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Epitome of the Jewish lIistory from the time of round the cities of Judah, pulled down the heathen altars, His next care was to subdue the fortress on Mount Acra, restored the true worship and circumcision, and cut off both which Apollonius had erected to command the temple ; and the apostates and persecutors that fell in his way, till death being yet in the power of the heathens, gave them great opporsummoned him to immortality, in the hundred and forty- tunities to annoy the Jews that went to worship in the temple. serenth year of his age.

But not having men enough to spare to form a blockade, be When he found death approaching, he exhorted his five silenced it by another fortification, which he erected on the sons to persevere in the cause of God, as he had begun ; and mountain of the temple. he appointed his son Judas his successor in the command of When this revolt and success of the Jeus reached Antia the acıny; and Simon to be their counsellor, B. C. 166. He chus, in his expedition into Persia, he threatened utterly to was buried at Modin with great lamentation of all Israel. destroy the whole nation, and to make Jerusalem the common

Judas, who had signalized himself on former occasions for place of burial to all the Jews. But God visited him with a his great valour, was distinguished by the title Maccabeus ; sudden and sore disease. He at first was afflicted with griesand having taken the command of his people upon him, he ous torments in his bowels ; his privy parts were ulcerated prosecuted the good work of reformation begun by his father, and filled with an innumerable quantity of vermin; and the and took all the measures he was able, by fortifying towns, smell was sõ offensive that he became nauseous to himself building castles, and placing strong garrisons, to maintain the and all about him. Then his mind was so tormented with liberty and religion of his country against all opposition. direful spectres and apparitions of evil spirits, and the remorse

Apollonius was sent by Antiochus to march an army of of his wicked life and profanations gnawed him so grievously, Samaritans against him ; but he was killed, and his troops that he at last acknowledged the justice of God in his punishdefeated and entirely routed, after a great slaughter, by our ment, and offered up many vows and promises of a full repayoung general, who, finding Apollonius's sword among the ration in case he recovered. But God would not heår hun ; spoils, took it for his own use, and generally fought with it therefore, when his body was almost half consumed with ever after

abominable ulcers, he died under the most horrid torments of This news having reached Colosyria, Seron, deputy- body and mind, in the twelfth year of his reign. governor of that province, marched with all the forces he Judas Maccabeus began now to consider how the govercould collect to revenge the death of Apollonius ; but he met ment should be fixed, and therefore, in a general assenbly with the same fate.

held at Maspha, he revived the ancient order, and appointed Antiochus was so enraged at these defeats, that he imme- rulers over thousands, hundreds, fisties, and tens. And it is also diately ordered forty thousand foot, scren thousand horse, and probable that he constituted the high court of sankelrin. in a great number of auxiliaries, made up of the neighbouring which was a settled Nasi, president or prince, who was the high nations and apostate Jews, to march against Juidea, under the priest for the time being; an Abbethdin, or father of the house command of Ptolemy Macron, Nicanor, and Gorgias, three of judgment, who was the president's deputy; and a Chacan, eminent commanders, B. C. 162.

or the wise man, who was sub-deputy. The other members Upon their advancing as far as Emmaus, about seren miles were called clders or senators, men of untainted birth, good from Jerusalem, Julas, who may be supposed at that time leaming, and profound knowledge in the law, both priests and besieging or at least blocking up Jerusalem, then in the hands laymen. And they in particular were empowered to decide of the heathen, retired to Mizpeh. Here the whole army all private difficult controversies, all religious affairs, and all addressed themselves to God. Judas exhorted them most important matters of state. pathetically to fight for their religion, laws, and liberties ; but This was properly the senate or great council of the nation, at last, giving those leave to withdraw from his army that had which grew into great power under the administration of the built houses, or betrothed wives within the year, or that were Asmonean princes, and was in great authority in the days of in any degree fearful, he presently found himself at the head our Saviour's ministry. of no more than three thiru sand men.

Lysias, who had been so shamefully routed by Judas, However, he was resolved to give the enemy battle. In having the care of Antiochus's son, who was called Antiockus the mean time God ordained him an easy victory; for while Eupater, and only nine years old, set him on the throne, and Gorgias was detached with five thousand foot and one thou- seized the government and tuition of the young king into his sand horse to surprise his little army by night, Judas, being own hands, and immediately combined with the neighbouring informed of the design, marched by another way, fell upon the Idumeans and other nations, enemies to Judah, to unite in an camp in the absence of Gorgias, killed three thousand men, attempt utterly to destroy and extirpate the whole race of put the rest to flight, and seized the camp. Gorgias, not Israel. finding the Jews in their camp, proceeded to the mountains, When Judas was informed of this confederacy, be resolved supposing they were fled thither for safety. But not meeting to prevent their intentions, and to carry the war into Idumca. · with them there, he was much surprised in his return at what Thus he entered their country by Acrabatene, a canton of had happened in his absence; and his army, hearing that Judea, near the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, and slow Julas waited to give them a warm reception in the plains, there twenty thousand of them. Then falling upon the chilflung down their arms and fled. Judas in the pursuit killed dren of Bean, another tribe of the Idumeans, be killed twenty six thousand more, and wounded and maimed most of the thousand more, routed their army, and took their strong holds. rest. This victory opened to him the gates of Jerusalem, Hence passing over Jordan into the land of the Ammonites, where he and his army celebrated the next day, which was a he defeated them in several engagements, slew great numbers Sabbath, with great devotion and thanksgiving.

of them, and took the city Jahazah, at the foot of Mount Timotheus and Bacchides, governors or lieutenants under Gilead, near the brook Jazah; and so returned home. Antiochus, marched immediately to the assistance of Gorgias ; After his return into Judea, one Timotheus, a governor in but they fell a sacrifice to the valour and conduct of Judas, those parts, pretended to follow him with a numerous army. who, by the spoils taken from the enemy, was enabled the But Judas fell upon him; and having overthrown him with a better to carry on the war.

very great slaughter, pursued him to the city Gazara, in the This defeat was succeeded by another of Lysias, the go- tribe of Ephraim, which he took ; and he slew both Timotheus vernor of all the country beyond the Euphrates. He had and his brother Chereas, governor of that city, and Apollophapenetrated as far as Bcthzura, a strong fortress about twenty nes, another great captain of the Syrian forces. miles from Jerusalem, threatening to destroy the country with This success stirred up the jealousy of the heathen nations an army of sixty thousand foot and fire thousand horse. But about Gilead, who fell upon the Jews in the land of Tob; and, he was defeated also by Judas with ten thousand men only. having slain one thousand, took their goods, carried their wives

This victory gave him some respite ; and accordingly he and children captives, and drove the residue to seek for refuge restored the temple to the true worship of God, removed all and security in the strong fortress Dathema, in Gilead. But the profanations, built an altar of unheun stones, and replaced Timoiheus, the son of him slain at Gazara, shut them up the furniture that Antiochus had carried away, out of the gold with a great army, and besieged them, while the inhabitants and other rich spoils taken in this war. Thus he dedicated of Tyre, Sidon, and Ptolemais, were contriving to cut off all the temple again, and ordained that a feast of dedication should the Jews that lived in Galilee. be kept annually, in commemoration thereof for over, about Judas, in this critical juncture, by the advice of the sankethe 20th of Novcmber.

drin, dividing his army into three parts, he and his brother Nehemiah and Malachi to' the Birth of Christ. Jonathan marched with eight thousand men to the relief of elephant that he had stabbed; and was forced to retreat and the Gilcadiles ; his brother marched with three thousand into shut himself and his friends up in the temple. Galilce; and his brother Joseph was left with the command The king and Lysias were both present in this army of the of the remainder to protect Jerusalem and the country round, Syrians ; and would have compelled Judas to surrender, had and to remain wholly on the defensive, till Judas and Simon not Philip, whom Epiphanes had upon his death-bed appointed should retum.

guardian of his son, taken this opportunity of their absence to In their march to Gilead, Judas and Jonathan attacked seize upon Antioch, and to take upon him the government of - Bossora, a town of the Edomites, slew all the males, plundered the Syrian empire. it, released a great number of Jews reserved to be put to death Upon this news Lysias struck up a peace immediately with as soon as Dathema should be taken, and burned the city: Judas, upon honourable and advantageous terms to the sevisk When they arrived before Dathema, which was by a forced nation. But though it was ratified by oath, Eupater ordered march in the night, the brothers gave Timotheus so sưdden the fortifications of the temple to be demolished. and violent an assault, that they put his army to flight, and It was in this war that Menelaus, the wicked high priest, slow eight thousand in the pursuit

. And wherever he came fell into disgrace with Lysias, while he was prompting the and found any Jews oppressed or imprisoned, he released them heathen barbarity to destroy his own people : for being accused in the same manner as he did at Bossora.

and convicted of being the author and fomentor of this Jewish At the same time Simon defeated the enemy several times expedition, Lysias ordered him to be carried to Berthea, a in-Galilce, drove them out of the country, and pursued them town in Syria; and there to be cast into a high tower of ashes, with very great slaughter to the gates of Ptolemais. But in which there was a wheel which continually stirred up and Joseph, contrary to his orders, leaving Jerusalem, was put to raised the ashes about the criminal, till he was suffocated, and flight by Gorgias, govemor of Syria, and lost two thousand died. This was a punishment among the Persians for crimimen in that ill-projected expedition, against Jamnia, a sea- nals in high life. This wicked high priest was succeeded at port on the Mediterranean

the promotion of Antiochus Eupater, by one Alcimus, a man Lysias by this time had assembled an army of eight hun- altogether as wicked as his immediate predecessor. dred thousand men, cighty elephants, and all the horse of the Eupater. returned home, and by an easy battle killed the kingdom, and marched in person against the Hebrew con- usurper Philip, and quelled the insurrection in his favour. queror, Judas met him at the siege of Bethzuna, gave him But it was not so with Demetrius, the son of Seleucus Philobatile, slew cleven thousand foot, one thousand six hundred pator, who, being now come to maturity, claimed the kingdom horse, and put the rest to flight.

in right of his father, elder brother to Épiphanes. This victory was happily attended with a peace between Demetrius had been sent to Rome as a hostage, in exchange Judas and Lysias, in the name of the young king; by which for hủs uncle Antiochus Emphanes, in the very year that his the heathen decree of uniformity made by Epiphanes was father died. Antiochus, returning in the very nick of time, rescinded, and the Jews permitted to live according to their was declared king, in prejudice to the right of Demetrius. own laws.

And though Demetrius had often solicited the assistance of However, this peace was soon broke by the people of Joppa the Roman senate, under whom he was educated, to restore and Jamnia; but Judas was no sooner informed that they had him to his kingdom, reasons of state swayed with them rather cruelly treated and murdered the Jews that lived amongst to confirm Eupater, minor, in the government, than to them, but he fell upon Joppa by night, burned their shipping, assert the right of one of a mature understanding. Yet, and put all to the sword that had escaped the fire; and he set though he failed in this application, Demetrius resolved to fire to the haven of Jamnia, and burned all the ships in it. throw himself npon Providence. To which end, leaving Rome

Timotheus also, who had fled before this conqueror, was incog., Demetrius got safe to Tripolis, in Syria; where he discontented with the peace, and gathered an army of one gave out that he was sent, and would be supported by the hundred and twenty thousand foot, and two thousand five hun- Romans, to take possession of his father's kingdom. This dred horse, in order to oppress the Jews in Gilead. But when stratagem had its desired effect; every one deserted_from the news of this armament reached Judas, he marched against Eupater to Demetrius; and the very soldiers seized on Eupahim; and after he had defeated a strong párty of wandering ter and Lysias, and would have delivered them into his hands. Arabs, and made peace with them; taken the city Caspis, But Demetrius thought it more politic not to sce them; and which was Hoshbon in the tribe of Reuben ; slain the inhabit- having ordered them to be put to death, was presently settled ants; destroyed the place; taken Caraca also, and put its in the possession of the whole kingdomr. garrison of ten thousand men to the sword, he came up with During this interval the Jews enjoyed a profound peace ; Timotheus near Raphon on the river Jabbok, gave him battle, but having refused to acknowledge Álcimus their high pricst, slew thirty thousand of hỉs men, took him prisoner, pursued the because he had apostatized in the time of the persecution, remainder of his army to Carnion in Araba; took that city Alcimus addressed the new king, Demetrius, implored his proalso, and slew lwenty-five thousand more of Timotheus's forces; tection against Judas Maccabeus, and so exasperated him but gave him his life and liberty, on the promise that he would against the whole body of his party by false representations, relcase all the Jewish captives throughout his dominions. that Demetrius ordered Bacchides to march an army into

As he returned to Jerusalem he stormed the strong city of Judea, and to confirm Alcimus in the pontificate. Ephron, well garrisoned by Lysias, put twenty-five thousand Alcimus was also commissioned with Bacchides to carry on people to the sword ; plundered it, and razed it to the ground; the war in Judea, who upon the promise of a safe condnet, because the people refused to grant him a passage through it. having got the scribes and doctors of the law into their power, This campaign was concluded with a day of thanksgiving in put sixty of them to death in one day. Bacchides left him the temple at Jerusalem.

in possession with some forces for his support; with which he Thus Julas, finding himself disengaged from the treaty of committed many murders, and did much mischief; and at last peace by these hostilities, carried the war into the south of obtained another army from Demetrius, under the command Idumea; dismantled Hebron, the metropolis thereof; passed of Nicanor, to destroy Judas ; to disperse his followers, and into the land of the Philistines, took Azotus or Ashdod, the more effectually to support the said Alcimus in his post destroyed their idols, plundered their country, and returned to of high priest. Judea, to reduce the fortress of Acra, which was still in the Nicanor, who had experienced the valour of Judas, prohands of the king of Syria, and was very troublesome in time posed a compromise: but Alcimus, expecting more advantage of war to those that resorted to the temple.

to himself by a war, beat the king off it; so that Nicanor was Judas prepared for a regular siege : but Antiochus, being obliged to execute the first order. The war was carried on inforned of its distress, marched to its relief with an army of with various success, till Nicanor was slain in a pitched battle one hundred and ten thousand foot, twenty thousand horse, near a village called Bethoron ; and his whole army of thirtythirty-two elephants with castles on their backs full of archers, five thousand men, casting down their arms, were to a man and three hundred armed chariots of war. In his way through cut off in the flight. Idumea, he laid siege to Bcthzura, which at last was forced This victory was followed with a day of thanksgiving, which to surrender, after Judas, who had marched to its relief, had was established to be continued every year under the name of killed four thousand of the enemy by surprise in the night ; the anniversary day of solemn thanksgiving. lost his brother Eleazar in battle, crushed to death by an Judas, observing that the Syrians paid no regard to any

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Epitome of the Jewish History from the time of children before their faces, he ordered them all to be crucified ! When Cesar was returned from the Alexandrian war, be in one day, before him and his wives and concubines, whom was much solicited to depose Hyrcanus in favour of Arigohe had invited to a feast at the place of execution. Then, rus, the survivmg son of Aristobulus ; but Casar not only resolving to revenge himself on the king of Damascus, he confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood and principality made war on him for three years successively, and took several of Judea, and to his family in a perpetual succession, but he placeș ; when, returning home, he was received with great abolished the form of government lately set up by Gabmus, respect by his subjects.

restored it to its ancient form, and appointed Antipater procuHis next expedition was against the castle of Ragaba, in rator of Judea under him. the country of the Gerasens, where he was seized with a Antipater, who was a man of great penetration, made his quartan ague, which proved his death, B. C. 79.

His quoen son Phasael governor of the country about Jerusalem, and Alexandra, by his own advice, concealed it till the castle was his son Herod governor of Galilee, taken ; and then, carrying him to Jerusalem, she gave his Soon after this appointment, Herod, who was of a very body to the leaders of the Pharisees, to be disposed of as they boisterous temper, having seized upon one Hezekiah, a ringshould think proper; and told them, as her husband had leader of a gang of thieves, and some of his men that insested appointed her regent during the minority of her children, she his territories, he put them to death. This was presently would do nothing in the administration without their advice looked upon as a breach of duty to the sanhedrin, before whom and help

he was summoned to appear. But lest the sentence of that This address to the Pharisees so much gained their esteem court should pass upon him, he tied to Sextus Cæsar, the that they not only settled the queen dowager in the govern- Roman prefect of Syria at Damascus; and, with a large suun ment, but were very lavish in their encomiums on her deceased of money, obtained of him the government of Calesyria. He husband, whom they honoured with more than ordinary pomp afterwards raised an army, marched into Judea, and would and solemnity at his funeral.

haye revenged the indignity which he said the sanhidrin and The Pharisees having now the management of the queen high priest had cast upon bim, had not his father and brother regent, and of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, her sons by Aler- prevailed with him to retire for the present. ander, had all the laws against Pharisaism repealed and While Julius Casar lived, the Jews enjoyed great priabolished, recalled all the exiles, and demanded justice against vileges ; but his untimely death, B. C. 44, by the villanous those that had advised the crucifixion of thre eight hundred and ungrateful hand of Brutus, Cassius, &c., in the senate rebels.

house, as he was preparing for an expedition against the The queen made her eldest son, Hyrcanus, high priest. Parthians to revenge his country's wrong, delivered them up But Aristotılus was not contented to live a private life; and as a prey to every hungry general of Rome. Cassius immetherefore, as soon as his mother seemed to decline, he medi- diately-seized upon Syria, and exacted above seren hundred tated in what manner he might usurp the sovereignty from his talents of silver from the Jews; and the envy and villany of brother, at her decease ; and he had taken such measures Malicus, who was a natural Jer, and the next in office under beforehand, that upon the death of his mother he found him- Antipater, an Idumean, rent the state into horrid factions. self strong enough to attempt the crown, though Alexandra Malicus bribed the high priest's butler to poison his friend had declared Hyrcanus her successor. The two armies met Antipater, to make way for himself to be the next in person in the plains of Jericho; but Hyrcanus, being deserted by to Hyrcanus. Herod, making sure of Cassius, by obtaining most of his forces, was obliged to resign his crown and ponti- his leave and assistance to revenge his father's death, took ficate to Aristobulus, and promise to live peaceably upon his the first opportunity to have him murdered by the Romain private fortune.

garrison at Tyre. This resignation was a subject of great discontent to some The friends of Malicus, having engaged the high priest and of Hyrcanus's courtiers, among whom was Antipater, father Felix the Roman general at Jerusalem on their side, resolved to Herod the Great, who persuaded Hyrcanus to fly to Aretas. to revenge his death on the sons of Antipater. All Jerusalem king of Arabia, who, on certain conditions, supplied him with was in an uproar; Herod was siek at Damascus; so that the fifty thousand men, with which Hyrcanus entered Juilca, and whole power and fury of the assailants fell upon Phasael, who gained a complete victory over Aristobulus. But while he defended hiinself very strenuously, and drove the tumultuous besieged him in the temple, Aristobulus, with the promise of party out of the city. As soon as Herod was able, the two a large sum of money, engaged Pompey, the general of the brothers presently quelled the faction ; and had not Hyrcanus Roman army, then before Damascus, to oblige Aretas to made his peace by giving Herod his granddaughter Marianne withdraw his forces; but Aristobılus, though he was for the in marriage, they certainly.would have shown their resentment present delivered from his brother's rage, prevaricated so of the priest's behaviour with more severity: with Pompey, that he at last confined Aristobulus in chains, Again, this faction was not so totally extinguished but that took Jerusalem sword in hand, retrenched the dignity and several principal persons of the Jewish nation, upon the defeat power of the principality, destroyed the fortifications, ordered of Brutus and Cassius, accused Phasael and Herod to the an annual tribute to be paid to the Romans, and restored conqueror, Mark Anthony, of usurping the government from Hyrcanus to the pontificate, and made him prince of the Hyrcanus. But tho brothers had so much interest with the country, but would not permit him to wear the diadem.

conqueror that he rejected the complaints of the deputies, Pompey, having thus settled the government of Judea, made them both tetrarchs, and committed all the affairs of returned in his way to Rome with Aristobulus, his sons Aler- Judea to their administration; and to oblige the Jews to obey ander and Antigonus, and two of his daughters, to adorn his his decision in this affair, he retained fifteen of the deputies triumph.

as hostages for the people's fidelity, and would have put them Alexander found means to escape, by the way, and about to death had not. Herod begged their lives. three years after arrived in Judea, and raised some disturb- The Jews, however, when Anthony arrived at Tyre, sent ance; but he was defeated in all his attempts by Gabinius, one thousand deputies with the like accusations, włuch he, the Roman governor in Syria, who, after this, coming to looking upon as a daring, insult, ordered his soldiers to fall Jerusalem, confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood, but upon them, so that some were killed and many wounded, removed the civil administration from the sanhedrin into five But upon Herod's going to Jerusalem the citizens revenged courts of justice of his own erecting, according to the number this affront in the samne manner upon his retinue; the news of five provinces, into which he had divided the whole land. whereof so enraged Anthony, that he ordered the fifteen bos

When Aristobulus had lain five years prisoner at Rome, he tages to be immediately put to death, and threatened severe with his son escaped into Judea, and endeavoured raise revenge against the whole faction. But after that Mark fresh trouble ; but Gabinius soon took them again ; and being Anthony was returned to Rome, the Parthians, at the solicitaremanded to Rome, the father was kept close confined, but tion of Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, who had promised the children were released.

them a reward of a thousand talents and eight hundred of the It was about this time, B. C. 48, that the civil war between most beautiful women in the country, to set him on the Pompey and Cæsar broke out; and when Aristobulus was throne of Jndea, entered that country, and being joined by the on the point of setting out, by Cæsar's interest, to take the factious and discontented Jews, (B. C. 37,) took Jerusalem coinmand of an army in order to secure Judea from Pompey's without resistance, took Phasael and Hyrcanus, and put atteinpts, he was poisoned by some of Pompey's party. them in chains ; but Herod escaped under the cover of night

Nehemiah and Malachi to the Birth of Christ. and deposited his mother, sister, wife, and his wife's mother, , bulus, and her own close confinement at first, and afterwards with several other relations and friends, in the impregnable in her own and her daughter Marianne's death ; though this fortress Massada, near the lake Asphaltues, under the care tragic scene was at several times acted under disguise. Arisof his brother Joseph, who was obliged to go to Rome to seek tobulus was drowned at Jericho, as it were accidentally, B.C. protection and relief.

29, in a fit of jealousy; Mariamne was adjudged to die, and In the mean time Antigonus remained in possession of all Alexandra was ordered for execution, B. C. 28, on a suppothe country, and was declared king of Judea." The Parthians sition that she wished kis death; which unjust sentence purdelivered Hyrcanus and Phasael to Antigonus ; upon which sued his very innocent children Alexander and Aristobilus, Phasael, being so closely handcuffed and ironed that he fore- for expressing their dislike of their father's cruelty to their saw his ignominious death approaching, dashed his own brains mother Mariamne. But it is very probable that he himself out against the wall of the prison. Antigonus cut off the had fallen a sacrifice to Octarius after the battle, and the total ears of Hyrcanus, to incapacitate him from the high priesthood, loss of Mark Anthony at Actium, (fought B. C. 31,) had he and returned him again to the Parthians, who left him at not hastened to the conqueror at Rhodes, and in an artful Scleucia, in their return to the East.

speech appeased him, and with a promise to support his facHerod on this occasion served himself so well on the friend- tion in those parts, obtained from him a confirmation of his ship which had been between his father and himself with the royal dignity. Roman general, Mark Anthony, and the promise of a round The cruelties, however, which he exercised to his own ficsh sum of money, that he in seven days' tiine obtained a senato- and blood filled his mind with agonies of remorse, which rial decree, constituting him king of Judea, and declaring brought him into a languishing condition; and what helped to Antigonus an enemy to the Roman state. He immediately increase his disorder was the conspiracy of Antipater, his left Rome, landed at Ptolemais, raised forces, and being aided eldest son by Doris, born to him whilst he was a private man. with Roman auxiliaries, by order of the senate, he reduced But Herod having discovered the plot, accused him thereof bethe greater part of the country, took Joppa, relieved Massada, fore Quintilius Varus, the Roman governor of Syria, and put stormed the castle of Ressa, and must have taken Jerusalem him to death also; which occasioned that remarkable exclaalso, had not the Roman commanders who were directed to mation of the Emperor Octavius, that “it was better to be assist him been bribed by Antigonus, and treacherously ob- | Herod's hog than his son.” structed his success. But when Herod perceived their collu- The great pleasure that Herod took (B. C: 25) in obliging sion, he, for the present, satisfied himself with the reduction his protector Octavianus, and the dread he had of being deof Galilee; and hearing of Anthony's besieging Samosata throned for his cruelties, prompted him to compliment him with on the Euphrates, went in person to him to represent the ill the names of two new cities, the one to be built on the spot treatment he had met with from the generals, Ventidius and where Samaria stood before Hyrcanus destroyed it, (B.`C. Silo, whom he had cominanded to serve him.

22,) which he called Sebaste, the Greek word for Augustus; Upon his departure, Herod left the command of his forces the other was Casarea, once called the Tonoer of Straton, to his brother Joseph, with charge to remain upon the defen- on the sea-coast of Phænicia. After this he built a theatre sive. But Joseph, contrary to orders, attempting to reduce and amphitheatre in the very city of Jerusalem, to celebrate Jericho, was slain, and most of his men were cut to pieces. games and exbibit shows in honour of Augustus; set up an And thus Herod again lost Galilee and Idumea.

image of an eagle, the Roman ensign, over one of the gates Mark Anthony granted all he requested; and though at of the temple; and at last carried his flattery so far as idolafirst the army which Anthony had spared him was roughly trously to build a temple of white marble in memory of the handled, and he himself wounded as he approached Jerusalem favours he had received from Octavianus Augustus. to revenge his brother's death, he afterwards slew Pappus, These advances to idolatry were the foundation of a conAntigonus's general, and entirely defeated his army; and in spiracy of ten men, who bound themselves with an oath to the next campaign, after a siege of several months, Herod, assassinate him in the very theatre. But being informed assisted by Socius, the Roman general, took it by storm. thereof in time, Herod seized the conspirators, and put them The soldiers expecting the spoils of the city as their due, and to death with the most exquisite torments; and to ingratiate being exasperated by the long resistance of the citizens, himself with the Jews, he formed a design to rebuild the temspared neither men, women, nor children, and would certainly ple, (B. C. 17,) which now, after it had stood five hundred have utterly destroyed every thing and person with rapine and years, and suffered much from its enemies, was fallen much devastation, death and slaughter, had not Herod redeemed into decay. He was two years in providing materials; and it them with a large sum of money.

was so far advanced that Divine service was performed in it Antigonus surrendered himself to Socius, who carried him nine years and a half more, though a great number of labourin chains to Anthony; and he for a good sum of money was ers and artificers were continued to finish the outworks til! bribed to put him to death, that in him the Asmonaan family, several years after our Saviour's ascension; for when Gessius which had lasted one hundred and twenty-nine years, might be Florus was appointed governor of Judea, he discharged extinet.

eighteen thousand workmen from the temple at one time. By this event Herod found himself once more in full power, And here it should be observed that these, for want of employand at liberty to revenge himself upon his enemies. He began ment, began those mutinies and seditions which at last drew his reign with the execution of all the members of the great on the destruction both of the temple and Jerusalem, in A. Sanhedrin except Pollio and Sameas, who are also called D. 70. Hillel and Shammai. Then he raised one Ananel, born of Thus I have finished that brief connection of the affairs of the pontifical family at Babylon, to the place of high priest; the Jews from the death of Nehemiah and conclusion of the but Mark Anthony, at the intercession of Cleopatra, queen Old Testament, to the coming of Christ, where the New of Egypt, who was solicited thereto by Alertundra, Mari- Testament begins, which from the creation of the world, amne's mother, and the entreaties of his own beloved Mari- according to the most exact computation, is the year 4000. amne in behalf of her young brother, prevailed with him to The general state of the heathen world was in profound annul this nomination, and to prefer Aristobulus to the ponti- peace under the Roman emperor, Augustus, to whom all the ficate. But as Hyrcanus was yet alive, and the Jews, in the known parts of the earth were in subjection when Christ was place of his exile, paid him all the honours and reverence due born. This glorious event took place in the year of the Julian to their king and high priest, Herod, under a pretence of gra- Period 4709, and the fifth before the vulgar era of Christ titude and friendship to that author of all his fortunes, pre- commonly noted A. D., Anno Domini, or the year of our vailed with the old prince to desire it, and with Phraortes, Lord. See the learned Dr. Prideaux's connected History of king of Parthia, to permit his return to Jerusalem, with an the Old and New Testaments. intention to cut him off at a proper opportunity; which he I need not add here the years from the birth of Christ to soon after did on a pretence of his holding treasonable corres- the end of the New Testament History, as these are regipondence with Malchus, king of Arabia. But in the mean larly brought down in a Table of Remarkable Eras, immeditime Alexandra, valuing herself upon the interest she had with ately succeeding the Acts of the Apostles, and terminating at Cleopatra, laid a scheme to obtain the regal dignity for her A. D. 100. son Aristobulus, by the same means that she had got him the For the desolation that took place when the temple was pontificate. But this intrigue ended in the death of Aristo- I taken and destroyed, see the notes on Matt. xxiv. 31.

His qucen

Epitome of the Jewish History from the time of children before their faces, he ordered them all to be crucified When Cæsar was returned from the Alcrandrian war, he in one day, before him and his wives and concubines, whom was much solicited to depose Hyrcanus in favour of Antigohe had invited to a feast at the place of execution. Then, 'mus, the survivmg son of Aristobulus; but Casar not only resolving to revenge himself on the king of Damascus, he confirmed Hyrcanus in the liigh priesthood and principality made war on him for three years successively, and took several of Judea, and to his family in a perpetual succession, but he places ; when, returning home, he was received with great abolished the form of government lately set up by Gabinius, respect by his subjects.

restored it to its ancient forin, and appointed Antipater procuHis next expedition was against the castle of Ragaba, in rator of Judea under him. the country of the Gerasens, where he was seized with a Antipater, who was a man of great penetration, made his quartan ague, which proved his death, B. C. 79.

son Phasael governor of the country about Jerusalem, and Alexandra, by his own advice, concealed it till the castle was his son Herod governor of Galilee. taken ; and then, carrying him to Jerusalem, she gave his Soon after this appointment, Herod, who was of a very body to the leaders of the Pharisees, to be disposed of as they boisterous temper, having scized upon one Hezekiah, a ringshould think proper; and told them, as her husband had leader of a gang of thieves, and some of his men that infested appointed her regent during the minority of her children, she his territories, he put them to death. This was presently would do nothing in the administration without their advice looked upon as a breach of duty to the sanhedrin, before whom and help.

he was summoned to appear. But lest the sentence of that This address to the Pharisees so much gained their esteem court should pass upon him, he fled to Seztus Caser, the that they not only settled the queen dowager in the govern- Roman prefect of Syria at Damascus; and, with a large sum ment, but were very lavish in their encomiums on her deceased of money, obtained of him the government of Calesyria. He husband, whom they honoured with more than ordinary pomp afterwards raised an army, marched into Judea, and would and solemnity at his funeral.

haye revenged the indignity which he said the sanhedrin and The Pharisees having now the management of the queen high priest had cast upon him, had not his father and brother regent, and of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, her sons by Aler- prevailed with him to retire for the present. ander, had all the laws against Pharisaism repealed and While Julius Cæsar lived, the Jews enjoyed great priabolished, recalled all the exiles, and demanded justice against vileges ; but his untimely death, B. C. 44, by the villanous those that had advised the crucifixion of the eight hundred and ungrateful hand of Brutus, Cassius, &c., in the senate rebels.

house, as he was preparing for an expedition against the The queen made her eldest son, Hyrcanus, high priest. Parthians to revenge his country's wrong, delivered them up But Aristobulus was not contented to live a private lite; and as a prey to every hungry general of Rome. Cassius iminta therefore, as soon as his mother seemed to decline, he medi- , diately seized upon Syria, and exacted above scten hundred tated in what manner he might usurp the sovereignty from his talents of silver from the Jews; and the envy and villany of brother, at her decease ; and he had taken such measures Malicus, who was a natural Jer, and the next in office under beforehand, that upon the death of his mother he found him- Antipater, an Humean, rent the state into horrid factions. self strong enough to attempt the crown, though Alexandra Malicus bribed the high priest's butler to poison bus frend, had declared Hyrcanus her successor. The two armies met Antipater, to make way for himself to be the next in person in the plains of Jericho ; but Hyrcanus, being deserted by to Hyrcanus. Herod, making sure of Cassius, by obtaining most of his forces, was obliged to resign his crown and ponti- his leave and assistance to revenge his father's death, took ficate to Aristobulus, and promise to live peaceably upon his the first opportunity to have him murdered by the Roma private fortune.

garrison at Tyre. This resignation was a subject of great discontent to some The friends of Malicus, having engaged the high priest and of Hyrcanus's courtiers, among whom was Antipater, father Felir the Roman general at Jerusalem on their side, resolved to Herod the Greal, who persuaded Hyrcanus to fly to Aretas, to revenge his death on the sons of Antipater. All Jerusalem king of Arabia, who, on certain conditions, supplied him with was in an uproar; Herod was siek at Damascus ; so that the fifty thousand men, with which Hyrcanus entered Judea, and whole power and fury of the assailants fell upon Phasael, who gained a complete victory over Aristobulus. But while he defended himself very strenuously, and drove the tumultuous besieged him in the temple, Aristobulus, with the promise of party out of the city. As soon as Herod was able, the two a large sum of money, engaged Pompey, the general of the brothers presently quelled the faction; and had not Hyrcanus Roman army, then before Damascus, to oblige Aretas to made his peace by giving Herod his granddaughter Marianne withdraw his forces; but Aristobulus, though he was for the in marriage, they certainly, would have shown their resentinent present delivered from his brother's rage; prevaricated so of the priest's behaviour with more severity: with Pompey, that he at last confined Aristobulus in chains, Again, this faction was not so totally extinguished but that took Jerusalem sword in hand, retrenched the dignity and several principal persons of the Jewish nation, upon the defeat power of the principality, destroyed the fortifications, ordered of Brutus and Cassins, accused Phasad and Hered to the an annual tribute to be paid to the Romans, and restored conqueror, Mark Anthony, of usurping the government from Hyrcanus to the pontificate, and made him prince of the Hyrcanus. But the brothers had so much interest with the country, but would not permit him to wear the diadem. conqueror that he rejected the complaints of the deputies,

Pompey, having thus settled the government of Judea, made them both tetrarchs, and committed all the affairs of returned in his way to Rome with Aristobulus, his sons Aler- Judea to their administration; and to oblige the Jews to obey ander and Antiganus, and two of his daughters, to adorn his his decision in this affair, he retained fifteen of the deputies triumph

as hostages for the people's fidelity, and would have put then Alexander found means to escape, by the way, and about to death had not Herod begged their lives. three years after arrived in Judea, and raised some disturb- The Jews, however, when Anthony arrived at Tyre, sent ance; but he was defeated in all his attempts by Gabinius, one thousand deputies with the like accusations, which he, the Roman governor in Syria, who, after this, coming to looking upon as a daring insult, ordered his soldiers to fall Jerusalem, confirmed Hyrcanus in the high priesthood, but upon them, so that some were killed and many wounded. removed the civil administration from the sanhedrin into five But upon Herod's going to Jerusalem the citizens revenged courts of justice of his own erecting, according to the number this affront in the same manner upon his retinue; the news of five provinces, into which he had divided the whole land. whereof so enraged Anthony, that he ordered the fifteen hos

When Aristobulus had lain five years prisoner at Rome, he tages to be immediately put to death, and threatened severe with his son escaped into Judea, and endeavoured to raise revenge against the whole faction. But after that Mark fresh trouble ; but Gabinius soon took them again ; and being Anthony was returned to Rome, the Parthians, at the solicitaremanded to Rome, the father was kept close confined, but tion of Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, who had promised the children were released.

them a reward of a thousand talents and eight hundred of the It was about this time, B. C. 48, that the civil war between most beautiful women in the country, to set him on the Pompey and Cæsar broke out; and when Aristobulus was throne of Jndea, entered that country, and being joined by the on the point of setting out, by Casar's interest, to take the factions and discontented Jews, (B. C. 37,) took Jerusalem command of an army in order to secure Judea from Pompey's without resistance, took Phasael and Hyrcanus, and put attempts, he was poisoned by some of Pompey's party. them in chains ; but Herod escaped under the cover of night

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