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as they. But then there must be some middle counsellors, to keep things steady; for without that ballast the ship will roll too much. At the least, a prince may animate and inure1 some meaner persons, to be as it were scourges to ambitious men. As for the having of them obnoxious2 to ruin; if they be of fearful natures, it may do well; but if they be stout and daring, it may precipitate their designs, and prove dangerous. As for the pulling of them down, if the affairs require it, and that it may not be done with safety suddenly, the only way is, the interchange continually of favours and disgraces; whereby they may not know what to expect, and be as it were in a wood. Of ambitions, it is less harmful, the ambition to prevail in great things, than that other to appear in every thing; for that breeds confusion, and mars business. But yet it is less danger to have an ambitious man stirring in business, than great in dependances. He that seeketh to be eminent amongst able men hath a great task; but that is ever good for the public. But he that plots to be the only figure amongst ciphers is the decay of a whole age. Honour hath three things in it: the vantage ground to do good; the approach to kings and principal persons; and the raising of a man's own fortunes. He that hath the best of these intentions, when he aspireth, is an honest man; and that prince that can discern of these intentions in another that aspireth, is a

1 Inure. 2 Obnoxious. undesirable).

To make use of.

Liable, subject, or exposed (to anything harmful or

3 Disgrace.

Disfavor, dishonor, affront.

♦ Dependance. A body of dependants or subordinates; a retinue.

wise prince. Generally, let princes and states choose such ministers as are more sensible of duty than of rising; and such as love business rather upon conscience than upon bravery;1 and let them discern a busy nature from a willing mind.

XXXVII. OF MASQUES2 AND TRIUMPHS.3

THESE things are but toys, to come amongst such serious observations. But yet, since princes will have such things, it is better they should be graced with elegancy than daubed with cost. Dancing to song, is a thing of great state and pleasure. I understand it, that the song be in quire, placed aloft, and accompanied with some broken music;5

1 Bravery.

Ostentation; display.

2 Masque. A form of dramatic entertainment popular at Court and among the nobility of England during the Elizabethan age; originally consisting of dancing and acting in dumb show, the performers being masked and dressed in character, but afterwards including dialogue (usually in verse), and song. Milton wrote, Comus. A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634. Before John, Earl of Bridgewater, then President of Wales.

3 Triumph. A public festivity or display; a stately procession or pageant. Beaumont and Fletcher's Four Plays in One consists of four Triumphs-of Honor, of Love, of Death, and of Time.

Francis Bacon was concerned as author, or "chief contriver," or "chief encourager" of six Elizabethan masques. Two were for entertainments given to Queen Elizabeth by the Earl of Essex; three were Gray's Inn masques; and he was "chief contriver" of Beaumont's masque The Marriage of the Thames and the Rhine, written for the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, and presented February 20, 1613.

5 Broken music. Music arranged for different instruments, 'part' or concerted music. "And so likewise in that music which we call broken music, or consort music, some consorts of instruments are sweeter than others (a thing not sufficiently yet observed): as the Irish harp and base viol agree well; the recorder and stringed music

and the ditty1 fitted to the device. Acting in song, especially in dialogues, hath an extreme good grace; I say acting, not dancing (for that is a mean and vulgar thing); and the voices of the dialogue would 2 be strong and manly, (a base and a tenor; no treble;) and the ditty high and tragical; not nice 3 or dainty. Several quires, placed one over against another, and taking the voice by catches,5 anthemwise, give great pleasure. Turning dances into figure is a childish curiosity.

And generally let it be

agree well; organs and the voice agree well, &c; but the virginals and the lute, or the Welsh harp and Irish harp, or the voice and pipes alone, agree not so well." Bacon. Sylva Sylvarum. Century III. 278.

1 Ditty. A song; now, a short, simple song.

2 Would.

3 Nice.

"And near, and nearer as they row'd,
Distinct the martial ditty flow'd."

Scott. The Lady of the Lake. II. xviii.

Should.

Fine, delicate, finicky.

"Why, brother, wherefore stand you on nice points!" Shakspere. III. King Henry VI. iv. 7.

4 Dainty.

Choice; excellent.

"Ay! indeed a scheme o' yours? that must be a denty ane!" Scott. Old Mortality. VI.

5 Catch. Originally, a short musical composition in which each succeeding singer takes up or 'catches' his part in turn; a round. Subsequently, especially applied to rounds, in which the words are so arranged as to produce ludicrous effects, one singer 'catching' at the words of another.

"Sir Toby. Shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch that will draw three souls out of one weaver? shall we do that?

Sir Andrew. An you love me, let's do 't: I am a dog at a catch.

Clown. By 'r Lady, sir, and some dogs will catch well. Sir Andrew. Most certain. Let our catch be, Thou knave. Clown. Hold thy peace, thou knave, knight? I shall be con strained in 't to call thee knave, knight.

Sir Andrew. "T is not the first time I have constrained one to call me knave. Begin, Fool: it begins, Hold thy peace.

Clown. I shall never begin, if I hold my peace.
Sir Andrew. Good, i' faith.

Come, begin.

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noted, that those things which I here set down are such as do naturally take the sense, and not respect petty wonderments.1 It is true, the alterations of scenes, so it be quietly and without noise, are things of great beauty and pleasure; for they feed and relieve the eye, before it be full of the same object. Let the scenes abound with light, especially coloured and varied; and let the masquers, or any other, that are to come down from the scene, have some motions upon the scene itself before their coming down; for it draws the eye strangely, and makes it with great pleasure to desire to see that it cannot perfectly discern. Let the songs be loud and cheerful, and not chirpings or pulings.2 Let the music likewise be sharp and loud, and well placed. The colours that shew best by candle-light, are white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water-green; and oes,3 or spangs, as they are of no great cost, so they are of most glory.5 As for rich embroidery, it is lost and not discerned. Let the suits of the masquers be graceful, and such

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1 Wonderment. Surprise.

2 Puling. Whining.

3 Oes. Small round spangles used to ornament dress in the seventeenth century.

"Fair Helena; who more engilds the night
Than all yon fiery O's and eyes of light."

Shakspere. A Midsummer-Night's Dream.

iii. 2. "The Ornaments of Honor were these: a rich full robe of blew silke girt about her, a mantle of siluer worne ouerthwart, ful gathered, and descending in folds behind: a vaile of net lawne, enbrodered with Oos and Spangl'd." George Chapman. The Memorable Maske of the two Honorable Houses or Inns of Court; the Middle Temple, and Lyncolns Inne. "With a description of

their whole show."

Spang. A shining object or ornament; a spangle.
"The compass heaven, smooth without grain or fold,
All set with spangs of glitt'ring stars untold."

Bacon. The Translation of the CIVth Psalm.
Glory. Brilliancy, splendor.

as become the person when the vizards1 are off; not after examples of known attires; Turks, soldiers, mariners, and the like. Let anti-masques 2 not be long; they have been commonly of fools, satyrs, baboons, wild-men, antics,3 beasts, sprites, witches, Ethiops, pigmies, turquets,5 nymphs, rustics, Cupids, statua's moving, and the like. As for angels, it is not comical enough to put them in anti-masques; and anything that is hideous, as devils, giants, is on the other side as unfit. But chiefly, let the music of them be recreative, and with some strange changes. Some sweet odours suddenly coming forth, without any drops falling, are, in such a company as there is steam and heat, things of great pleasure and refreshment. Double masques, one of men, another of ladies, addeth state and variety. But all is nothing except the room be kept clear and neat. For justs, and tourneys, and barriers; the

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1 Vizard (visor). A mask covering the face.

2 Anti-masque. A grotesque interlude between the acts of a masque, to which it served as a foil, and of which it was at first often a burlesque. Urson and his bears, and Straying and deformed Pilgrims, are two anti-masques of Ben Jonson's Masque of Augurs, acted before the Court, Christmas, 1621.

3 Antic. A clown, a mountebank, a buffoon.

"Thou antic death, which laugh'st us here to scorn." Shakspere. I. King Henry VI. iv. 7.

Sprite (spirit). Elf, fairy, goblin.

"Of these am I, who thy protection claim,
A watchful sprite, and Ariel is my name."

Pope. The Rape of the Lock. I. 108-109.

5 Turquet. A diminutive figure of a Turk or Mohammedan. • Just (joust). A mock fight, as at a tournament.

7 Tourney. A tournament; a mock fight or martial sport of the middle ages for exhibiting prowess and skill in arms.

8 Barriers.

The palisades enclosing the ground where a tournament, tilting, or other martial contest or exhibition was held; the lists. Hence, a masque or entertainment in the form of a tournament. Ben Jonson wrote an entertainment presented at Court, Jan. 6, 1610, called Prince Henry's Barriers,

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