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Ipse dies agitat festos: fususque per herbam,
Ignis ubi in medio, ct socii cratera coronant,

528. Ubi est ignis Te libans, Lenæe, vocat: pecorisque magistris Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo,

530 Corporaque agresti nudat prædura palæstra.

Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, Hanc Remus et frater: sic fortis Etruria crevit,

533. Remus et frator Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma,

ejus Romulus coluerunt

hanc: Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 535

535. Unaque circum. Antè etiam sceptrum Dictæi regis, et antè

dedit septem
Impia quàm cæsis gens est epulata juvencis ;
Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat.
Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum

539. Necdum etiam Impositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.

540 homines Sed nos immensum spatiis confecimus æquor,

542. Tempus est sol. Et jam tempus equûm fumantia solvere colla.

vere à jugo

NOTES. 527. Agitat: in the sense of celebrat. Fu- Dicte, a place in the island of Crete, where sus: in the gense of stratus.

it is said, he was nourished and brought up 528. Coronant: they fill up to the brim. by the Corybantes or Curetes.

531. Palæstra : this may mean either the Before the reign of Jove, and before the exercise itself, or the place of exercise.

impious race of men fed upon bullocks 532. Sabini. An ancient people of Italy, slain, golden Saturn led this life upon the whose young women were seized by the Ro- earth. This is a beautiful allusion to the mans, at certain shows or exhibitions, to golden ago. See Ecl. iv. 6. Agebat : in the which they had been invited. Upon this,

sense of ducebat. the Sabines made war upon them to avenge the atrocious deed. A treaty of amity,

537. Gens : in the sense of genus homihowever, was concluded between the two

num, says Heyne. parties; and in the event they became one

541. Sed nos. This is an allegory taken people. Coluere: they religiously observed, from the chariot race. By confecimus æquor or practised.

immensum spatiis, the poet may mean that 533. Etruria : the same as Tuscia, Tus. he had run over a plain not measured by cany, a country in Italy, separated from stages; or one which did not lie within the Latium by the Tyber.

limits or bounds of his proposed race or 534. Scilicet et, &c. What is here said of course. In this sense, divested of the Rome was literally true in the time of Vir- figure, it will be : I have now finished my gil. It was then in all its glory, and was digression into the praises of a country life, truly the wonder of the world : Řerum : res

it is time to lay aside my pen. Rumus inhath a variety of significations. Here it terprets spatiis by longitudine, and underevidently means the world, or the whole stands by æquor immensum spatiis, a plain earth.

immeasurable in length. 535. Una circumdedit. The walls of Rome Each course of chariots in the race was embraced seven hills, when that city was in called spatium. This was repeated seven the height of its glory. Their names were: times. Hence spatia, the plural, came to Palatinus, Cælius, Capitolinus, Aventinus, signify the race ground. Cum septimo spatio Esquilinus, Quirinalis, and Viminalis. palmæ appropinquant.

536. Antè sceptrum : before the reign of The starting place was called carcer, and the Dictean king. Jupiter is so called from the turning place meta.

QUESTIONS. What is the subject of this book ?

How many kinds of soil does he make? What does the poet do in the first place? Where does the Ganges rise ?

How many methods does he mention for What is its length? the propagation of trees ?

What is it considered to be, by the inhabi. What is the difference between grafting tants upon its banks? and inoculation ?

Where does it empty?
For what is the propago or layer the best? What did the ancients call the bay?

After the several kinds of trees, and the What city now stands near the mouth of methods of producing them, what does the this river? poet consider in the next place?

Of what country was Hemus a river ?

What river did it receive in its course? By whom were they carried ?
What was the Pactolus celebrated for? For what is the word fasces used by me-
Where did these rivers empty ?

What was the Argonautic expedition ? Who were the Dacii?
Why was it so called ?

Where did they inhabit? Who commanded that expedition ?

Where does the river Ister rise ? Where was Colchis?

What course does it run? What was the object of that expedition ? Where does it empty? How is this fable to be understood ?

What is its length ? How many accompanied Jason?

Who were the Penates.? What direction does the poet give for How were they represented? planting trees?

Where were their statues placed ? How should the rows be arranged ?

What were they sometimes called from Among what people did scenic representa- that circumstance? tions originate?

For what is the word taken by meton.? Why were the Athenians called Theseidæ ? Why was the place of common please, at

Who may be considered the inventor of Rome, called Rostrum? tragedy?

What was the word Rostrum properly? What did he make use of as a stage? Who were the Sabines? What was the form of the Roman theatre? Did the Romans offer any violence to Into how many parts was it divided ? their young women? What was the form of the amphitheatre? What was the event of the affair? What was the original name of Italy ? How many hills did the walls of Rome

Why were the Romans sometimes called encompass ? Ausones?

What were they called? What do you understand by the word How many courses were there in the chafasces?

riot race? How many of these rods were carried be- How does the book end? fore the Roman magistrates ?


The subject of this book is the raising of cattle. The poet begins with an invocation of

some of the rural deities, and a compliment to Augustus. After which, he addresses himself to his friend Mæcenas. He then proceeds to give rules for the breeding and management of horses, oxen, sheep, and goats. · And, by way of episode and embellishment, he gives us a description of a chariot race, of a battle of bulls, of the force of love, and of a Scythian winter. He enumerates the diseases incident to cattle, and pre scribes their remedies : and concludes by giving an account of a fatal murrain, which once raged among the Alps.

1. Et te, o pastor, TE quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus, memorande ab Amphry. Pastor ab Amphryso: vos, sylvæ, amnesque Lycæi. so : Canemus vos, o

Cætera, quæ vacuas tenuissent carmina mentes, Sylvæ 4. Omnia cætera car- Omnia jam vulgata. Quis aut Eurysthea durum,


1. Pales. The goddess of shepherds, and dia, evidently taken for the whole country, of feeding cattle. She was worshipped by synec. with milk. Her feasts were called Palilia, 3. Carmina : by meton. tho argument, or and were celebrated on the 12th of the ca- subjects of song. Heyne reads carmine, lends of May.

connecting it with vacuas.

In this case, it 2. Amphryso. A river of Thessaly, where is to be taken in its usual sense. TenuisApollo fed the flocks of Admetus, when he sent: in the sense of delectavissent. Ruæus was driven from heaven for having killed says, omnia argumenta. the Cyclops. See Ecl. iv. 10. Sylræ, et 4. Eurysthea. Eurystheus, was king of amnes Lycæi: the groves and streams of Mycena. Instigated by Juno, he imposed Arcadia. Lycæus : a mountain in Arca- upon Hercules, who had been given up to Aut illaudati nescit Busiridis aras?

5 mina, quue tenuissent Cui non dictus Hylas puer, et Latonia Delos,

vacuas montes, jam vulHippodameque, humeroque Pelops insignis eburno,

gata sunt.
Acer equis ? Tentanda via est, quâ me quoque possim
Tollere humo, victorque virûm volitare per ora.
Primus ego in patriam mecum (modò vita supersit) 10
Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas:
Primus Idumæas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas :
Et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam
Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat
Mincius, et tenerâ prætexit arundine ripas.
In medio mihi Cæsar erit, templumque tenebit.
Illi victor ego, et Tyrio conspectus in ostro,
Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus.
Cuncta mihi, Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi,


NOTES. him at the command of an oracle, the se- ger and thirst; and compelled to abstain verest labors: they were twelve in number, from both meat and drink, which were plaand go under the name of the twelve la- ced before him, by way of aggravation. bors of Hercules.

8. Acer equis. This may allude to his 5. Busiridis. Busiris, a king of Egypt, victory over Enomaus; or it may mean no who sacrificed to his gods the strangers who more than that he was skilled in the marisited him. He was slain by Hercules. nagement of horses; which is the sense of Illaudati : impious—infamous. This kind Ruæus. of negatives express, generally, more than 11. Aonio vertice : from the Aonian the mere want of a good quality. They mount, Helicon. This was a mountain in imply the possession of a contrary one. Beotia, originally called Aonia, sacred to Detestati, says Heyne.

the muses. 6. Hylas. See Ecl. vi. 43. Lalonia : an 12. Primus referam : I, the first, will bring adj. from Latona, the daughter of Cæus, to thee, O Mantua, Idumean palms-noble one of the Titans, and mother of Apollo palms. The palm-tree abounded in Iduand Diana, whom she brought forth at a mæa, a country of Syria ; so called from birth on the island Delos: hence called La. Edom, a son of Esau, who settled there. tonian Delos.

Virgil was not the first who introduced the 7. Hippodame. She was the daughter of Greek poetry into Italy; and, therefore, to Enomaus, king of Elis, and Pisa: who do away, or prevent any objection, he menhaving learned from an oracle that he was tions Mantua, the place of his birth. He to be slain by his son-in-law; in order to was, however, the first who brought it to avoid it, he proposed to the suitors of his any degree of perfection. daughter, a chariot race, upon this condi- 13. Ponam Templum. The poet appears tion, that the one who got the victory should to mean, that he will not only imitate the have his daughter; but if vanquished should Greeks, but he will surpass them; and in be slain. After thirteen had lost their lives, honor of his victory, he will build a temple, Pelops won the beauteous prize, by bribing and institute games. Through the whole, Myrtillus, the charioteer of Enomaus, to under color of lionoring himself, he very place the chariot upon a frail or brittle axle, artfully compliments Augustus, his prince It broke during the race, and Enomaus and patron. Ponam: in the sense of exwas so much bruised by the fall, that he truam. died of his wounds. Thus the oracle was 14. Erral: meanders—winds. fulfilled. Pelops was the son of Tantalus, 18. Centum. I will drive a hundred fourking of Phrygia ; who, as the fable goes, horse chariots along the river. The poet invited the gods to a banquet, and having takes the definite number 100 for an indefia mind to try their divinity, dressed his own nite number; or he alludes to the Circenson, and set before them. All abstained sian games, when in one day there were from so horrid a repast except Ceres, who twenty-five races of four chariots each, took a piece of the child's shoulder. Jupi- making the exact number here mentioned. ter afterwards restored him to life, and gave These were in imitation of the Olympic him an ivory one in its room. Hence in- games, and were on the margin of a river. signis eburno humero: famed for his ivory illi: for him—in honor of Cæsar. shoulder. For this horrid deed, Tantalus, 19. Cuncta Græcia. The meaning is, that after death, was doomed to perpetual hun- all Greece would leave their own games, 20


Cursibus et crudo decernet Græcia cæstu.
Ipse, caput tonsæ foliis ornatus olivæ,
Dona feram. Jam nunc solemnes ducere pompas

Ad delubra juvat, cæsosque videre juvencos : 24. Vel videre ut scena Vel scena ut versis discedat frontibus, utque discedat,

Purpurea intexti tollant aulæa Britanni.
In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto

Gangaridam faciam, victorisque arma Quirini : 28. Atque hlc sculpam Atque hic undantem bello, magnùmque fluentem Nilum undantem bello Nilum, ac navali surgentes ære columnas.

Addam urbes Asiæ domitas, pulsumque Niphaten,
Fidentemque fugâ Parthum versisque sagittis ;
Et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste trophæa,


NOTES. and come to these, as far excelling in gran- stagą, and let down when they retired from deur and magnificence. Alpheum: a river it. It appears to mean the same thing with of Elis, in the Peloponnesus, near the city aulæa in the following line. See Geor. ü. Olympia. Hence the games there celebra- 381. ted were called Olympic. The river hero, 25. Intexti. The Britons (the victories of by meton. is put for the games themselves. Julius Cæsar over them) supposed to be They were instituted by Hercules, in honor painted on, or interwoven in, the curtains; of Jupiter, as near as their date can be as- which, by a figure of speech, they might be certained, in the summer of the year of the said to hold, or lift up. world, 3228, and before Christ, 776. They 27. Gangaridûm. The Gangaridæ were were celebrated every fifth year; or after a people of India, near the Ganges. Quian entire revolution of four years; which rini. This is one of the many reasons we was denominated an Olympiad. This form- have for believing that Virgil continued to ed a very important era in the history of revise the Georgics until his death. It was Greece.

debated in the senate, whether Octavius Lucos Molorchi : the groves of Molor- should be complimented with the name of chus : by meton. the Nemæa certamina, or Augustus, or Romulus, who was also called Nemean games. These were instituted in Quirinus. But this debate did not take honor of Hercules, on account of his killing place till three years after the publication the lion in the Sylva Nemæa, near Cleona, a of the Georgics; and was seven years becity of the Peloponnesus. Molorchus was fore his victory over the Gangaridæ. The "the name of the shepherd who entertained poet must, therefore, have added this line the hero, and at whose request he slew the at least ten years after the first publication, Nemean lion. Besides these, there were or in the year of Rome, 734. other games called Pythia, instituted in ho- 27. Faciam : in the sense of sculpam. nor of Apollo, on account of his killing the 28. Magnum : Ruæus takes it in the serpent Python. Hence he derived the sense of longè. Copiosè, says Heyne. Unname Pæan, from a Greek word signifying dantem : swelling and waving with war, as to pierce or wound. There were also games it did with its waters. This is a metaphor, called Isthmia. These were instituted by beautiful and grand. The poet here alTheseus, king of Athens, in honor of Nep- ludes to the victory obtained by Augustus tune. They derived their name from the over Anthony and Cleopatra, and the capcircumstance of their being celebrated on ture of Alexandria, the principal city of the Isthmus of Corinth. Mihi: for me-in Egypt, near the mouth of the Nile. It was honor of ine.

built by Alexander the Great. All Egypt 20. Crudo: because the cæstus, or gaunt- soon followed the fate of Alexandria, its let, was made of raw hide: or simply, cruel, capital. -bloody. See Æn. v. 379.

29. Navali are: with naval brass. Au22. Pompas. These were images of the gustus is said to have made four columns out gods carried in procession before the peo- of the brazen beaks of the ships, taken from ple at the Circensian games—the proces- Cleopatra and Anthony; to which the poet sion itself. Feram dona : in the sense of here seems to allude. proponam premia.

30. Niphaten: Niphates, a mountain of 24. Ul: in tne sense of quomodo. Scena: Armenia, taken for the inhabitants of that that part of the stage where the actors were country : by meton. Armenios fugatos, says -the curtain, or hanging, behind which Ruæus. they retired from the audience. It was 32. Duo trophæa. Probably those two raised up when the actors were upon the victories obtained by Augustus over Antho

Bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes.
Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa,
Assaraci proles, demissæque ab Jove gentis

35 Nomina ; Trosque parens, et Troja Cynthius auctor.

36. Trosque parens

Invidia infelix furias amnemque severum
Cocyti metuet, tortosque Ixionis angues,
Immanemque rotam, et non exsuperabile saxum.

Intereà Dryadum sylvas saltusque sequamur 40 40. Sylvasque, saltus Intactos, tua, Mæcenas, haud mollia jussa.

quo intactos ab aliis Te sinè nil altum mens inchoat: en age, segnes

scriptoribus. Rumpe moras: vocat ingenti clamore Cithæron, Taygetique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus equorum :

NOTES. ny, the one at Actium, in Epirus, on the attempt upon Juno, he was cast down to northern shore of the Mediterranean, the hell, and bound with twenty snakes to a other at Alexandria, in Egypt, on the south- wheel, which kept constantly turning, as a

Hence the propriety of utroque litore. punishment for his crime. The poets say, Rapta manu: obtained by valor, or by his that Jupiter substituted a cloud in the form own hand-where he commanded in person. of Juno, and of it he begat the Centaurs. Diretso hoste, and triumphatas gentes, mean Upon his return to the earth, he boasted of the same; and probably we are to under- his amour with the queen of the gods, and stand the Asiatic and African troops that was punished for it by Jupiter in this excomposed the army of Anthony in these emplary manner. The truth is, the Centwo battles. This is the opinion of Ruæus. taurs were a people of Thessaly. They Some understand the passage as referring dwelt in a city by the name of Nephele. to the Gandarida, a people of Asia, and to That being the Greek word for a cloud, the Brilanni, situated in Europe, in differ- gave rise to the story of their being the offent quarters of the world. But Augustus spring of a cloud. They were the first who did not conquer the Britons.

broke and tamed the horse. Ixion was their 34. Parii lapides : Parian marble. Parii: king. The poet here intimates a very an adj. from Paros, one of the Cyclades, fa- delicate manner the unhappy end of those mous for its shining marble. Spirantia sig- who envied Augustus the glory due to his na: figures, or statues to the life. They illustrious deeds; who dared refuse to subshall be of such exquisite sculpture, that one mit to his authority; and who meditated a could scarcely distinguish them from real renewal of the civil wars. life-they should almost breathe.

39. Saxum. Sisyphus, a notorious rob35. Proles Assaraci: the offspring of As- ber, was slain by Theseus, king of Athens, saracus, and the names of the family, &c. and for his punishment, he was sentenced to The poet here, as in other places, compli- hell; there to roll a stone to the top of a ments the Cæsars with divine descent. Ac- hill, which always rolled back before he cording to him, it may be thus traced: could reach it. This inade his labor perDardanus was the son of Jupiter and Elec-' petual. Non exsuperabile: not to be gotten tra; Erichthonius, the son of Dardanus; to the top of the hill. Tros, the son of Erichthonius; Ilus and 41. Tua haud mollia jussa: thy difficult Assaracus, sons of Tros; Ilus begat Lao- commands. medon, the father of Priam, and Assaracus Virgil, at the request of Mæcenas, wrote begat Capys, the father of Anchises; of the Georgics; to which circumstance he Anchises and Venus sprang Æneas, the fa- here alludesma subject, new, and which ther of Ascanius, or lülus, the father of the had not been handled or treated of by any Julian family.

preceding writer. Sequamur: we will en36. Cynthius : Apollo. He was born on the island Delos, where was a mountain by 43. Cithæron: a mountain in Beotia, the name of Cynthus; hence he was called abounding in pasture, and herds of cattle. Cynthius. He and Neptune, it is said, built Taygeti: Taygetus, a mountain in Laconia, the walls of Troy in the reign of Laomedon. famous for hunting. Epidaurus. There See Ecl. iv. 10, and Geor. i. 502.

were several places by that name.

The one 37. Infelix. This epithet is added to here intended, is probably in Argolis, on the envy, because it is the principal source of eastern shore of the Peloponnesus, near the unhappiness to men.

Sinus Saronicus, that part being celebrated 38. Cocyli: Cocytus, a fabulous river of for its horses. The meaning is, that he shall hell, flowing out of Styx. Irionis: Ixion, now treat of those animals that abounded in the father of the Centaurs. For making an the above mentioned places

ter upon.

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