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cir. annum 17.

A promise of the


advent of the Messiah. A: M. cir. 3417. because of the army, because of minion shall be w from sea even A M. cit. 3417 OL. XLVI.!?, him that passeth by, and because to sea, and from the river even 91. XLVIII. 2. Tarpuinii Prisci, R. Roman., of him that returneth and P no to the ends of the earth.

Tarquinii Prisci

R. Roman., oppressor shall pass through them

11 As for thee also, by the cir. annum 30. any more i for now I have I seen with mine blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy eyes.

y prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water. 9 Rejòice greatly, O daughter of Zion; · 12 Turn you to the strong hold, 2 ye prisonshout, o daughter of Jerusalem : behold, thy ers of hope : even to-day do I declare that King cometh unto thee: he is just, and I will render double unto thee;

having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an 13 When I have bent Judah for me, filled ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass. the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons,

10 And I u will cut off the chariot from O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and thee as the sword of a mighty man. the battle bow shall be cut off : , and he shall 14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, speak peace unto the heathen': and his do- and b his arrow shall go forth as the lightning:

p Isa. Ix. 18; Ezek. xxviii. 24.-- -9 Exod. iii. 7.- Isa. lxii. Eph. ii. 14, 17.--" Psa. lxxii. 8. - Or, whose covenant 11; chap. ii. 10; Matt. xxi. 5; John xii. 15. - Jer. xxii. 5; is by blood; Exod. xxiv. 8; Heb. x. 29; xii. 20.- -y Isa. xlii. xxx. 9; John i. 49; Luko xix. 38. - Or, saving himself. 7; li. 14 ; lxi. 1.-—-2 Isa. xlix. 9.-_ Isa. lxi, 7. - Psa: u Hos. i. 7; ii. 18; Mic. v. 10; Hag. ii. 22.

xviii. 14; lxxvii. 17; cxliv: 6.


extraordinary account in Joseph. Antiq. lib. xi., C. 8, race, fast bound in sin and misery, and who by the s. 5. Bishop Newcome translates : “ I will encamp pitifulness of his tender mercy were loosed, he dying about my house with an army, so that none shall pass in their stead. through or return."

Verse 12. Turn you to the strong hold] Ye who Verse 9. Rejoice greatly, O daughier of Zion] See feel your sins, and are shut up under a sense of your this prophecy explained on Matt. xxi. 5.

guilt, look up to him who was delivered for your ? Behold, thy King cometh] Not Zerubbabel, for he offences, and rose again for your justification.

Ye was never king; nor have they had a king, except have hope ; lét that hope lead you to faith, and that Jesus the Christ, from the days of Zedekiah to the faith to the blood of the covenant; and, through that

blood, to Gon, the Father of all. present time. He is just] The righteous One, and the Fountain

I will 'render double unto thee] Give thee an of righteousness.

abundance of peace and salvation. Having - salvation] He alone can save from şin,

Verse 13. When I have bent Judah] Judah is the Satan, death, and hell.

bow, and Ephraim is the arrows; and these are to be Lovoly] Without worldly pomp or splendour; for shot against the Greeks. I am inclined, with Bp. neither his kingdom, nor that of his followers, is of Newcome, to consider that the language of this prothis world:

phecy is too strong to point out the only trifling adRiding upon an ass) God had commanded the vantage which the Maccabees gained over Antiochus, kings of Israel not to multiply horses. The kings that these prophecies remain to be fulfilled against the

who was of Macedonian descent; and it is probable who broke this command were miserable themselves, and scourgers to their people. Jesus came to fulfil present possessors of Javan or Greece, Macedonia, and the law. Had he in his title of king rode upon a

a part of Asia Minor.

Verse 14. The Lord shall be seen over them) horse, it would have been a breach of a positive command of God; therefore, he rode upon an ass, and Shadowing and refreshing them, as the cloud did the thus fulfilled the prophecy, and kept the precept un

camp in the wilderness. broken. Hence it is immediately added

His arrow shall go forth as the lightning] · They Verse 10. I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, fights for his followers.

shall be conquered in a way that will show that God and the horse from Jerusalem] No wars shall be

The description here is very sublime; we have a employed to spread the kingdom of the Messiah ; for it shall be founded and established, “not by might nor

good imitation of it in Nonnus :by power, but by the Spirit of the Lord of hosts," Και τοτε γαιαν άπασαν επεκλυσεν υετιος Ζευς, , chap. iv, 6.

Πυκνωσας νεφεεσσιν όλον πoλoν" ουρανιη γαρ Verse 11. As for thee also (Jerusalem) by the blood

Βρονταιοις παταγοισι Διος μυκησατο σαλπιγξ. . of thy covenant] The covenant made with Abraham,

Nonn. Dionys., lib. 6. ver. 229. Isaac, Jacob, and the Israehtes in general, and ratified “When heaven's dread trumpet, sounding from on by the blood of many victims; until the time should

high, come in which the Messiah should shed his blood, as Breaks forth in thunders through the darken'd sky; typified by the ancient sacrifices.

The pregnant clouds to floods of rain give birth. I have sent forth thy prisoners] Those who were And stormy Jove o'erwhelms the solid earth." under the arrest of God's judgments; the human

J. B. B. C.

B. C. cir. 587.

The Lord's gracious


promises to his people. A. M. cir. 3417. and the Lord God shall blow 16 And the LORD their God A. M. cit. 3417.

B. C. cir. 587. ol. XLVIII. ?. the trumpet, and shall go with shall save them in that day as the Ol. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

whirlwinds of the south. flock of his people : for 6 they R. Roman., cir. annum 30. 15 The LORD of hosts shall shall be as the stones of a crown,

cir. annun 30. defend them; and they shall devour, and h lifted up as an ensign upon his land.

subdue with sling-stones; and they shall 17 For how great is his goodness, and how drink, and make a noise as through wine; and great is his beauty ! * corn shall make the they shall be filled like bowls, and as f the young men cheerful, and new wine the corners of the altar.


cIsa, xxi. 1. _d Or, subdue the stones of the sling.- - Or, shall fill both the bowls, dc.-- Lev. iv. 18,24; Deut. xii. 27.

& Isa. Ixi. 3; Mal. iii. 17. k Joel Mi. 18; Amos ix. 14.

h Isa. xi. 12. - i Psa. xxxi. 19. -1 Or, grow, or speak.

abney אבני נזר כתנוססות [As the stones of a cropn

In these two verses there is a fine image, and an have gained the victory, they shall banquet abundantly allusion to a particular fact, which have escaped the on the spoils taken from the enemy. notice of every commentator. I must repeat the verses: As the corners of the altar.] They shall pour out 13: When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow libations of wine at the foot of the altar, as the priests with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against were accustomed to pour out the blood of the victims. thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a Verse 16. Shall save them in that day] They are inighty man. 14: And the Lord shall be seen over his flock, and he is their Shepherd; and, as his own, them, and his arrows shall go forth like lightning. he shall save and defend them. The reader will consult what is said on Hos. vii. 16,

] relative to the oriental bow, which resembles a o in nezer mithnosesoth, “crowned stones erecting themits quiescent state, and must be' recurved in order to selves;" j. e., being set up by themselres, as monube strung. Here, Judah is represented as the recurved ments of some deliverance, they seem to be lifting bow ; Ephraim, as an arrow placed on the string, and themselves up; offering themselves to the attention then discharged against the. Javanites or Greeks with of every passenger. It may however refer to stones the momentum of lightning ; the arrow kinilling in its anointed with oil ; à sort of temporary. altars set up course through the air, and thus becoming the bolt of to the Lord for a victory gained. The same word is death to them against whom it was directed.

used, Lev. xxi. 12 : “ Because the crown, 13 nezer,

of the anointing oil of his God is upon him.” Perhaps Volat illud, et incandescit eundo,

most of those upright stones, standing in circles, which Et quos non habuit, sub nubibus invenit ignes.

pass for druidical monuments, were erected to com“It flies apace; and, heating, mounts on high, memorate victories, or to grace the tomb of an illusGlows in its course, and burns along the sky."

trious chief. These verses may refer to some final

victory over the enemies of God's people. Verse 15. The Lord of hosts shall defend them) Verse 17. How great is his goodness] In himself He alone is the sure trust of his Church.

and towards them. Subdue with sling-stones] This was an ancient And how great is his beauty!! His comeliness, and powerful instrument in the hands of the Hebrews. holiness, and purity, put in and upon them. See the note on Judg. xx. 16.

Corn shall make the young men cheerful] They They shall drink] After the victory gained as shall be gladdened and strengthened by plenty of above, thy people shall hold a feast, and drink and food; and they shall speak aloud of God's mercies in be filled with wine. There is no intimation here that their harvest home. they shall drink the blood of their enemies, as some And new wine the maids.] Who shall prepare the barbarous nations were accustomed to do. When they wine from an abundant vintage.


The promise of prosperity and plenty in the close of the preceding chapter leads the prophet to suggest, nert,

the means of obtaining them; supplication to Jehovah, and not to idols, whose. worship had already prored a fertile source of calamities, 1-3. - The rest of the chapter (like the preceding) promises to the Jews a restoration to their own land under rulers and governors, victory over their enemies, and much increase and prosperity; and this in a manner so miraculous, that it is described, 4-12, by allusions to the deliverance from Egypt.



B. C. . .

God's judgments against


false prophets and bad kings. A, M. cir. 3417. B. C. cir. 587.

a of the Lord brain streets in the battle : and they A. M. cir. 3417,

ye Ol. XLVIII, 2. o in the time of the latter shall fight, because the Lord is QI. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., rain ; so the LORD shall make with them, and the riders on R, Roman.,

cir. annum 30. cir. annum 30. d. bright clouds, and give them horses shall be confounded. showers of rain, to every one grass in the field. 6 And I will strengthen the house of Judah,

2 For the idols have spoken vanity, and and I will save the house of Joseph, and $ I the diviners have seen a lie,' and have-told will bring them again to place them; for I false dreams; they B comfort in vain : there have mercy upon them and they shall be fore they went their way as a flock, they h were as though I had not cast them off : for I am troubled, because there was no shepherd. the LORD their God, and will hear them.

3 Mine anger was kindled against the shep- 7 And they of Ephraim shall be like a herds, k and I punished the goats: for the mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as LORD of hosts mhath visited his flock the house through wine: yea, their children shall see of Judah, and n hath made them as his goodly it, and be glad ; their heart shall rejoice in horse in the battle.

the LORD. 5 Out of him came forth the corner, out of 8. I will whiss for them, and gather them ; him P the nail, out of him the battle-bow, out for I have redeemed them: * and they shall of him every oppressor together.

increase as they have increased. 5 And they shall be as mighty men, which 9 And I will sow them among the peo 4 tread down their enemies in the mire of the ple: and they shall ? remember me in far


a Jer. xiv. 22. - Deut. xi. 14. Job xxix. 23; Joel ii. • Num. xxiv. 17; 1 Sam. xiv. 38; Isa. xix. 13.

-PIsa. xxii. 23. Or, lightnings ; Jer. x. 13. - Jer. x.,8; Hab. ii. 18. 23. —Psa. xviii. 42. — Or, they shall make the riders on | Heb. teraphim ; Judg. xvii. 5. - Job xvi. 4.—b Or, answer. horses ashamed. Jer. iij. 18; Ezek. xxxvii. 21. - Hos. i. 7. ed that, &c. i Ezek. xxxiv. 5. ok Ezek: xxxiv. 16. h Heb. Chap. xiii. 9. - Psa. civ. 15; chap. ix. 15. Isa. v. 26. visited upon. Luke i. 68. Cant. i. 9.

* Isa. xlix. 19; Ezek. xxxvi. 37.--y Hos. ii. 23.- Deut. xxx. I,

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assembled the people from all quarters, as a shepherd Verse 1. Ask ye of the Lord rain] Rain in the due gathers his sheep together; and led them against the seasons-1. To impregnate the seed when sown; and sons of Greece, the Seleucide Greeks. Others refer 2. To fill the ear near the time of harvest—was so every thing here to times before the captivity. essential to the fertility of the land, and the well-being Verse 4. Out of him came forth the corner] This of the people, that it stands well among the chief of is spoken of the tribe of Judah : all strength, counsel, God's mercies ; and the promise of it here shows that and excellence came from that tribe.

The corner God designs to ensure the prosperity promised, by using stone, the ornament and completion of the building ; those means by which it was promoted.

the nail, by which the tents were fastened, and on Verse 2. The idols have spoken vanity) This is which they hung their clothes, armour, &c.; the baillespoken of the Jews, and must refer to their idolatry bow, the choicest archers. practised before the captivity, for there were no idols Every oppressor together.] Those heroes and geneafter..

rals, by whom, under God, their foes should be totally Therefore they went their way) They were like a routed. Newcome translates, “ Every ruler together.” flock that had no shepherd, shifting from place to place, Perhaps all this is spoken of the Messiah. and wandering about in the wilderness, seeking for Verse 5. They shall be as mighty men) The Mac, pasture, wherever they might find it. Some think that cabees and their successors. the idols and diviners were those of the Seleucida Riders on horses] The Macedonians, who opposed Greeks, who excited their masters with promises of the Maccabees, and had much cavalry; whereas the success against the Maccabees. Others think that Jews had none, and even few weapons of war; yet the Babylonish captivity is foretold ; for a determined they overcame these horsemen. future event is frequently spoken of by the prophets Verse 6. I will strengthen the house of Judah] I as past.

doubt whether the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth Verse 3, Mine anger was kindled against the shep- versos are not to be understood of the future ingatherherds] Bad kings and bad priests. I will punish the ing of the Jews in the times of the Gospel. See Jer, goats; these were the wicked priests, who were iii. 14 ; xxiii. 6; Hosea i. 2 ; vi. 11. shepherds by their office, and goals by the impurily of Verse 7. Ephraim shall be like a mighty man] This their lives.

tribe was always distinguished for its valour. As his goodly horse in the batlle.) The honourable Verse 8. I will hiss for them) pox eshrekah, I war horse, or the horse that carried the general's equi- will shriek for them ;" call them with such a shrill page. In the unaccountable variation of interpreters strong voice, that they shall hear me, and find that it on these chapters, this, among other things, is thought is the voice of their redemption. to be spoken of Matthias and Judas Maccabeus, who Verse 9. I will sow them among the people) Wher.


Promises of the


restoration of the Jeus. 4. M. cir. 3417: countries; and they shall live affliction, and shall smite the A. M. cir. 3417.

B. C. cir. 597. 01. XLVIIL 2 with their children, and turn waves in the sea, and all the deeps OI. XLVIII 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisei, R. Roman., again.

of the river shall dry up: and R. Roman, cir. annum 30.

eir. amun 30. 10 - I will bring them again also the pride of Assyria shall be out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt of Assyria ; and I will bring them into the land shall depart away. of Gilead and Lebanon ; and place shall 12 And I will strengthen them in the LORD: not be found for them,

and f they shall walk up and down in his name, 11 And he shall pass through the sea with saith the LORD. * Isa. xi. 11, 16; Hos. xi. 11.- -b Isa. xlix. 20.- Isa. xi. 15,

d Isa. xiv. 25.-e Ezek. xxx. 13.- Mic. iv. 5. ever they have been dispersed, my voice in the preach- they shall return from the various countries in which ing of the Gospel shall reach them. And they shall they now sojourn, God will work, if necessary, similar remember me, and they and their children shall turn miracles to those which he formerly worked for their again to the Lord, through Messiah their King. forefathers; and the people shall be glad to let them

Verse 10. Out of the land of Egypt] I will bring go, however much they may be profited by their opethem out of all the countries where they have been rations in the state. Those that oppose, as Assyria dispersed, and bring them back to their own land ; and Egypt formerly did, shall be brought down, and and they shall be so numerous that they shall scarcely their sceptre broken. find there, in all its length and breadth, a sufficiency Verse 12. I will strengthen them in the Lord] I, of room. If all the Jews that are now scattered over the God of Israel, will strengthen them in the Lordthe face of the earth were gathered together, they Jesus, the Messiah; and thus indeed the Chaldee : would make a mighty nation. And God will gather I will strengthen them, " X79'da bemcymra dayai, in them together. As a wonderful providence has pre- or by the Word of Jehovah, the same personal Word served them in every place, so a wondrous providence which we so often meet with in the Chaldee parawill collect them from every place of their dispersion. phrases or Targum. When the great call comes, no one soul of them shall They shall walk up and down in his name) In the be left behind.

name of the Messiah. Saith the Lord_GOD speaks Verse 11. And he shall pass through the sea] Iere here, not of himself, but concerning his Christ. The is an allusion to the passage of the Red Sea, on their Jews shall have complete liberty ; they shall appear coming out of Egypt, and to their crossing Jordan, everywhere as a part of the flock of Christ, and no when they went into the promised land; the waves difference be made between them and the converted or waters of both were dried up, thrown from side to Gentiles. They shall be all one fold under one Sheps şide, till all the people passed safely through. When herd and Bishop of all souls.


The commencement of this chapter relates to the destruction of Jerusalem and thể Jewish polity, probably by

the Babylonians ; at least in the first instance, as the fourth verse speaks of the people thus threatened as the prophet's charge, 1-6. The prophet then gives an account of the manner in which he discharged his office, and the little value that was put on his labours. And this he does by symbolical actions, a common mode of instruction with the ancient prophets, 7–14. After the prophet, on account of the unsuccessfulness of his labours, had broken the two crooks which were the true badges of his pastoral office, (to denole the annulling of God's covenant with them, and their consequent divisions and dispersions,) he is directed to take instruments calculated to hurt and destroy, perhaps an iron crook, scrip, and stones, to express by these symbols the judgments which God was about to inflict on them by wicked rulers and guides, who should first destroy the flock, and in the end be destroyed themselves, 15–17. Let us now view this prophecy in another light, as we are authorized to do by Scripture, Matt. xxvii. 7. In this riew the prophet, in the person of the Messiah, sets forth the ungrateful returns made to him by the Jews, when he underlook the office of shepherd in guiding and governing them ; how they rejected him, and valued him and his labours at the mean and contemptible price of thirty pieces of silver, the paltry sum for which Judas betrayed him. Upon which he threatens to destroy their city and ternple; and to give them up to the hands of such guides and governors as should have no regard to their welfare.


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The disobedient threatened


with destruction. B. As cir: 3697. OPEN a thy doors, OʻLebanon, | the land, saith the Lord: but lo, A. M. cir. 3437

OI. XLVIII. 2. that the fire may devour thy I will h deliver the men every 01. XLVIII. 2
Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman.,

Tarquinii Prisci

one into his neighbour's hand, R. Roman., cir. annum 30.

cir. annum 30. 2 Howl, fir tree; for the cedar and into the hand of his king : is fallen; because the mighty is spoiled : and they shall smite the land, and out of their howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; e for d the forest hand I will not deliver them. of the vintage is come down.

7 And I will i feed the flock of slaughter, 3 There is a voice of the howling of the even you, ? O poor of the flock. And I took shepherds; for their glory is spoiled; a voice unto me two staves; the one I called Beauty, of the roaring of young lions ; for the pride of and the other I called m Bands; and I fed the flock. Jordan is spoiled.

8 Three shepherds also I cut off n in one 4 Thus saith the Lord my God; • Feed the month; and my soul • Joathed them, and their flock of the slaughter;

soul also abhorred me. 5 Whose possessors slay them, and hold 9 Then said I, I will not feed you

P that themselves not guilty: and they that sell them that dieth, let it die: and that that is to be cut

say, Blessed be the LORD; for I am rich : off, let it be cut off ; and let the rest eat and their own shepherds pity them not. everyone the flesh 2 of another. 6 For I will no more pity the inhabitants of 10. And I took my staff, even Beauty, and · Chap. x 10.--. Or, gallants.- - Isa. xxxii. 12.- Or, k Or, verily the poor.

- Zeph, iii. 12; Matt. xi. 5.the defenced forest. e Ver. 7. Jer. ii. 3; 1. 7.- Deut. Binders.-- -a Hos. v. 7. - Heb. was straitened for them. xxix. 19; Hos. xii. 8. - Heb. make to be found.-mi Ver. 4. p Jer. xv. 2; xliii. 11.-_*Heb. of his fellow, or neighbour. NOTES ON CIIAP, XI.

mined to deliver them into the hands of the ChalVerse 1. Open thy'doors, O Lebanon) I will give deans. Mr. Joseph Mede's note upon this verse :

Verse 7. And I will feed the flock of slaughter] I us That which moveth me more than the rest, is in showed them what God had revealed to me relative chap. xi., which contains a prophecy of the destruction to the evils coming upon the land; and I did this the of Jerusalem, and a description of the wickedness of more especially for the sake of the poor of the flock. the inhabitants, for which God would give them to the Two staves) Two shepherd's crooks. One I called sword, and have no more pity upon them. It is ex- Beautythat probably by which they marked the pounded of the destruction by Titus ; but methinks sheep; dipping the end into vermillion, or some red such a prophecy was nothing seasonable for Zachary's liquid. And this was done when they were to mark time, (when the city yet for a great part lay in her every tenth sheep, as it came out of the field, when ruins, and the temple had not yet recovered hers,) nor the tithe was to be set apart for the Lord. agreeable to the scope. Zachary's commission, who, The other I called Bands] Probably that with the together with his colleague Haggai, was sent to encou- hook or crook at the head of it, by which the shepherd rage the people, lately returned from captivity, to build was wont to catch the sheep by the horns or legs when their temple, and to instaurate their commonwealth. he wished to bring any to hand. Was this a' fit time to foretell the destruction of both, And I fed the flock.] These two rods show the while they were yet but a-building? And by Zachary beauty and union of the people, while under God as too, who was to encourage them ? Would not this their Shepherd. It was the delight of God to see better befit the desolation by Nebuchadnezzar ?" I them in a state of peace and harmony, really think so. See Mr. J. Mede's lxi. Epistle. Verse 8. Three shepherds also I cut off in one

Lebanon signifies the temple, because built of ma- month] Taking this literally, some think the three terials principally brought from that place.

shepherds mean the three Maccabees, Judas, Jonathan, Verse 2. Howl, fir tree] This seems to point out and Simon ; others, the three wicked high priests, the fall and destruction of all the mighty men. Jason, Alcimus, and Menelaus ; others, the three last

Verse 3. Young lions] Princes and rulers. By princes of the Asmonean race, Alexander, Hyrcanus, shepherds, kings or priests may be intended. and Antigonus.

Verse 4. Feed the flock of the slaughter] This Perhaps three orders may be intended : 1. The people resemble a flock of sheep fattened for the priesthood. 2. The dictatorship, including the Scribes, shambles ; feed, instruct, this people who are about to Pharisees, &c, 3. The magistracy, the great sanhebe slaughtered.

drin, and the smaller councils. These were all anni, Verse 5. Whose possessors) Governors and false hilated by the Roman conquest. prophets, slay them, by leading them to those things Verse 9. I will not feed you] I shall instruct you that will bring them to destruction.

no longer : some of you are appointed to death by And they that sell them] Give them up to idolatry ; famine ; others, to be cut off by the sword; and and bless God, strange to tell, that they get secular others of you, to such desperation that ye shall destroy advantage by the establishment of this false religion. one another. Verse 6. For I will no more pily] I have deter- Verse 10. Į took my staff-Beauty, and cut it

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