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not within the row of buildings themselves. But those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter. But only some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries: in which galleries let there be three, or five, fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance; and fine coloured windows of several works. On the household side, chambers of presence1 and ordinary entertainments, with some bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast2 it also, that you may have rooms both for summer and winter; shady for summer, and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become3 to be out of the sun or cold. For inbowed windows, I hold them of good

The room in which

1 Chamber of presence, or presence-chamber.

a great personage receives company. To plan; to devise.

2 Cast.

"Therefore to cherish him with diets daint,

She cast to bring him, where he chearen might,
Till he recovered had his late decayed plight."
Spenser. The Faery Queene. Book I. Canto x. Stanza 2.

3 Become. To come to a place, to arrive; passing, later, into to betake one's self, to go.

"I cannot joy, until I be resolved

Where our right valiant father is become."

Shakspere. III. King Henry VI. ii. 1. Inbowed. Embowed; a bow-window or bay-window is a window that 'bows' or projects outwards, on the ground floor, forming a kind of 'bay' within. Bacon probably refers here to oriel windows, which are bow-windows projecting from an upper story.

use; (in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street;) for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost thorough the room doth scarce pass the window. But let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only.

Beyond this court let there be an inward1 court, of the same square and height; which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all sides, upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story. On the under story, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotta, or place of shade, or estivation.2 And only have opening and windows towards the garden; and be level upon the floor, no whit sunken under ground, to avoid all dampishness. And let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statua's in the midst of this court; and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides; and the end for privy galleries. Whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, antecamera,3 and recamera, joining to it. This upon the second story. Upon the ground story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story

1 Inward. Inner. "For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day." II. Corinthians iv. 16.

2 Estivation, or aestivation. summer; a summer retreat or residence. 3 Antecamera. Antechamber.

The passing or spending of the

Recamera. A back chamber; retiring-room.

likewise, an open gallery, upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances.1 And thus much for the model of the palace; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts. A green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellishments, upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with tarrasses, leaded 2 aloft, and fairly garnished, on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside, with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries, to pass from them to the place itself.

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XLVI. OF GARDENS.

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GOD ALMIGHTY first planted a Garden. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man;1 without which buildings and palaces are but gross handyworks and a man shall ever see that when ages grow to civility 2 and elegancy,3 men come to build stately sooner than to garden finely; as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens for all the months in the year; in which severally things of beauty may be then in season. For December, and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter: holly; ivy; bays; juniper; cypress-trees; yew; pine-apple-trees; fir-trees; rosemary; lavender;

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2 Civility.

3 Elegancy. Elegance.

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"Friends, books, a garden, and perhaps his pen,
Delightful industry enjoy'd at home,

And Nature, in her cultivated trim

Dress'd to his taste, inviting him abroad-
Can he want occupation who has these?"

Cowper. The Task. Book III. The Garden.
Civilization.

"A thing of beauty is a joy forever."

John Keats. Endymion. Line 1. Lavender. One of the Labiatae or mints, Lavandula Vera, a small shrub with small pale lilac-colored flowers, and narrow oblong or lanceolate leaves. It is a native of the south of Europe and northern Africa, but is extensively cultivated in other countries for its perfume.

"Here 's flowers for you;
Hot lavender, mints, savory, marjoram;
The marigold, that goes to bed wi' th' sun
And with him rises weeping: these are flowers
Of middle summer."

Shakspere. The Winter's Tale. iv. 3.

periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; germander; flags; orange-trees; lemon-trees; and myrtles, if they be stoved; 2 and sweet marjoram, warm set. There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the mezereon-tree 3 which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses; anemones; the early tulippa; hyacynthus orientalis ; chamaïris; 5 fritellaria. For March, there come violets, specially the single blue, which are the earliest; the yellow daffodil; the daisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree in blossom; the cornelian-tree in blossom; sweet-briar. In April follow, the double white violet; the wall-flower; the stock-gilliflower; 8 the

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1 Germander. A plant of the genus Teucrium, as Teucrium Canadense, American germander, or wood sage. Bacon probably means the Teucrium Scorodonia, or wood germander, which was cultivated in old English gardens. Its blossoms are yellowish-white, in terminal racemes.

2 Stove. To keep warm in a house or room by artificial heat; as, to 'stove' orange trees.

3 Mezereon-tree. The Mezereum is a species of small erect or trailing shrubs of the order Thymeleaceae. The best known representative of the family in cultivation is Daphne Mezereum, a small shrub with sweet wnite flowers that bloom in December in greenhouses.

4 Hyacinthus orientalis, The common hyacinth, which came originally from the Levant.

5 Chamaïris. There are but two irises native to England, and one of them is an aquatic plant. The other one, Iris Foetidissima, may be what is called here chamaïris; it is a blue iris. Possibly chamaïris is Iris Reticulata, one of the earliest irises cultivated in England. But the Elizabethans cultivated many varieties of iris.

3 Fritellaria. A genus of liliaceous plants, the best known species of which are the Crown Imperial (Fritellaria Imperialis), and the Common Fritellary or Snakeshead (Fritellaria Meleagris), England. The Crown Imperial is a native of Persia, and was introduced into the royal garden at Vienna about 1576. It is said to have arrived in England shortly afterwards. It was therefore a new flower to both Bacon and Shakspere, and they could only have seen it in some choice garden.

7 Cornelian-tree. The cornel-tree, or cornelian cherry. 8 Stock-gilliflower. This is the White Stock (Matthiola Incana).

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