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B. C. cir. 741.
The Divine judgments
and their good effects. A, M. cir. 3263.
3 . The fortress also shall cease Maker, and his eyes shall have 4. M. cir. 3263. Olymp. IX. 4. from Ephraiin, and the kingdom respect to the Holy One of Olymp. IX. 4. Romuli, from Damascus, and the remnant Israel.
Romuli, R. Roman, 13. of Syria : they shall be as the 8. And he shall not look to the R. Roman., 13. glory of the children of Israel, saith the LORD altars, the work of his hands, neither shall of hosts.
respect that which his fingers have made, 4 And in that day it shall come to pass, that either the groves, or the h images. the glory of Jacob shall be made thin, and the 9 In that day shall his strong cities be as a fatness of his flesh shall wax lean.
forsaken bough, and an uppermost branch, 5 e And it shall be as when the harvestman which they left because of the children of gathereth the corn, and reapeth the ears with Israel: and there shall be desolation. his arm; and it shall be as he that gathereth 10 Because thou hast forgotten the God of ears in the valley of Rephaim.
thy salvation, and hast not been mindful of the 6 Yet gleaning grapes shall be left in it, as rock of thy strength, therefore shalt thou the shaking of an olive tree, two or three plant pleasant plants, and shalt set it with berries in the top of the uppermost bough, strange slips : four or five in the outmost fruitful branches 11 In the day shalt thou make thy plant to thereof, saith the LORD God of Israel.
grow, and in the morning shalt thou make thy 7 At that day shall a man & look to his seed to flourish : but the harvest shall be
Aroer, if Aroer itself is a city, makes no good sense. Thus Kimchi has explained it, and Le Clerc has folThe Septuagint, for ww aroer, read my 'Ty adey ad, lowed him. EIS TOU diwra, for ever, or for a long duration. The Verse 9. As a forsaken bough, and an uppermost Chaldee takes the word for a verb from 777 arah, trans- branch—"the Hivites and the Amorites"] vino lating it 109 cherebu, devastabuntur, " they shall be yoxhi hachoresh vehaamir. No one has ever yet been wasted." The Syriac read 70igy adoeir. So that able to make any tolerable sense of these words. The the reading is very doubtful. I follow the Septuagint translation of the Septuagint has happily preserved as making the plainest sense.
what seems to be the true reading of the text, as it Verse 3. The remnant nf Syria—"The pride of stood in the copies of their time; though the words are Syria."] For ww shear, “remnant,” Houbigant reads now transposed, either in the text or in their Version ; nav seeth, "pride," answering, as the sentence seems loi Apogpasos xai oi Euquios, “ the Amorites and the Hievidently to require, to 713cabod,“the glory of Israel." vites." It is remarkable that many commentators, who The conjecture is so very probable that I venture to never thought of admitting the reading of the Septuafollow it.
gint, understand the passage as referring to that very As the glory) 71353 bichbod,“ the glory," is the event which their Version expresses ; so that it is plain reading of eight MSS., and ten editions.
that nothing can be more suitable to the context. “My Verse 4. In that day] That is, says Kimchi, the father," says Bishop Lowth, "saw the necessity of ad. time when the ten tribes of Israel, which were the mitting this variation at a time when it was not usual glory of Jacob, should be carried into captivity. to make so free with the Hebrew text.” Mr. Park
Verse 5. As when the harvestman gathereth— As hurst is not satisfied with the prelate's adoption of the when one gathereth”] That is, the king of Assyria reading of the Septuagint, “ the Hivites and the Amoshall.sweep away the whole body of the people, as the rites.” He thinks the difficult words should be thus reaper strippeth off the whole crop of corn ; and the rendered; he takes the whole verse : “And his fortiremnant shall be no more in proportion than the scat- fied cities shall be like the leaving, or what is left tered ears left to the gleaner. The valley of Rephaim noilya caazubath, of or in a ploughed field, unnin hanear Jerusalem was celebrated for its plentiful harvest; choresh, or on a branch which they leave coram, before, it is here used poetically for any fruitful country. One the children of Israel." Which he considers a plain MS., and one ancient edition, has 9083 beesoph, “ IN reference to the Mosaic laws relative to the not gleangathering," instead of 70x9 keesoph; “ As the gathering.” ing of their ploughed fields, vineyards, and oliveyards,
Verse 8. The altars, the work of his hands--" The but leaving biy ozeb, somewhat of the fruits, for the altars dedicated to the work of his hands ”] The con- poor of the land ; Lev. ix. 9, 10; Deut, xxiv. 19-21, struction of the words, and the meaning of the sen- in the Hebrew. I fear that the text is taken by storm tence, in this place, are not obvious; all the ancient on both interpretations. One MS. has 'n ho col arey, Versions, and most of the modern, have mistaken it. “ all the cities ;" and instead of winn hachalash, "of The word nwyo maaseh, “the work,"stands in regimine the branch,” six MSS. have vinn hachodesh, “ of the with ninana mizbechoth, “ altars," not in opposition to month.” But this is probably a mistake. it; it means the altars of the work of their hand; that Verse 10. Strange slips—“Shoots from a foreign is of the idols, which are the work of their hands, soil.”] The pleasant plants, and shoots from a foreign
The land shadowing
with wings threatened AB. M. cir. 3263. ka heap in the day of grief and and they shall flee far off, and AM. cir. 3263. Olymp. IX. 4.. of desperate sorrow.
P shall be chased as the chaff of Olymp. IX. 4.
cir. annum Romuli,
12 Wo to the multitude of the mountains before the wind, Romuli, R. Roman., 13.
many people, which make a noise and like 'a rolling thing before R. Roman., 13. m like the noise of the seas; and to the rush- the whirlwind. ing of nations, that make a rushing like the 14 And behold at evening-tide trouble; and rushing of " mighty waters !
before the morning he is not. This is the 13 The nations shall rush like the rushing portion of them that spoil us, and the lot of of many waters: but God shall • rebuke them, them that rob us. Or, removed in the day of inheritance, and there shall be deadly Or, many. - Psa. ix. 5.- -- Psa. lxxxiii. 13; Hos. xiii. 3. - Or, noise. Jer. vi. 23.
9 Or, thistle down. soil, are allegorical expressions for strange and idol-judgment to determine whether they are genuine or atrous worship; vicious and abominable practices con- not. Instead of nian) cahamoth, “as the roaring,” nected with it; reliance on human aid, and on alliances five MSS. and the Vulgate have 1127) kehamon, " as entered into with the neighbouring nations, especially the multitude.” Egypt; to all which the Israelites were greatly ad- Verse 14. He is not" He is no more."] For 133'X dicted, and in their expectations from which they should einennu ten MSS. of Dr. Kennicott's, (three ancient,) be grievously disappointed.
ten of De Rossi's, and two editions, and the SeptuaVerse 12. Wo to the multitude] The three last gint, Syriac, Chaldee, Vulgate, and Arabic, have 132"X1 verses of this chapter seem to have no relation to the veeinenno. This 'particle, authenticated by so many foregoing prophecy, to which they are joined. It is good vouchers, restores the sentence to its true poetia beautiful piece, standing singly and by itself; for cal form, implying a repetition of some part of the neither has it any connexion with what follows: whether parallel line preceding, thus :— it stands in its right place, or not, I cannot say. It is a noble description of the formidable invasion and the
" At the season of evening, behold terror! sudden overthrow of Sennacherib; which is intimated
Before the morning, and (behold) he is no more !" in the strongest terms and the most expressive images, That spoil us] For low shoscynu, them that spoil exactly suitable to the event.
us, fifteen MSS., one edition, and the Syriac have Like the rushing of mighty waters!) Five words, 13010 shosenu, him that spoileth us. three at the end of the twelfth verse, and two at the lebozezeynu, them that rob us, six MSS. and the Syriac beginning of the thirteenth, are omitted in eight MSS., have 10mah lebozzeno, him that robbeth us: and these with the Syriac; that is, in effect, the repetition con- readings make the place answer better to Sennacherib, tained in the first line of ver. 13 in this translation, is according to Lowth's conjecture. Though God may not made. After having observed that it is equally permit the wicked to prevail for a time against his peoeasy to account for the omission of these words by a ple, yet in the end those shall be overthrown, and the transcriber if they are genuine, or their insertion if glory of the Lord shall shine brightly on them they are not genuine, occasioned by his carrying his that fear him; for the earth shall be subdued, and eye backwards to the word d'px's leammim, or for the universe filled with his glory.
Amen, and wards to INV' yeshaon, I shall leave it to the reader's ! Amen!
לבזזינו And for
CHAPTER XVIII. This chapter contains a very obscure prophecy; possibly designed to give the Jews, and perhaps the Egyp
tians, whose country is supposed to be meant, 1, 2, and with whom many Jews resided, an intimation of God's interposition in favour of Sion, 3, 4; and of his counsels in regard to the destruction of their common enemy, Sennacherib, whose vast army, just as he thought his projects ripe, and ready to be crowned with success, 5, should become a prey to the beasts of the field, and to the fowls of heaven, 6; and that
Egypt should be grateful to God for the deliverance vouchsafed her, 7.
. 3290. .
B. C. cir.-714. Olymp. XVI. 3. with wings, which is beyond rushes upon the waters, saying, Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Pompilii , the rivers of Ethiopia :
Go, ye swift messengers, lo a Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.
R. Roman., 2. ? That sendeth ambassadors by nation scattered and peeled, to * Chap. xx. 4, 5; Ezek. xxx. 4, 5, 9; Zeph. ii. 12 ; ii. 10.
-Or, oulspread and polished. This is one of the most obscure prophecies in the history to which it belongs, the person who sends the whole Book of Isaiah. The subject of it, the end and messengers, and the nation to whom the messengers design of it, the people to whom it is addressed, the are sent, are all obscure and doubtful.-L.
b Ver. 7.
Men should take warning
by God's judgments. A. M. cir. 3290. B. C. cir. 714.
a people terrible from their begin-| 3 All ye s inhabitants of the A. M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. ning hitherto;. d a nation meted world, and dwellers on the earth, Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Pomțilii, out and trodden down, whose see ye; "when he lifteth up an Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2. land the rivers have spoiled !
ensign on the mountaiņs ; and R. Roman., 2. d Or, a nation that meleth out, and treadeth down.- Heb. a na- Or, whose land the rivers despise. - Jer. i. 14 ; x. 18; xlvii. 2. tion of line, and treading under foot.
Hos. iv. 1 ; Joel ii. 1; Zech. xi. 6. Chap. v. 26.
tians, an intimation of God's counsels in regard to the Verse 1. Wo to the land] px '177 hoi arels! This destruction of their great and powerful enemy. interjection should be translated ho! for it is properly Which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia—"Which a particle of calling : Ho, land ! Attend ! Give ear! borders on the rivers of Cush"] What are the rivers
Shadowing with wings—" The winged cymbal”] of Cush? whether the eastern branches of the lower d'92 1358 tsiltsal kenaphayim. I adopt this as the Nile, the boundary of Egypt towards Arabia, or the most probable of the many interpretations that have parts of the upper Nile towards Ethiopia, it is not been given of these words. It is Bochart's: see Pha- easy to determine.' The word nayo meeber signifies leg, iv. 2. The Egyptian sistrum is expressed by a either on this side or on the farther side ; I have made periphrasis ; the Hebrews had no name for it in their use of the same kind of ambiguous expression in the language, not having in use the instrument itself. The translation. cymbal they had was an instrument in its use and Verse 2. In vessels of bulrushes—"In vessels of sound not much unlike the sistrum ; and to distinguish papyrus”] This circumstance agrees perfectly well it from the sistrum, they called it the cymbal with with Egypt. : It is well known that the Egyptians wings. The cymbal was a round hollow piece of me- commonly used on the Nile a light sort of ships, or tal, which, being struck against another, gave a ring- boats, made of the reed papyrus. Ex ipso quidem paing sound': the sistrum was a round instrument, con- pyro navigia texunt. Pliny, xiii, 11. sisting of a broad rim of metal, through which from side to side ran several loose laminæ or small rods of
Conseritur bibula Memphitis cymba papyro. metal, which being shaken, gave a like sound. These,
LUCAN, iv. 136. projecting on each side, had somewhat the appearance Go, ye swift messengers] To this nation before of wings; or might be very properly expressed by the mentioned, who, by the Nile, and by their numerous same word which the Hebrews used for wings, or for canals, have the means of spreading the report in the the extremity, or a part of any thing projecting. The most expeditious manner through the whole country : sistrum is given in a medal of Adrian, as the proper go, ye swift messengers, and carry this notice of God's attribute of Egypt. See Addison on Medals, Series designs in regard to them. By the swift messengers üi. No. 4 ; where the figure of it may be seen. The are meant, not any particular persons specially apframe of the sistrum was in shape rather like the an- pointed to this office, but any of the usual conveyers cient lyre; it was not round.
of news whatsoever, travellers, merchants, and the like, If we translate shadowing with wings, it may allude the instruments and agents of common fame. These to the multitude of its vessels, whose sails may be are ordered to publish this declaration made by the represented under the notion of wings. The second prophet throughout Egypt, and to all the world; and verse seems to support this interpretation. Vessels to excite their attention to the promised visible interof bulrushes, x1 gome, or rather the flag papyrus, so position of God. much celebrated as the substance on which people Scattered—“Stretched out in length"] Egypt, that wrote in ancient times, and from which our paper is is, the fruitful part, exclusive of the deserts on each denominated. The sails might have been made of side, is one long vale, through the middle of which this flag: but whole canoes were constructed from it. runs the Nile, bounded on each side to the east and Mat sails are used to the present day in China. . The west by a chain of mountains seven hundred and fifty Vulgate fully understood the meaning of the word, and miles in length ; in breadth from one to two or three has accordingly translated, in vasis papyri; “ in vessels days' journey: even at the widest part of the Delta, of papyrus. Geshi besselis.-Old MS. Bib. This from Pelusium to Alexandria, not above two hundred interpretation does not please Bp. Lowth, and for his and fifty miles broad. · Egmont and Hayman, and dissent he gives the following reasons :
Pococke. In opposition to other interpretations of these words Peeled—“Smoothed”] Either relating to the pracwhich have prevailed, it may be briefly observed that tice of the Egyptian priests, who made their bodies base tsiltsel is never used to signify shadovo, nor is smooth by shaving off their hair, (see Herod. ii. 37 ;) 7 canaph applied to the sails of ships. If, therefore, or rather to their country's being made smooth, perthe words are rightly interpreted the winged cymbal, fectly plain and level, by the overflowing of the Nile. meaning the sistrum, Egypt must be the country to Meted out—“ Meted out by line”] It is generally which the prophecy is addressed. And upon this hy referred to the frequent necessity of having recourse to pothesis the version and explanation must proceed. I mensuration in Egypt, in order to determine the bounfarther suppose, that the prophecy was delivered before daries after the inundations of the Nile; to which even Sennacherib's return from his Egyptian expedition, the origin of the science of geometry is by some which took up three years ; and that it was designed ascribed. Strabo,.lib. xvii. sub inil. to give to the Jews, and perhaps likewise to the Egyp- Trodden down) Supposed to allude to a peculiar
God's interposition in
favour of his people. A: M. cir. 3290. when he bloweth a trumpet, / will i consider in my dwelling 43.M.co.3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. hear ye.
place like a clear heat k
upon Olymp. XVI. 3. Numa Pompilii,
4. For so the LORD said unto herbs, and like a cloud of dew Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.
R. Roman., 2 me, I will take my rest, and I in the heat of harvest. i Or, regard my set dwelling.
Or, after rain. method of tillage in use among the Egyptians. Both in chap. x. 16, 17, xxix. 6, and xxx. 30, 31. See Herodotus, (lib. ii.,) and Diodorus, (lib. i.,) say that also Psa. lxxvi., and the title of it, according to the when the Nile had retired within its banks, and the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Æthiopic. They are called, ground became somewhat dry, they sowed their land, by a bold metaphor, the standard lifted up, and the trumand then sent in their cattle, (their hogs, says the for- pet sounded. The latter is used by Homer, I think mer,) to tread in the seed; and without any farther with great force, in his introduction to the battle of the care expected the harvest.
gods; though I find it has disgusted some of the minor The rivers have spoiled—“The rivers have nou- critics :rished"} The word 1873 bazeu is generally taken to be
Βραχε δ' ευρεια χθων, , an irregular form for 13 bazezu, “ have spoiled,” as
Αμφι δε σαλπιγξεν μεγας ουρανος. four MSS. have it in this place; and so most of the
II. xxi. 388.. Versions, both ancient and modern, understand it. On which Schultens, Gram. Heb. p. 491, has the follow
“ Heaven in loud thunders bids the trumpet sound, ing remark :-"Ne minimam quidem speciem veri ha
And wide beneath them groans the rending ground.” bet ixia bazau, Esai. xviii. 2, elatum pro 1773 bazazu,
PoPE. . deripiunt. Hæc esset anomalia, cui nihil simile in Verse 4. For so the Lord said unto me—“For thus toto linguæ ambitu. In talibus nil finire, vel fateri ex hath Jehovah said unto me") The subject of the remera agi conjectura, tutius justiusque. Radicem dia maining part of this chapter is, that God would combaza olim extare potuisse, quis neget? Si cognatum fort and support his own people, though threatened with quid sectandum erat, ad via bazah, contemsit, potius immediate destruction by the Assyrians; that Sennadecurrendum fuisset ; ut 1872 bazeu, -pro 113 bazu, sit cherib's great designs and mighty efforts against them enuntiatum, vel na baziv. . Digna phrasis, flumina should be frustrated ; and that his vast expectations contemnunt terram, i. e., inundant.” “xi) baza, Arab. should be rendered abortive, when he thought them maextulit se superbius, item subjecit sibi : unde præt. pl. ture, and just ready to be crowned with success; that 1x13 bazeu, subjecerunt sibi, i. e., inundarunt.”
-Si- the chief part of his army should be made a prey for monis' Lexic. Heb.
the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, (for A learned friend has suggested to me another expla- this is the meaning of the allegory continued through nation of the word. xia baza, Syr., and ni'a beiza, the fifth and sixth verses ;) and that Egypt, being deChald., signifies uber, " a dug,” mamma, “ a breast;" livered from his oppression, and avenged by the hand agreeably to which the verb signifies to nourish. This of God of the wrongs which she had suffered, should would perfectly well suit with the Nile : whereas no- return thanks for the wonderful deliverance, both of thing can be more discordant than the idea of spoiling herself and of the Jews, from this most powerful adand plundering; for to the inundation of the Nile Egypt versary. owed every thing; the fertility of the soil, and the Like a clear heat—" Like the clear heat”] The very soil itself.
Besides, the overflowing of the Nile same images are employed by an Arabian poet : came on by gentle degrees, covering without laying. waste the country : “ Mira æque natura fluminis, quod
Solis more fervenš, dum frigus; quumque ardet cum cæteri omnes abluant terras et eviscerent, Nilus
Sirius, tum vero frigus ipse et umbra. tanto cæteris major adeo nihil exedit, nec abradit, ut Which is illustrated in the note by a like passage from contra adjiciat vires ; minimumque in eo sit, quod so- another Arabian poet :lum temperet. Illato enim limo arenas saturat ac
Calor est hyeme, refrigerium æstate. jungit; debetque illi Ægyptus non tantum fertilitatem terrarum, sed ipsas.— Seneca, Nat. Quæst., iv. 2. I Excerpta ex Hamasa ; published by Schultens, at the take the liberty, therefore, which Schultens seems to end of Erpenius's Arabic Grammar, p. 425. think allowable in this place, of hazarding a conjec- Upon herbş—“ After rain ”] “718 aur here signifies tural interpretation. It is a fact that the Ganges rain, according to what is said Job xxxvi. 11 : The changes its course, and overruns and lays barren whole cloud scatters his rain.'”—Kimchi. In which place districts, from which it was a few years back several of Job the Chaldee paraphrast does indeed explain 1918 miles distant. Such changes do not nourish but spoil auro by 1790 matereyh; and so again ver. 21 and the ground.
chap. xxxvi. 30. This meaning of the word seems to Verse 3. When he lifleth up an ensign—“When make the best sense in this place; it is to be wished the standard is lifted up.") I take God to be the Agent that it were better supported. in this verse ; and that by the standard and the trumpet In the heat of harvest"In the day of harvest.") are meant the meteors, the thunder, the lightning, the For ona bechom, in the heat, fourteen MSS., (several storm, earthquake, and tempest, by which Sennache ancient,) the Septuagint, Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate rib's army shall be destroyed, or by which at least the read ol'd beyom, in the day. The mistake seems to destruction of it shall be accompanied; as it is described have arisen from ona kechom in the line above,
concerning Egypt. A. M. cir. 3290.
5 For afore the harvest, when and all the beasts of the earth 4. M. cir. 3290. B. C. cir. 714.
B. C. cir. 714. Olymp. XVI. 3. the bud is perfect, and the sour shall winter upon them.
Olymp. XVI. 3. Numa Pompilii, grape is ripening in the flower, 7 In that time I shall the present Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.
R. Roman., 2. he shall both cut off the sprigs be brought unto the LORD of hosts with pruning hooks, and take away and cut of a people mscattered and peeled, and from a down the branches.
people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a 6 They shall be left together unto the fowls nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose of the mountains, and to the beasts of the land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the earth : and the fowls shall summer upon them, name of the Lord of hosts, the mount Zion.
See Psa. lxviit. 31 ; lxxii. 10; chap. xvi: 1; Zeph. iii. 10; Mal. i. 11.
Or, outspread and polished ; see ver. 2.
Verse 5. The flower—“The blossom"] Heb. her rian army. Upon which wonderful event it is said, 2 blossom; 7783 nitstsah, that is, the blossom of the vine, Chron. xxxii. 23, that “many brought gifts unto Jepa gephen, vine, understood, which is of the common hovah to Jerusalem, and presents to Hezekiah king of gender. See Gen. xl. 10. Note, that by the defective Judah ; so that he was magnified of all nations from punctuation of this word, many interpreters, and our henceforth.” It is not to be doubted, that among these translators among the rest, have been led into a grievous the Egyptians distinguished themselves in their acmistake, (for how can the swelling grape become a knowledgments on this occasion. blossom?) taking the word 7183 nitstsah for the predi- . . Of a people—“From a people”] Instead of by am, cate ; whereas it is the subject of the proposition, or a people, the Septuagint and Vulgate read dyn meam, the nominative case to the yerb.
from a people, which is confirmed by the repetition of Verse 7. The present—“A gift”] The Egyptians it in the next line. The difference is of importance ; were in alliance with the kingdom of Judah, and were for if this be the true reading, the prediction of the fellow-sufferers with the Jews under the invasion of admission of Egypt into the true Church of God is not their common enemy Sennacherib; and so were very so explicit as it might otherwise seem to be. Hownearly interested in the great and miraculous deliver- ever, that event is clearly foretold at the end of the ance of that kingdom, by the destruction of the Assy-next chapter.-L.
B. C. cir. 714.
Prophecy concerning Egypt, in which her lamentable condition under the - Babylonians, Persians, fc., is
forcibly pointed out, 1-17. The true religion shall be propagated in Egypt ; referring primarily to the great spread of Judaism in that country in the reign of the Ptolemies, and ultimately to its reception of the Gospel in the latter days, 18–22. Profound peace between Egypt, Assyria, and Israel, and their blessed
condition under the Gospel, 23–25. 13. Mech.co.32. THE . burden of Egypt. Be- of Egypt shall be moved
A. M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. hold, the LORD rideth upon his presence, and the heart Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Poinpilii, a swift cloud, and shall come of Egypt shall melt in the midst Numæ Pompilii
, R. Roman., 2. into Egypt: and c the idols of it.
R. Roman., 2. a Jer. xlvi. 13; Ezek. xxix., xxx.
b Psa. xviii. 10; civ. 3. -c Exod. xii. 12; Jer. xliii. 12. Not many years after the destruction of Sennache- Alexander may well be considered as a deliverance to rib's army before Jerusalem, by which the Egyptians Egypt; especially as he and his successors greatly fawere freed from the yoke with which they were threat- voured the people and improved the country. To all ened by so powerful an enemy, who had carried on a these events the prophet seems to have had a view in successful war of three years' continuance against them; this chapter; and in particular, from ver. 18, the prothe affairs of Egypt were again thrown into confusion phecy of the propagation of the true religion in Egypt by intestine broils among themselves, which ended in seems to point to the flourishing state of Judaism in a perfect anarchy, that lasted some few. years. This that country, in conséquence of the great favour shown was followed by an aristocracy, or rather tyranny, of to the Jews by the Ptolemies. Alexander himself settwelve princes, who divided the country between them, tled a great many Jews in his new city Alexandria, and at last by the sole dominion of Psammitichus, granting them privileges equal to those of the Macewhich he held for fifty-four years. Not long after that donians. The first Ptolemy, called Soter, carried great followed the invasion and conquest of Egypt by Ne- numbers of them thither, and gave them such encourbuchadnezzar, and then by the Persians under Cam- agement that still more of them were collected there byses, the son of Cyrus. The yoke of the Persians from different parts ; so that Philo reckons that in his was so gricvous, that the conquest of the Persians by time there were a million of Jews in that country.