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R. Roman., oir. annum 30.

cir, annnnn 30.

The type and curse of


a foolish shepherd. A. M. cir: 3417: cut it asunder, that I might Bands, that I might break the bro- A M. cir. 3417. Ol. XLVIII. 2. break my covenant which I had therhood between Judah and Israel. 01. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisei, made with all the people.

15 And the LORD said unto me,

Tarquinii Prisci,

R. Roman., 11 And it was broken in that Take unto thee yet the instruday: and' ? so the poor of the flock that ments of a foolish shepherd. waited upon me knew that it was the word 16 For lo, I will raise up a shepherd in of the LORD.

the land, which shall not visit those that be 12 And I said unto them, * If ye think good, y cut off, peither shall seek the young one, nor give me my price, and if not, forbear. So they heal that that is broken, nor 7 feed that that u weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver. standeth still: but he shall eat the flesh of the

13 And the Lord said unto me, Cast it unto fat, and tear their claws in pieces. the potter: a goodly price that I was prized 17 Wo to the idol shepherd that leaveth at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, silver, and cast them to the potter in the house and upon his right eye : his b arm shall be of the LORD.

clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly 14 Then I cut asunder mine other staff, even darkened.

r Or, the poor of the flock, &c., certainly knew.– Zeph. iii.

* Matt. xxvii. 9, 12.-_* Or, Bindes.* Ezek. xxxiv. 2,3 12 ; ver. 7. If it be good in your eyes. Matt, xxvi. 15; 4. -y Or, hidden. LOr, bear. Jer. xxi. 1; Ezek. XX. see Exod. xxi. 32.

2; John x. 12, 13.- b Psa. x. 5.

asunder] And thus I showed that I determined no cannot, says Newcome, explain this passage, without longer to preserve them in their free and glorious state. supposing that the kingdom of Israel subsisted when And thus I brake my covenant with them, which they the prophet wrote it; and that either the wars between had broken on their part already.

Judah and Israel are referred to, (see 2 Kings xvi. Verse 11. So the poor of the flock] "The pious, who 5,) or the captivity of the ten tribes, when the brotherly attended to my teaching, saw that this was the word connection between these kingdoms ceased. the design, of God.

Verse 15. The instruments of a foolish shepherd.] Verse 12. If ye think good, give me my price] Such as a bag without bread, a scrip without meaGive me my hire." And we find they rated it con- sure, and a staff without a hook, &c.; things that temptuously ; thirty pieces of silver being the price were needless or of no use ; to point out to the Jewish of a slave, Exod. xxi. 32.

pastors, who took no care of the flock, but devoured Verse 13. And the Lord said unto me, Cast it unto them, or ruled them with force and with cruelty. the potter] Jehovah calls the price of his prophet his Verse 16. I will raise up a shepherd in the land] own price; and commands that it should not be ac- Some wicked king; and Newcome supposes Hoshea cepted, but given to a potter, to foreshadow the trans- may be meant. See 2 Kings xvii. 1, 2, and to such action related Matt. xxvii. 7.

an abominable sovereign the prophecy may well “Earthen vessels were used in the temple ; and we apply. may suppose that some Levites were employed within Verse 17. Wo to the idol shepherd] 52507 in ror the sacred precincts to furnish them. To these, the haelil, “ the worthless,” or “good for nothing shephumblest of his ministers in the temple, God commands herd.” The shepherd in name and office, but not that the degrading price should be cast.” This is the performing the work of one. See John x. 11. substance of the notes on these two verses, given by The sword shall be upon his arm Punishment Apb. Newcome.

shall be executed upon the wicked Jews, and especially We may look at it in another light, Give me my their wicked kings and priests. See ver. 16. price! 930127 habu sichri, bring my price, or give Arm—the secular power; right eye—the ecclesihim my price ; that is, Give the money to Judas astical state. which you have agreed to give him; for he can neither His arm shall be clean dried up] The secular power betray me nor you crucify me, but by my own permission. shall be broken, and become utterly inefficient. But if not, forbear ; take time to consider this bloody His right eye shall be utterly darkened) Prophecy business, and in time forbear. For though I permit shall be restrained; and the whole state, ecclesiastical you to do it, yet remember that the permission does and civil, shall be so completely eclipsed, that none of not necessitatè you to do it; and the salvation of the their functions shall be performed. This may refer to world may be effected without this treachery and the worthless and wicked governor mentioned in the murder.

preceding verse. See my notes on this place, Matt. xxvii. 9, where There are several things in this chapter that are I have examined the evidence for the reading of very obscure, and we can hardly say what opinion is “ Zechariah the prophet," instead of " Jeremiah:” right; nor is it at all clear whether they refer to a very Verse 14. That I might break the brotherhood] Ilearly or late period of the Jewish history.

The burden of the word


of the Lord for Israel.

R. Roman., cir, annum 30.

CHAPTER XII. The first part of this chapter; with several passages in chap. xiv., relates to an invasion that shall be made

on the inhabitants of Judea and Jerusalem the latler ages of the world; some time after the restoration and settlement of the Jews in their own land. It also describes, in very magnificent terms, the signal interposition of God in their favour. From this the prophet proceeds in the latter part of the chapter, 10-14, to describe the spiritual mercies of God in converting his people ; and gives a very pathetic and affecting account of the deep sorrow of that people, when brought to a sense of their great sin in crucifying the Messiah, comparing it to the sorrow of a parent for his first-born and only son, or to the lamentations made for Josiah in the valley of Megiddon, 2 Chron. xxxv. 24, 25. A deep, retired sorrow. which will

render the mourners for a season insensible to all the comforts and enjoyments of the most endearing society. B. A cir: 384THE burden of the word of horse of the people with blind- A. M. cir. 3417

B. C. cir. 587. OL. XLVIII, 2. the Lord for Israel, saith the ness.

O]. XLVIII. 2. 'Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

LORD, which stretcheth forth the 5 And the governors of Judah cir. annum 30.

heavens, and layeth the foundation shall say in their heart, i The of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be my strength within him.

in the Lord of hosts their God. 2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of 6 In that day will I make the governors of d trembling unto all the people round about, Judah k like a hearth of fire among the wood, • when they shall be in the siege both against and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they Judah and against Jerusalem.

shall devour all the people round about, on the 3 And in that day will I make Jerusalem right hand and on the left : and Jerusalem shall 8 a burdensome stone for all people : all that be inhabited again in her own place, even in burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, Jerusalem. though all the people of the earth be gathered ng The Lord also shall save the tents of together against it.

Judah first, that the glory of the house of 4 In that day, saith the Lord, " I will smite David and the glory of the inhabitants of every horse with astonishment, and his rider Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon Judah. the house of Judah, and will smite every 8 In that day shall the LORD defend the

a Isa. xlii. 5; xliv. 24 ; xlv. 12, 18; xlviii. 13. - Num. xvi. 6, 8, 9, 11 ; chap. xiii. 1; xiv. 4, 6, 8, 9, 13.- - Matt. xxi. 22 ; Eccles. xii. 7; Isa. Ivii. 16; Heb. xii. 9. - Isa. li. 17, 22, | 44.- - Psa. lxxvi. 6; Ezek. xxxvii. 4.-Or, There is 23. -b Or, slumber, or poison.- - Or, and also against Judah strength to me and to the inhabitants, &c.; Joel iii. 16. shall he be which shall be in siege against Jerusrlem. Ver. 4, Obad. 18.


Verse 4. I will smite every horse] Some apply Verse 1. The burden of the word of the Lord] This this to the wars of the Maccabees with the Syrians ; is a new prophecy. It is directed both to Israel and but it is more likely to be a prophecy not yet accomJudah, though Israel alone is mentioned in this verse. plished. The terms are too strong for such petty and

Which stretcheth forth the heavens] See on Isa. evanescent victories as those of the Maccabees. xlii. 5.

Verse 5. The governors of Judah} This supposes Formeth the spirit of man within him.] Then it is a union between the two kingdoms of Israel and not the same substance with his body. It is a spirit Judah. within him.

Verse 6. Jerusalem shall be inhabited again] This Verse 2. Jerusalem a cup of trembling] The seems to refer to the future conversion of the Jews, Babylonians, who captivated and ruined the Jews, and their return to their own land.” shall in their turn be ruined.

Verse 7. The Lord also shall save the tents of I incline to think that what is spoken in this chapter Judah first] This, I suppose, refers to the same thing. about the Jews and Jerusalem, belongs to the “glory The Gospel of Christ shall go from the least to the of the latter times.”

greatest. Eminent men are not the first that are Shall be in the siege) This may refer to some war called ; the poor have the Gospel preached to them. against the Church of Christ, such as that mentioned And this is done in the wise providence of God, that Rev. xx. 9,

the "glory of the house of David,” &c., that secular Verse 3. A burdensome stone] Probably referring influence may appear to have no hand in the matter ; to that stone which was thrown on the breast of a and that God does not send his Gospel to a great man, culprit adjudged to lose his life by stoning, by which because he is such. the whole region of the thorax, heart, lungs, liver, Verse 8. He that is feeble among them— shall be as &c., was broken to pieces.

David] Here is a marked difference between Judaism

B. C. cir 587.
Of. XLVIII. 2.

R. Roman.,

The spirit of grace shall be

ZECHARIAH. poured out on the house of David. A. M. cir. 3417 inhabitants of Jerusalem; and in bitterness-for him, as one that 4. M. cir. 3417.

i he that is m feeble n among is in bitterness for his first-born. 01. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., them at that day shall be as 11 In that day shall there be a cir, annum 30. David; and the house of David great *mourning in Jerusalem, cir. annum 30. shall be as God, as the angel of the Lord be- * as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the fore them.

valley of Megiddon. 9 And it shall come to pass in that day, that 12 And the land shall mourn, 'every family I will seek to destroy all the nations that apart; the family of the house of David apart, come against Jerusalem.

and their wives apart; the family of the house 10 p And I will pour upon the house of of w Nathan apart, and their wives apart; David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 13 The family of the house of Levi apart, the spirit of grace and supplications : and and their wives apart ; the family i of Shimei they shall. I look upon mé whom they have apart, and their wives apart; pierced, and they shall mourn for him, ' as one 14 All the families that remain, every family mourneth for his only son, and shall be apart, and their wives apart.

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I Joel iii. 10.-Or, abject.- Heb. fallen.

• Hag. ii. * Acts ii. 37.-12. Kings xxiii. 29; 2 Chron. XXIV. 24. 22; ver. 3.- Jer. xxxi. 9; 1.4; Ezek. xxxix. 29; Joel ii. u Matthew. xxiv. 30; Revelation i. 7.- Hebrew, famibes, 28. -1 John xix. 34, 37; Rev. i. 7.— Jer. vi. 26; Amos families. W 2 Sam. v. 14; Luke ini. 31.- -- Or, of Simeon, viii. 10.

as LXX.


and Christianity. So clear, full, and efficient shall he yet bears favour to them. 2. They shall be excited be the salvation of believers under the Gospel, that to fervent and continual prayer for the restoration of the feeblest among them shall be as strong, as full of the Divine favour. 3. Christ shall be preached unto courage, and as successful as David when he went them; and they shall look upon and believe in him against Goliath. The least in the kingdom of heaven whom they pierced, whom they crucified at Jerusalem, was greater than John the Baptist.

4. This shall produce deep and sincere repentance ; And the house of David-as the angel of the Lord) they shall mourn, and be in bitterness of soul, to think The family, the Church of the true David, the Lord that they had crucified the Lord of life and glory, and Jesus, shall be as the angel of the Lord ; shall stand so long continued to contradict and blaspheme, since in the Divine presence like Gabriel ; for Christ hath that time. said, "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see Verse 11. A great mourning] A universal repentGod.” So “we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed from glory As the mourning of Hadadrimmon] They shall into glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord.” Thus the mourn as deeply for the crucified Christ as their forehouse of David, the true Christians, shall here walk fathers did for the death of Josiah, who was slain at with, after, and before God.

Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. See 2 Verse 9. I will seek to destroy all the nations) Chron. xxxv. 24, 25. When this time shall arrive, all nations that “will not Verse 12. Every family apart) The meaning of receive the faith of our Lord Jesus” shall be destroyed, the word apart, which recurs here so often, may be when the longsuffering of God shall no longer wait this : Their sorrow shall be so deep and distressing,

This seems to belong to a period yet that every one will endeavour to avoid another, and very remote.

vent his grief and distress of soul in private. And Verse 10. I will pour upon the house of David) even husbands and wives shall separate from each This is the way in which the Jews themselves shall be other in this general mourning, as they were obliged brought into the Christian Church. 1.-" They shall to do by law in certain circumstances. See 1 Cor. have the spirit of grace ;” God will show them that vii. 5, and the note there.

upon them.


After the humiliation and conversion of the Jews, forelold in the preceding chapter, they are here promised

the full pardon of their sins, and a deliverance from idolatry and false prophets, 1-6. Prophecy concerning the death of the Messiah, and the persecution of his disciples, 7. The remaining verses may refer to those Jewish converls to Christianity who survived the calamities which their country suffered from the Romans, 8, 9.


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A. M. cir. 3417.

B. C. cir. 587. Ol. XLVIII. 2.

R. Roman.,

R. Roman., cir. annum 30.

The destruction of


Jerusalem foretold. IN that day there shall be bather that begåt him shall thrust 4. M. cir. 3417.

fountain opened to the house him through when he prophesieth. 01. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, of David and to the inhabitants of 4 And it shall come to pass in

Jerusalem for sin and for un- that day, that 8 the prophets shall cir. annum 30. cleanness,

be ashamed every one of his vision, when he 2 And it shall come to pass in that day, hath prophesied ; neither shall they wear ha saith the Lord of hosts, that I will d cut off rough garment k to deceive : the names of the idols out of the land, and 5 But he shall say, I am no prophet, I am they shall no more be remembered : and also a husbandman; for man taught me to keep I will cause the prophets and the unclean cattle from my youth. spirit to pass out of the land.

6 And one shall say unto him, What are 3 And it shall come to pass, that when any these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall shall yet prophesy, then his father and his mo- answer, Those with which. I was wounded in ther that begat him shall say unto him, Thou the house of my friends. shalt not live; for thou speakest lies in the 7- Awake, O sword, against mmy Shepherd, name of the LORD: and his father and his mo- and against the man " that is my Fellow,


* Chap. xii. 3. - Heb. ix. 14; 1 Pet. i. 19; Rev. i. 5. "Deut. xiii. 6, 8; xviii. 20.- Mic. ii. 6, 7.-12 Kings «Heb. separation for uncleanness. d Exod. xxvi. 13; Josh. i. 8; Isa. XX. 2; Matt. iii. 4. - Heb. a garment of hair. xxiii. 7; Psa. xvi. 4; Ezek. xxx. 13; Hos.. ii. 17; Mic. v. 12, Heb. to lie.- 1 Amos vü. 14. cm Isa. xl. il; Ezek. xxxiv. 13. — 2 Pet. ü.l.

23.- John x. 30; xiv. 10, 11 ; Pbil. ii. 6.


shall be no toleration of it.. Itself, and they who Verse 1. In that day there shall be a fountain practise it, shall be everywhere destroyed. opened] This chapter is a continuation of the pre- Verse 4. Neither shall they wear a rough garment]. ceding, and should not have been separated from it. A rough garment made of goats' hair, coarse wool,

A fountain} The source of mercy in Christ Jesus; or the coarse pile of the camel, was the ordinary garb perhaps referring to the death he should die, and the of God's prophets. And the false prophets wore the piercing of his side, when blood and water issued out. same ; for they pretended to the same gifts, and the

To the house of David). To David's family, and same spirit, and therefore they wore the same kind of such like persons as it included. See the history of garments. John Baptist had a garment of this kind. David and his sons, and then learn for whom Christ Verse 5. But he shall say, I am no prophet] This shed his blood.

must be the case of a false prophet or diviner, who Inhabitants of Jerusalem] Such like persons as had been obliged to give up his infamous practice, the Jews were in every part of their history, and in and become even a labourer in the land. But having their last times, when they clamoured for the blood been known to be such, he is questioned by the people of Christ, and pursued him unto death! Learn from to see if he still were addicted in heart to the same this also for whom Christ died ! These were the practices. He declares he is no prophet, neither true worst of the human race; and if he died for them, nor false ; that he is now a husbandman, and was none need despair. They rejected, betrayed, crucified, brought up a herdsman. slew, and blasphemed Christ, and afterwards perse- Verse 6. What are these wounds in thine hands ?] cuted his followers. For these he died ! Yes : and Marks which he had received in honour of his idols. he tasted death for EVERY MAN.

But he sh excuse himself by stating that he had For sin and for uncleanness.] For the removal of received these marks in his own family ; when, most the guilt of sin, and for the purification of the soul probably, they had been dedicated to some of those from the uncleanness or pollution of sin.

idols. See the note on Isa, xliv. 5. I do not think Verse 2. I will cut off the names of the idols] There that these words are spoken at all concerning Jesus shall not only be no idolatry, but the very names of the Christ. I have heard them quoted in this way; but idols shall be forgotten, or be held in such abhorrence I cannot hear such an application of them without that no person shall mention them. This prophecy horror. In quoting from the Old Testament in referseems to be ancient, and to have been delivered while ence to the New, we cannot be too cautious. We idolatry had prevalence in Israel and Judah.

may wound the truth instead of honouring it. I will cause the prophets) All false teachers. Verse 7. Awake, O sword, against my Shepherd]

And the unclean spirit] That which leads to im- This is generally understood of Jesus Christ. The purity, the spirit of divination ; the lust of the flesh, sword is that of Divine justice, which seemed to have , and of the eye, and the pride of life. Satan shall been long asleep, and should long ago have struck have neither a being in, nor power over, the hearts of either man, or his subSTITUTE, the Messiah. Jesus is sincere believers in Christ.

here called God's Shepherd, because he had appointed Verse 3. When any shall yet prophesy] Falsely; him to feed and govern, as well as to save, the whole such shall be the horror of such an evil, that there lost world. This is a prosopopeia, and the address


R. Riman.,

The desolations

of Jerusalem. A. M. eir. 3417. saith the Lord of hosts : smite B. C. cir. 587.

9 And I will bring the third A. M. cir. 3417. 01. XLVILI. 2. the Shepherd, and the sheep shall part "through the fire, and oi. XLVIN 2 Tarquini. Prisci, be scattered : and I will turn will. refine them as silver is

Tarquinii Prisci

R. Roman cir. annum 30.

mine hand upon the little ones. refined, and will try them as 8 And it shall come to pass, that in all the gold is tried : * they shall call on my name, land, saith the Lord, two parts therein shall and I will hear them: "I will say, It is my be cut off and die ; ! but the third shall be people ; and they shall say, The LORD is my left therein.


cir. annum 30.

* Matt. xxvi. 31 ; Mark xiv. 27. Matt. xviii. 10, 14; Luke Psa. I. 15; xci. 15; chap. x. 6, Psa. cxliv, 15; Jer. xii. 32. - Rom. xi. 5. -- Isa. xlviii. 10.- $ 1 Pet. i. 6, 7.

xXx. 22 ; Ezek. xi. 20; Hos. ii. 23; chap. Fiil. 3.

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to the sword is very poetic. There is a fine passage This is quoted by our Lord, Matt. xxvi. 31, in relation in Æschylus to the same effect :

to his disciples, who should be scattered on his cruci

fixion : and they were so ; for every one, giving up Ξενος δε κληροις επινωμα, ,

all for lost, went to his own house. Χαλυβος Σκυθων αποικος, ,

And I will turn mine hand upon the little ones.] Κτεανων χρηματοδαιτας

I will take care of the little flock, and preserve them Πικρος, ωμοφρων σιδαρος,

from Jewish malice and Gentile persecution. And Χθονα ναιειν διαπηλας

so this little flock was most wondrously preserved, and "Οπoσαν αν και φθιμενoισι κατεχειν,

has been increasing from year to year from that time Των μεγαλων πεδιων αμοιροις,

to the present day. Æschyl. Sept. cont. Theb. 733.

Verse 8. Two parts therein shall be cut off ] In the

war with the Romans. “ The rude barbarian, from the mines Of Scythia, o'er the lots presides;

But the third shall be left]. Those who believe on

the Lord Jesas Christ shall be preserved alive; and Ruthless to each his share assigns,

not one of these perished in the siege, or afterwards, And the contested realm divides : To each allots no wider a domain

by those wars. Than, on the cold earth as they lie,

Verse 9. I will bring the third part through the Their breathless bodies occupy,


The Christian Church shall endure a great Regardless of an ampler reign :

fight of afflictions, by which they shall be refined-not

consumed. Such narrow compass does the sword

They shall call on my name] In this way shall they A cruel umpire--their high claims afford.”


offer all their prayers and supplications to God.

I will say, It is my people] The Church that I The man that is my Fellow] na nga syi veal have chosen in the place of the Jews who have filled geber amithi," upon the strong man,” or, “the hero up the measure of their iniquity. that is with me;" my neighbour. ' "The Word was And they shall say, The Lord is my God] And God, and the Word was with God;" John i., 1. thus communion shall be established between me "I and my Father are one ;" John X. 30.

and them for ever. Thus there shall be a general Smite the Shepherd, and the sheep shall be scaitered] restoration.

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The commencement of this chapter relates to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and to the calamities consequent on that event.

From this great Jewish tragedy the prophet immediately passes to the utter extermination of the enemies of Christianily in the latter days. God will display his power in behalf of his people in a manner so astonishing and miraculous, that even they themselves, and much more their enemies, shall be struck with terror, 4, 5. The national prosperity of the Jews shall then be permanent and unmixed, 6, 7; and these people shall be made the instruments of converting many to the faith of the Messiah, 8, 9. The great increase and prosperity of the Christian Church, the New Jerusalem, is then described in terms accommodated to Jewish ideas; and the most signal vengeance denounced against all her enemies, 10-19. From that happy period God's name will be honoured in every thing, and his worship everywhere most reverently observed, 20, 21.


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