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R. Roman., cir, annum 30.

cir. anium 30.

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Display of God's power


in the latter days. ABMC.COM 597 BEHOLD, a the day of the great valley; and 'half of the A. M. cir. 3417.

LORD cometh, and thy spoil mountain shall remove toward 01. XLVIII, 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, shall be divided in the midst of the north, and half of it toward R. Roman., thée.

the south. 2 For I will gather all nations against 5 - And ye shall flee to the valley off the Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be mountains ;

mountains ; & for the valley of the mountains taken, and the houses rifled, and the women shall reach untó Azal: yea, ye shall flee like as ravished; and half of the city shall go forth ye fled from before the bearthquake in the days into captivity, and the residue of the people of Uzziah king of Judah : and the Lord my shall not be cut off from the city.

God shall come, and k all the saints with thee. 3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight 6 And it shall come to pass in that day, 1 that. against those nations, as 'when he fought in the light shall not be m clear, nor dark: the day of battle.

7 But o it shall be P one day · which shall 4 And his feet shall stand in that day d upon be known to the Lord, not day, nor night : but the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusa- it shall come to pass, that at ' evening time it lem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall shall be light. cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and 8 And it shall be in that day, that living toward the west, e and there shall be a very

waters shall


out from Jerusalem : half of

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a Isa, xui. 9; Joel ii. 31 ; Acts ii. 20.-Jocliii. 2.- - Isa. k Joel ii. 11. That is, it shall not be clear in some places, xiii. 16. - See Ezek. xi. 23.-e Joel in. 12, 14. f Or, and dark in other places of the world. —

_m Heb. precious. my mountains. Or, when he shall touch the valley of the moun- n Heb. Or, the day shall be one.-- Rev. xxii. 5. tains to the place he separated. h Amos i. 1. - Mått. xvi, 27 ; 9 Matt. xxiv. 36. - Isa. xxx. 20; Ix. 19, 20; Rev. xxi. 23. xxiv. 30, 31 ; xxv. 31 ; Jude 14.

Ezek. xlvii. 1; Joel in. 18; Rev. xxii. I.


think that these words refer to the lines of circumVerse 1. Behold, the day of the Lord cometh) This vallation, to intrenchments, redoubts, &c., which the appears to be a prediction of that war in which Jeru- Romans made while carrying on the siege of this city; salem was finally destroyed, and the Jews scattered and particularly the lines or trenches which the army all over the face of the earth; and of the effects made on Mount Olivet itself. produced by it.

Verse 5. Ye shall flee to the valley] Some think Verse 2. I will galher all nations] The Romans, this refers to the valley through which Zedekiah and whose armies were composed of all the nations of the others endeavoured to escape when Nebuchadnezzar world. In this verse there is a pitiful account given pressed the siege of Jerusalem : but it appears to of the horrible outrages which should be committed speak only of the Jewish wars of the Romans. during the siege of Jerusalem, and at its capture. Azal] This, as a place, is not known. If a place,

The residue of the people shall not be cut off] it was most probably near to Jerusalem; and had its Many were preserved for slaves, and for exhibition in name from that circumstance. the provincial theatres.

Verse 6. The light shall not be clear, nor dark] Verse 3. Then shall the Lord go forth, and fighi Metaphorically, there will be a mixture of justice and against those nations] Against the Romans, by means mercy in all this; or a bright light and darkness. of the northern nations; who shall destroy the whole Mercy shall triumph over judgment. There shall be empire of this once mistress of the world. But this darkness-distress, &c.; but there shall be more light is an obscure place.

-joy and prosperity—than darkness. Verse 4. And his feet shall stand] He shall appear Verse 7. At evening time it shall be light.] At the in full possession of the place, as a mighty conqueror. close of this awful visitation, there shall be light. The

And the mount of Olives shall cleave] God shall light of the glorious Gospel shall go forth from Jerudisplay his miraculous power as fully in the final salem ; and next, from the Roman empire to every restoration of the Jews, as he did when he divided part of the earth. the Red Sea that their forefathers might pass through Verse 8. Living waters shall go out] There shall dry-shod. Some refer this to the destruction of the be a wide diffusion of Divine knowledge, and of the city by the Romans. It was on the mount of Olives plan of human salvation, which shall go out by that Titus posted his army to batter Jerusalem. Here apostles and preachers, first from Jerusalem, then to the tenth legion that came to him from Jericho was Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, the isles of the sea, placed. Joseph. De Bello, lib. vi. c. 3. It was from Britain, &c. this mountain that our Lord beheld Jerusalem, and The former sea, andthe hinder sea] The Dead predicted its future destruction, Luke xix. 41, with Sea and the Mediterranean ; see on Joel ü. 20. Matt. xxiv. 23; and it was from this mountain that These are metaphors. he ascended to heaven, (Acts i. 12,) utterly leaving an In summer) In time of drought, or in the counungrateful and condemned city.

tries where there was no knowledge of God, there And half of the mountain shall remove] I really shall these walers fow. The stream shall never

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R. Roman., cir. annum 30.

cir. annum 30.

Display of the Divine power ZECHARIAH.

in the latter days, A. M. cir. 3417 them toward the former sea, and and their eyes shall consume M. eir: 3917. oi. XLVIII. 2half of them toward the hinder away in their holes, and their 01. XLVIII. 2 Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Fnsci, R. Roman.,

sea : in summer and in winter tongue shall consume away in
shall it be.

their mouth. 9 And the Lord shall be u King over all the 13. And it shall come to pass in that day, earth : in that day shall there be one LORD, that o a great tumult from the LORD shall be and his name one.

among them; and they shall lay hold every 10 All the land shall be w turned * as a plain one on the hand of his neighbour, and his from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem; hand shall rise up against the hand of his and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited ? in her neighbour. place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place of 14 And & Judah also shall fight hat Jeruthe first gate, unto the corner gate, * and from salem ; i and the wealth of all the heathen the tower of Hananeel, unto the king's wine- round about shall be gathered together, gold, presses.

and silver, and apparel, in great abundance. 11 And men shall dwell in it, and there shall 15 And * so shall be the plague of the horse, be b no more uiter destruction; " but Jerusalem of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and d shall be safely inhabited.

of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as 12 And this shall be the plague wherewith this plague. the LORD will smite all the people that have 16 And it shall come to pass, that every one fought against: Jerusalem ; Their flesh shall that is left of all the nations which came against consume away while they stand upon their feet, Jerusalem shall even 'go up from year to year

Or, eastern, Joel ii. 20. - Dan. ii. 44; Rev. xi. 15. d Or, shall abide. 1 Sam. xiv. 15, 20.- Judg. vii. 22; * Eph. iv. 5, 6. Or, compassed.-

:-*Isa. xl. 4.-- Chap. 2 Chron. xx. 23 ; Ezek. xxxviii. 21.--- Or, thou also, O Judah, XN1. 6. Or, shall abide. --_a Neh. ii. 1; xii. 30; Jer. xxxi. shalt. Or, against. - Ezek. xxxix. 10, 17, &c.- Ver. 38.Lb Jer. xxxi. 40.- Jer. xxii. 6.

12.- Isa. Ix. 6, 7, 9; Ixvi. 23.


cease ; it shall run in summer as well as winter. Unto the king's wine-presses] Near to the king's These are living waters--perennial, incessant, and gardens, southward.See Newcome. waters that shall preserve life. See John vii. 37. Verse 11. There shall be no more ulter destruction)

Verse 9. And the Lord shall be King] When this After this final restoration of Jerusalem it shall never universal diffusion of Divine knowledge shall take inore be destroyed ; but as this was the first city of place. Wherever it goes, the laws of God shall be the living God upon earth, so shall it be the last ; it acknowledged ; and, consequently, he shall be King shall be safely inhabited. It shall see war no more. over the whole earth.

Verse 12. And this shall be the plague) All her One Lord, and his name one.] There shall be in enemies shall be destroyed. those blessed days only one religion, and one form of Their flesh shall consume away] These are the religion. There shall not be gods many, and lords effects of famine which are described in this verse. many. All mankind shall be of one religion, the es- Verse 13. A great tumult from the Lord] Among sence of which is, “ Thou shalt love the Lord thy God those enemies of his Church, who shall engage and dewith all thy heart, soul, mind, and strength ; and thy stroy each other. NEIGHBOUR as thyself."

Verse 14. And Judah also shall fight] They shall Verse 10. All the land shall be turned as a plain) have little else to do than take the spoil, the wealth Or rather, “ He shall encompass the whole land as a of all the heathen round about ; gold, silver, and plain.” He shall cast his defence' all around it ; from apparel. Geba, in Benjamin, north of Jerusalem, (Josh. xxi. Verse 15. So shall be the plague of the horse, and 17,) to Rimmon in Judah, to the south of Jerusalem, the mule] There shall be plagues on the substance of Josh. xv. 32.

the enemies of the Church, as there were on the cattle It shall be lifted up] The city shall be exalted. and goods of the Egyptians.

And inhabited in her place] Jerusalem shall be Verse 16. Shall even go up from year to year] The rebuilt in the very place in which it originally stood. Jews had three grand original festivals, which chaFrom Benjamin's gate, which was probably on the racterized different epochs in their history, viz. :north side of Jerusalem, unto the place of the first 1. The feast of the passover, in commemoration of gate, supposed to be that called the old gate, Neh. their departure from Egypt. iii. 6, xii. 39, placed by Lightfoot towards the south- 2. The feast of pentecost, in commemoration of the west.

giving of the law upon Mount Sinai. Unto the corner gale] See 2 Kings xiv. 13.

3. The feast of tabernacles, in commemoration of The tower of Hananeel] This tower and the corner their wandering forty years in the wilderness. gale seem to be placed as two extremities of the city. This last feast is very properly brought in here to

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Conclusion of

this prophecy. A M. cor. 3417. to worship the King, the LORD and the punishment of all nations A. M. cir. 3417. OI. XLVIII

. 2. of hosts, and to keep m the feast that come not up to keep the 01. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., of tabernacles. feast of tabernacles.

R. Roman., 17 And it shall be, that 20 In that day shall there be cir. annum 30. whoso will not come up of all the families upon the "bells of the horses, HOLINESS of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the King, the Lord of hosts, even upon them Lord's house shall be like the bowls before shall be no rain.

the altar.

cir. annum 30.

18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, 21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Ju

and come not, o that p have no rain, there dah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts. shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will and all they that sacrifice shall come and take smite the heathen that come not up to keep of them, and seethe therein : and in that day the feast of tabernacles.

there shall be no more the Canaanite in 19 This shall be the 4 punishment of Egypt, u the house of the LORD of hosts.

m Lev. xxvi. 34, 43 ; Deut. xvi. 13, 16; Neh. viii. 14; Hos. * p Deut. xi. 10. Or, sin. Or, bridles.- Isa. xii. xii. 9; Johu vii. 2. an Isa. lx. 12. — Heb. upon whom there 18.-—-'Isa. xxxv. 8; Job jii. 17; Rev. xxi. 27; xxii. 15.

Eph. ii. 19, 20, 21, 22.

is not.

«« The

point out the final restoration of the Jews, and their pents, in the island of Serendib, now Ceylon. The establishment in the light and liberty of the Gospel of margin reads bridles. Christ, after their long wandering in vice and error. Holiness UNTO THE LORD] As the Gospel is a holy

Verse 17. Upon them shall be no rain.] Those who system, preaching holiness and producing holiness in do not worship God shall not have his blessing; and those who believe, so all without, as well as within, those who do not attend Divine ordinances cannot have shall bear this impress; and even a man's labour shall the graces and blessings which God usually dispenses be begun and continued, and ended in the Lord; yea, by them.

On such sluthful, idle Christians, there shall and the animals he uses, and the instruments he works be no rain!

with, shall be all consecrated to God through Christ. Verse 18. If the family of Egypt] This may allude The pots] “ The meanest utensil in the house of to those Jews who, flying from the persecution of God, Neh. x. 29, shall be as the vessels of silver, and Antiochus Epiphanes, settled in Egypt, and built a gold used in solemn sacrifice ; they shall be like the temple at Heliopolis, under the direction of Onias, son bowls before the altar."-See Newcome. of the high priest. Joseph. Antiq. lib. xiii., c. 6, and Verse 21. Yea, every pot in Jerusalem) WAR, lib. vii., c. 36. If these do not rejoin their utensils of the Jews shall be treated as holy, and the brethren, they shall have no rain, no interest in the fa- worshippers shall use them reverently. The idea of vour of God.

preparing food in them (they that-seethe therein) is Verse 19. This shall be the punishment of all na- taken from the custom of feasting after sacrifice. And tions that come not up] God will have his public no trafficker (see Ezek. xviii. 4) shall pollute the worship established everywhere, and those who do not house of God, as was the custom when our blessed worship him shall lie under his curse.

Lord cleansed the temple.”—See Newcome. This is Verse 20. Upon the bells of the horses] They appear, what is called the Canaanite in the house of God. formerly, to have had bells on horses, camels, &c., as The Canaanite is the merchant ; and where such are we have now, to amuse the animals, and encourage tolerated in a place dedicated to Divine worship, that them in their work. In some very fine Asiatic paint is not the house of the Lord of hosts. In churches ings now before me, I see bells both on horses, mules, and chapels, collections may be made for the simple and camels ; little bells tied to their legs, and larger purpose of supporting and extending the worship of ones about their necks, particularly in the representa- Jehovah; but for no other purpose, especially on the tion of a caravan passing through the valley of ser-Lord's day. Amen.






Chronological Notes relative to this Book. Year from the Creation, according to Archbishop Usher, 3607.—Year from the vocation of Abram, 1524,

Year since the destruction of Troy, 787. Year since the commencement of the kingdom of Israel by the Divine appointment of Saul to the regal dignity, 698:

-Year from the division of Solomon's monarchy into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, 578.—Fourth year of the ninety-fifth Olympiad.— Year from the building of Rome, according to the Varronian computation, 356.— Year before the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 397.-Cycle of the Sun, 5.-Cycle of the Moon, 4.


cir. annum


cur. annun


c Rom. ix. 13.

This chapter begins with showing the great and free favour which God had manifested to the Israelites, above

what he had done to the Edomites, who are threatened with farther marks of the Divine displeasure ; alluding, perhaps, to the calamities which they suffered from Judas Maccabeus and John Hyrcanus, (see 1 Macc. v. 65, and. Joseph. Antiq. xiii. 9) 1-5., God then reproaches his people, and especially their priests, for their ungrateful returns to his distinguisked goodness, 6. They are particularly charged with sacrificing the refuse of beasts, 7-9, for which God threatens to reject them, 10, and choose other nations who will show more reverence to his name and worship, 11-14.

A. M. cir. 3607. B. C. cir. 397. THE burden of the word of the brother? saith the LORD: yel B. C. cir.397. Ol. cir. XCV. 4. Lord to Israel a by Malachi. " I loved Jacob,

Ol cir. XCV. 4. Urbis Conditæ

Urbis Conditæ 2. \ I have loved you, saith the 3 And I hated Esan, and I laid

LORD. Yet ye say, Wherein his mountains and his heritage hast thou loved us? Was - not Esau Jacob's waste for the dragons of the wilderness. a Heb. by the hand of Malachi. ob Deut. vii. 8; x. 15. d Jer. xlix. 18; Ezek. xxxv. 3, 4, 7, 9, 14, 15; Obadiah

10, &c. NOTES ON CHAP. I.

I not shown a greater partiality to the Israelites than Verse 1. The burden of the word of the Lord to I have to the Edomites? Israel by Malachi.] This prophet is undoubtedly the I loved Jacob] My love to Jacob has been proved last of the Jewish prophets. He lived after Zecha- by giving him greater privileges and a better inheritriah and Haggai; for we find that the temple, which ance than what I have given to Esau. was begun in their time, was standing complete in his. Verse 3. And I hated EsauI have shown him See chap. iii. 10. Some have thought that he was less love ; Gen. xxix. 30, 31. I comparatively hated contemporary with Nehemiah; indeed, several have him by giving him an inferior lot. And now, I have supposed that Malachi is no other than Ezra under not only laid waste the dwelling-place of the Edomites, the feigned name of angel of the Lord, or my angel. by the incursions of their enemies ; but (ver. 4) they John the Baptist was the link that connected Malachi shall remain the perpetual monuments of my renwith Christ. According to Abp. Usher he flourished geance. On the subject of loving Jacob and haling B. C. 416 ; but the authorized version, which we have Esau, see the notes on Gen. xxvii., and Rom. ix. 13. followed in the margin, states this event to have hap- Let it be remembered, 1. That there is not a word pened nineteen years later. Both the Hebrew lan- spoken here concerning the eternal state of either guage and poetry had declined in his days.

Jacob or Esau. 2. That what is spoken concerns Israel.Here means the Jewish people in ge merely their earthly possessions. And, 3. That it neral.

does not concern the two brothers at all, but the posVerse 2. Was not Esau Jacob's brother ?] Have terity of each.

A. M. cir. 3607.
B. C. cir. 397.

Urbis Conditæ cir. annum


Urbis Conditæ cir. annum


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The people are reproved

CHAP. 1.

for hypocrisy. 4 Whereas Edom saith, Wet by your means : will he regard A. M. cir. 3697, 01. cir. XCV. 4. are impoverished, but we will your persons ? saith the Lord of Ol.cir

. XCV. 4. return and build the desolate hosts.

places; thus saith the Lord of 10 Who is there even among you hosts, They shall build, but I will throw that would shut the doors for naught? " neither down; and they shall call them,- The border do ye kindle fire on mine altar for naught. I of wickedness, and, The people against whom have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord of hosts, the Lord hath indignation for ever.

neither will I accept an offering at your hand. 5 And your eyes shall see, and ye shall say, 11 For w from the rising of the sun even • The Lord will be magnified from 5 the unto the going down of the same my name border of Israel.

shall be great * among the Gentiles; y and in 6 A son

h honoureth his father, and a servant every place z incense shall be offered unto my his master: if then I be a father, where is name, and a pure offering; a for my name mine honour ? and if I be a master, where is shall be great among the heathen, saith the my fear ? saith the Lord of hosts unto you, Lord of hosts.. O priests, that despise my name.

12 But ye have profaned it, in that ye say, ye say, Wherein have we despised thy The table of the Lord is polluted ; and the name?

fruit thereof, even his meat, is contemptible. 7 Ye offer m polluted bread upon mine altar; 13 Ye said also, Behold, what a weariness and ye say, Wherein have we polluted thee? is it! Cand ye have snuffed at it, saith the In that ye say, " The table of the Lord is Lord of hosts ; and ye brought that which contemptible.

was torn, and the lame, and the sick; thus 8 And if ye offer the blind P for sacrifice, ye brought an offering: d should I accept this is it not evil ? and if ye offer the lame and sick, of your hand ? saith the LORD. is it not evil ? offer it now unto thy governor ; 14 But cursed be e the deceiver, f which hath will he be pleased with thee, or I accept thy in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth person? saith the LORD of hosts.

unto the Lord a corrupt thing: for 5 I am a 9 And now, I pray you, bescech God that great King, saith the LORD of hosts, and my he will be gracious unto us : s this hath been name is dreadful among the heathen.

k And

e Psa. xxxv. 27. ? Or, upon.--Heb. from upon.- Exod. "1 Cor. ix. 13. Isa. i. 11; Jer. vi. 20; Amos v. 21. xx. 12.-i Luke vi. 46. - k Chap. ii. 14, 17, n. 7, 8, 13. w Psa. cxii. 3 ; Isa. lix. 19.— x Isa. Ix. 3,5. -y John iv. 21, 1 Or, Bring unto, &c.- Lo Deut..xv.21.- Ezek. xli, 22 ; ver. 23; 1 Tim. ii. 8.--2 Rev. viii. 3.---- Isaiah lxvi. 19, 20. 12. Lev. xxii. 22; Deut. xv. 21; ver. 14. p Heb. to • Ver. 7.- Or, whereas ye might have blown it away.

d Lev. sacrifice. - Job xlii. 8. - Heb. the face of God. - Hos. xxii. 20, &c.- -e Ver. 8.- Or, in whose flock is.- -5 Psa. xiii. 9. - Heb. from your hand.

xlvii. 2; 1 Tim. vi. 15.


Verse 4. They shall build, but I will throw down] the refuse beasts, &c., and offered them to God; and We have already seen enough of the wickedness of thus the sacrificial ordinances were rendered conthe Edomites to justify the utmost severity of Divine temptible. justice against them. The pulling down predicted Verse 8. Offer it now unto thy governor] here was by Judas Maccabeus ; see 1 Mac. v. 65; pechath, a word signifying a lieutenant, or viceroy, and by John Hyrcanus; see Joseph. Antiq., lib. xiii. among the Chaldeans, Syrians, and Persians ; for c. 9. s. 1.

neither at this time, nor ever after, was there a king They shall call them, The border of wickedness] A in Israel. wicked land. Among this people scarcely any trace Verse 9. Beseech God] There were evident marks of good could ever be noted.

of God's displeasure in the land, and it was occasionVerse 5. Your eyes] Ye Israelites shall see, in ed by these pollutions through the priests. And now your succeeding generations, that

he exhorts them to pray to God that they may be parThe Lord will be magnified) By his kindness in doned : for, if this practice be persisted in, God will Israel, and his judgments beyond.

not accept any offering made by them. Verse 1. A son honoureth his father] I am your Verse 10. Who is among you] From this we Father-where, then, is my honour ? Where your learn that there was not one sincere or honest priest filial obedience ?

among them. They were selfish and worldly ; and If I be a master, where is my fear ?] The respect so basely so, that not one of them would even kindle due to me.

a fire on the hearth of the altar unless he were paid Verse 7. Ye offer polluted bread] The priests, pro- for it. bably to ingratiate themselves with the people, took Verse 11. From the rising of the sun] The total

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