Zephyrusųue, Notusque, et lætus Eois ti, Zephyrusque, Notus- Eurus equis : stridunt sylvæ, sævitque tridenti que, et Eurus lætus Eois equis, quondam confli- Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet æquora fundo. gunt, turbine rupto Illi etiam, si quos obscurâ nocte per umbram

410

rum armorum

415

420

NOTES.

Non.

Grecian armour, with the figure of Neptune, understands. it of their rushing upon the the inveterate enemy of the Trojans. Im- close or compacted body of the Greeks. mixli Danais. It is one characteristic of Irruimus in densum agmen hostium, says

he. the valiant, that they mingle with the ranks 412. Facie armorum: from the appearance of the enemy. Homer says of Diomede, of their armour, the Trojans took them to that he so mingled with the Trojans, that a be Greeks. Jubarum : crests or plumes. spectator would have, sometimes, been at a 413. Gemitu : in the sense of dolore. The loss to know whether he belonged to the Greeks (moved) with grief and resentment, Trojans, or to the Grecks.

on account of the virgin rescued from their 393. Conserimus multa prælia : we wage hands, being collected together from all many a fight. Orco': in the sense of ad in- quarters, attack us. Gemitus here is plainly feros.

used in a wider sense than usual. Both 402. Nihil fas: it is not right that any Ruwus and Heyne take it in the sense of one should have confidence, (trust in any dolor. thing) the gods being against him. Nihil 414. Ajax. He was the son of Oileus. and nil are often used simply in the sense of He ravished Cassandra in the temple of The verb est is understood.

Minerva, for which he was afterward severe404. Crinibus passis: with loose or dis- ly punished by that goddess. See Æn. i. hevelled hair. Passis, from the verb pan- 41. Ajax, the son of Telamon, had some dor, to be loose or spread open,

time before killed himself, for his failure in 405. Tendens : raising her glaring eyes to the contest for the armour of Achilles. heaven in vain. Frusta : in vain, either be- 415. Gemini Atridæ : the two sons of cause the gods were inexorable, or because Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus. she could not move the compassion of the 416. Ceu adversi venti: as when opposite Greeks. This is a most moving represen- winds, &c. This simile is in imitation of tation of the beautiful prophetess and prin- Homer, Iliad 9. In comparing the two, cese in distress. No wonder that it roused Scaliger found the preference so much due the indignation of this valiant band, and to Virgil, that he reckons him the master, brought them to her rescue. They avenged and Homer the scholar. Confligunt: in the the horrid deed upon their enemies.

sense of certant. 407. Speciem: sight-spectacle. This sight 419. Nereus: a marine god. The trident Choræbus could not bear.

was assigned to him by the poets, as well as 409. Incurrimus : we rush upon them to to Neptune. See Ecl. vi. 35. the rescue of Cassandra. Densis armis :

420. Si quos fudimus : if we have routed with close weapons--in close array. Heyne any by stratagem through the shades in the

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Fudimus insidiis, totâque agitavimus urbe,
Apparent: primi clypeos mentitaque tela

422. Illi etiam appa Agnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant.

rent; primique Nicèt obruimur numero, primusque Choræbus Penelei dextrâ divæ armipotentis ad aram

425 Procumbit: cadit et Ripheus, justissimus unus, Qui fuit in Teucris, et servantissimus æqui;

427. Qui fuit unus Dis aliter visum. Pereunt Hypanisque, Dymasque, justissimus, et Confixi à sociis : nec te tua plurima, Pantheu, Labentem pietas, nec Apollinis infula texit.

430 Iliaci cineres, et flamma extrema meorum, Testor, in occasu vestro, nec tela, nec ullas

432. Testor vos, me Vitavisse vices Danaûm: et, si fata fuissent

vitavisse nec tela, nec Ut caderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde,

ullas vices Danaûm I phitus et Pelias mecum : quorum Iphitus ævo 435 Jam gravior, Pelias et vulnere tardus Ulyssei. Protinùs ad sedes Priami clamore vocati.

4 $8 Hic verò ingentem pugnam, ceu cætera nusquam

438. Hic verò cerniBella forent, nulli totâ morerentur in urbe :

mus ingentem pugnam, Sic Martem indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440

W3 2

ceu

NOTES.

dusky night, &c. they also appear. Menti- 429. Nec tua plurima pielas : nor did thy ta tela: false or fictitious armour. It pur- great piety, nor the fillets of Apollo, protect ported that those who wore it were Greeks; thee from falling. but in truth were Trojans.

431. Niaci cineres : ye Trojan ashes, and 423. Signant ora: they observe our words the last flames of my country, I call you to differing in sound from theirs. We speak witness, that, &c. Vices. By this Servius not their language, and, therefore, they know understands pugnæ, fights ; because they there must be some deception in the busi- fought by courses. Scaliger takes it to ness. Some understand by sono, the Gre- mean wounds and deadly blows, vulnera et cian watch-word. Ora: in the sense of cædes; because wounds in fighting are muverba, by meton.

tually given and received, Donatus consi

ders it an allusion to the gladiators; the 424. llicèt obruimur: instantly we are overpowered by numbers. The word ilicèt in fencing to party off a thrust, in opposition

verb vilo, joined with it, being a term used was anciently used in the sense of aclum est :

to peto, to aim one. For vices, Ruæus says all is over. It was an expression used by the judge, who, when he thought fit to put pericula Heyne says casus pugne.

433. Fuissent : in the sense of sinuissent. an end to business, ordered the crier to pronounce ilicèl , i. e. ire licet : all may go-the this right hand, i. e. by fighting. There is

434. Meruisse manu: that I merited it by business is over.

something noble in this sentiment. It con425. Armipotentis Divæ: the warlike gode siders death as a prize or reward, which the dess-Pallas. See Geor. i. 18. Peneleï : valiant win by their merit or valor. This Peneleus was one of the five generals of the agrees with his former reflection: pulchrum Beotians who came to the Trojan war. que mori succurrit in armis. Divellimur in

428. Visum aliter Dis. Having mention. de Iphitus, el: we are torn away from thence. ed that his friend was the most just, and He speaks of it as a great affliction; and, most observant of justice among the Tro- as it were, accuses his fate that denied him jans, Æneas certainly could not mean that the honor of so glorious a death. It seemed otherwise to the gods. Something 435. Gravior ævo: Iphitus was now opit is evident must be understood. Now, the pressed or enfeebled with age; and Pelias mention of this excellent man, would natu- disabled by a wound which he had received rally suggest the reflection that he deserved from Ulysses. Ævo: for annis. a better end: he ought not to have fallen 437. Protinùs : immediately--in haste. with the rest; but he checks himself: Dis Vocati : sumus is understood. aliter visum: it seemed otherwise to the 438. Ceu: in the sense of quasi. It is gods. Commentators have been much di- understood before nulli. Bella: in the sense vided in opinion upon these words. But in of pugne. this view they are plain and intelligible. 440. Martem indomitum: Mars, furious, The verb est is understood.

ungoverned. Mars, the god of war, put fi

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