Page images

Prophetic hymn of


praise for God's mercies. A M..cir. 329.. the LORD JEHOVAH is my doings among the people, made 4.M.cor329.. Olymp. XVI. 4. c-strength and my song; he also mention that his h name is exalted. Olymp. XVI. 4. Numa Pompilii, is become my salvation. 5 Sing unto the LORD; for he Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 3.

3 Therefore with joy shall bath done excellent things: this R. Roman., 3. ye draw d water out of the wells of salva- is known in all the earth. tion.

6 Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of 4 And in that day shall ye say, Praise the Zion : for great is on the Holy One of Israel in LORD, "call upon his name, declare his the midst of thee.

b Psa. lxxxiii. 18.- - Exod. xv. 2.-d John iv. 10, 14; i Exod. xv. 1, 21; Psa. lxviii. 32 ; xcviii. 1.- k Chap. liv. I; vii. 37, 38. el Chron. xvi. 8; Psa. cv. 1.- Or, proclaim Zeph. iii. 14. — Heb. inhabitress. Psa. lxxi. 22; lxxxix. kis name. —Psalm cxlv. 4, 5, 6. Psalm xxxiv. 3.

18; chap. xli. 14, 16. The Jews themselves seem to have applied it to the now obeyed from the heart the doctrine on the model times of Messiah. On the last day of the feast of ta- of which ye were formed." bernacles they fetched water in a golden pitcher from Verse 2. The Lord JEHOVAH] The word 77. Yah the fountain of Shiloah, springing at the foot of Mount read here is probably a mistake ; and arose originally Sion without the city: they brought it through the water from the custom of the Jewish scribes, who, when they gate into the temple, and poured it, mixed with wine, found a line too short for the word, wrote as many leton the sacrifice as it lay upon the altar, with great re-ters as filled it, and then began the next line with the joicing. They seem to have taken up this custom, whole word. In writing the word 1717. Yehovah, the for it is not ordained in the law of Moses, as an emblem line might terminate with 77 Yah, the two first letters ; of future blessings, in allusion to this passage of Isaiah, and then at the beginning of the next line the whole “Ye shall draw waters with joy from the fountains of word 77177: Yehovah would be written. This might give salvation,” expressions that can hardly be understood rise to 7117° 0° Yah Yehovah. The Yah is wanting of any benefits afforded by the Mosaic dispensation. here in two of Dr. Kennicott's MSS., in one ancient MS. Our Saviour applied the ceremony, and the intention of my own, and in the Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac, of it, to himself, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit, and Arabic. See Houbigant and De Rossi. promised, and to be given, by him. The sense of the My song] The pronoun is here necessary; and Jews in this matter is plainly shown by the following it is added by the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac, passage of the Jerusalem Talmud : “Why is it called who read nodi zimrathi, as it is in a MS. Two MSS. the place or house of drawing ?" (for that was the term omit i? Yah, see Houbigant, not. in loc. Another MS. for this ceremony, or for the place where the water has it in one word, 'n polizimrathyah. Seven others was taken up) “ Because from thence they draw the omit 071779 Yehovah. See Exod. xv. 2, with Var. Lect. Holy Spirit ; as it is written, And ye shall draw water Kennicott. with joy from the fountains of salvation.” See Wolf. Verse 4. Call upon his name] 1999 1x7p kiru bisiCuræ Philol. in N. T. on John vii. 37, 39.-L. The mo, invoke his name. Make him your Mediator, or toater is Divine knowledge, says Kimchi, and the wells call the people in his name. Preach him who is the the teachers of righteousness. The Targum renders Root of Jesse, and who stands as an ensign for the nathis in a very remarkable manner: “Ye shall receive tions. Call on the people to believe in him ; as in him with joy (nonjobis ulephan chadath) a new doctrine from alone salvation is to be found. the chosen among the righteous.” Does not this mean Verse 6. Thou inhabitant of Zion] Not only the the Gospel, the new covenant ? And did not the Tar- Jewish people, to whom his word of salvation was to gumist speak as a prophet ?

be sent first; but also all members of the Church of

Christ ; as in them, and in his Church, the Holy One NOTES ON CHAP. XII.

of Israel dwells. St. Paul, speaking of the mystery Verse 1. Though thou wast angry—“For though which had been proclaimed among the Gentiles, sums thou hast been angry”] The Hebrew phrase, to which it up in these words : " which is CHRIST IN you, the the Septuagint and Vulgate have too closely adhered, hope of glory; whom we preach, warning every man, is exactly the same with that of St. Paul, Rom. vi. 17: and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may pre“But thanks be to God, that ye were the slaves of sin ; sent every man perfect in Christ Jesus ;” Col. i. 27, 28. but have obeyed from the heart;" that is, “ that where- Well, therefore, may the inhabitant of Zion cry out and as, or though, ye were the slaves of sin, yet ye have I shoul, and proclaim the greatness of her Redeemer.

CHAPTER XIII. God mustereth the armies of his wrath against the inhabitants of Babylon, 1-6. The dreadful consequences

of this visitation, and the terror and dismay of those who are the objects of il, 7-16. The horrid cruelties that shall be inflicted upon the Babylonians by the Medes, 17, 18. Total and irrecoverable desolation of Babylon, 19–22.

cir. annum

cir. annum


ye up a banner c


The prophecy


against Babylon. B. C. cir. 33:42. THE .burden of Babylon, which the high mountain, exalt the voice 4. M.

B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. I. Isaiah the son of Amoz did unto them, d shake the hand, that Olymp. XVII. I. Numa Pompilii, see.

they may go into the gates of Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. 2 Lift

R. Roman., 4. upon the nobles. Chap. xxi. 1 ; xlvii. 1; Jer l., li.

6 Chap. v. 26; xviii. 3; Jer.). 2.- Jer. li. 25.- d Chap. x. 32. This and the following chapter,--striking off the oppressed his own, and harassed the neighbouring kingfive last verses of the latter, which belong to a quite doms. These oppressed kingdoms, or their rulers, are different subject,-contain one entire prophecy, fore- represented under the image of the fir trees and the telling the destruction of Babylon by the Medes and cedars of Libanus, frequently used to express any thing Persians ; delivered probably in the reign of Ahaz, (see in the political or religious world that is super-eminently Vitringa, i. 380,) about two hundred years before its great and majestic : the whole earth shouteth for accomplishment. The captivity itself of the Jews at joy; the cedars of Libanus utter a severe taunt over Babylon, which the prophet does not expressly fore- the fallen tyrant, and bóast their security now he is no tell, but supposes, in the spirit of prophecy, as what more. was actually to be effected, did not fully take place till The scene is immediately changed, and a new set about one hundred and thirty years after the delivery of persons is introduced. The regions of the dead of this prophecy: and the Medes, who are expressly are laid open, and Hades is represented as rousing up mentioned chap. xiii. 17, as the principal agents in the the shades of the departed monarchs : they rise from overthrow of the Babylonian monarchy, by which the their thrones to meet the king of Babylon at his coming ; Jews were released from that captivity, were at this and insult him on his being reduced to the same low time an inconsiderable people ; having been in a state estate of impotence and dissolution with themselves. of anarchy ever since the fall of the great Assyrian em- This is one of the boldest prosopopeias that ever was pire, of which they had made a part, under Sardanapalus; attempted in poetry; and is executed with astonishing and did not become a kingdom under Deioces till about brevity and perspicuity, and with that peculiar force the seventeenth of Hezekiah.

which in a great subject naturally results from both. The former part of this prophecy is one of the most The image of the state of the dead, or the infernum beautiful examples that can be given of elegance of poeticum of the Hebrews, is taken from their custom composition, variety of imagery, and sublimity of sen- of burying, those at least of the higher rank, in large timent and diction, in the prophetic style; and the lat- sepulchral vaults hewn in the rock. Of this kind of ter part consists of an ode of supreme and singular sepulchres there are remains at Jerusalem now extant; excellence.

and some that are said to be the sepulchres of the kings The prophecy opens with the command of God to of Judah. See Maundrell, p. 76. You are to form gather together the forces which he had destined to to yourself an idea of an immense subterranean vault, this service, ver. 2, 3. Upon which the prophet im- a vast gloomy cavern, all round the sides of which mediately hears the tumultuous noise of the different there are cells to receive the dead bodies ; here the denations crowding together to his standard; he sees ceased monarchs lie in a distinguished sort of state, them advancing, prepared to execute the Divine wrath, suitable to their former rank, each on his own couch, ver. 4, 5. He proceeds to describe the dreadful con- with his arms beside him, his sword at his head, and sequences of this visitation, the consternation which the bodies of his chiefs and companions round about him. will seize those who are the objects of it; and, trans- See Ezek. xxxii. 27. On which place Sir John Charferring unawares the speech from himself to God, ver. din's MS. note is as follows: “En Mingrelie ils dor11, sets forth, under a variety of the most striking ment tous leurs epées sous leurs têtes, et leurs autres images, the dreadful destruction of the inhabitants of armes à leur cotè; et on les enterre de mesme, leurs Babylon which will follow, ver. 11-16, and the ever- armes posées de cette façon." In Mingrelia they allasting desolation to which that great city is doomed, ways sleep with their swords under their heads, and ver. 17-22.

their other arms by their sides; and they bury their The deliverance of Judah from captivity, the imme- dead with their arms placed in the same manner. These diate consequence of this great revolution, is then set illustrious shades rise at once from their couches, as forth, without being much enlarged upon, or greatly from their thrones; and advance to the entrance of the amplified, chap. xiv. 1, 2. This introduces, with the cavern to meet the king of Babylon, and to receive him greatest ease and the utmost propriety, the triumphant with insults on his fall. song on that subject, ver. 4-28. The beauties of The Jews now resume the speech; they address which, the various images, scenes, persons introduced, the king of Babylon as the morning-star fallen from and the elegant transitions from one to another, I shall heaven, as the first in splendour and dignity in the pohere endeavour to point out in their order, leaving a litical world, fallen from his high state ; they introduce few remarks upon particular passages of these two him as uttering the most extravagant vaunts of his powchapters to be given after these general observations on er and ambitious designs in his former glory. These the whole.

are strongly contrasted in the close with his present A chorus of Jews is introduced, expressing their low and abject condition. surprise and astonishment at the sudden downfall of Immediately follows a different scene, and a most Babylon; and the great reverse of fortune that had happy image, to diversify the same subject, to give it a befallen the tyrant, who, like his predecessors, had | new turn, and an additional force. Certain persons

B. C. cir. 712.

cir. annum


The prophecy


against Babylon. A. M. cir. 3292.

3 I have commanded my sancti- 7 Therefore shall all hands k be A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. fied ones, I have also called faint, and every man's heart Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, • my mighty ones for mine anger, shall melt.

Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. even them that frejoice in my 8 And they shall be afraid;

· R. Roman., 4. highness.

pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them ; 4 The noise of a multitude in the moun- they shall be in pain as a woman that tratains, 5 like as of a great people; a tumultuous vaileth : they shallm be amazed none at noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered to- another; their faces shall be as flames. gether; the LORD of hosts mustereth the host 9 Behold, P the day of the LORD cometh, of the battle.

cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay 5 They come from a far country, from the the land desolate : and he shall destroy the end of heaven, even the LORD, and the weapons sinners thereof out of it. of his indignation, to destroy the whole land. 10 For the stars of heaven and the con

6. Howl ye; h for the day of the Lord is at stellations thereof shall not give their light: hand; i it shall come aş a destruction from the the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, Almighty

and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. Joel iii. 11. of Psa. cxlix. 2, 5, 6. -% Heb. the likeness - Heb. every man at his neighbour. Heb. faces of the flames. of. h Zeph. i. 7; Rev. vi. 17.-Job xxxi. 23; Joel i. 13. P Mal. iv. 1.- 4 Psa. civ. 35; Prov. ii. 22. Chap. xxiv. Or, fall down. Psa. xlvii. 6; chap. xxi. 3. m Heb. 21, 23; Ezek. xxxii. 7; Joel ii. 31 ; iii. 15; Matt. xxiv. 29;

Mark xiii. 24; Luke xxi. 25. are introduced who light upon the corpse of the king vip kadash, “to make holy,” signifies also to conseof Babylon, cast out and lying naked on the bare crate or appoint to a particular purpose. Bishop Lowth ground, among the common slain, just after the taking translates, “ my enrolled warriors.” This is the sense. of the city ; covered with wounds, and so disfigured, Verse 4. Of the battle—For the battle."] The that it is some time before they know him. They ac- Bodleian MS. has gonboob lemilchamah. Cyrus's army cost him with the severest taunts; and bitterly reproach was made up of many different nations. Jeremiah calls him with his destructive ambition, and his cruel usage it an “assembly of great nations from the north counof the conquered; which have deservedly brought him try," chap. 1. 9. And afterwards mentions the kingthis ignominious treatment, so different from that which doms of " Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz, (i. e. Armethose of his rank usually meet with, and which shall co- nia, Corduene, Pontus or Phrygia, Vitring.,) with the ver his posterity with disgrace.

kings of the Medes," chap. li. 27, 28. See Xenophon. To complete the whole, God is introduced, declaring Cyrop. the fate of Babylon, the utter extirpation of the royal Verse 5. They come from a far country] The word family, and the total desolation of the city; the deliver-7783 meerets is wanting in one MS. and in the Syriac : ance of his people, and the destruction of their enemies; “ They come from afar.” confirming the irreversible decree by the awful sanction From the end of heaven] Kimchi says, Media, " the of his oath.

end of heaven," in Scripture phrase, means, the East. I believe it may with truth be affirmed, that there Verse 8. And they shall be afraidą“ And they shall is no poem of its kind extant in any language, in be terrified”] I join this verb, 110731 venibhalu, to the which the subject is so well laid out, and so happily, preceding verse, with the Syriac and Vulgate. conducted, with such a richness of invention, with Pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them—“Pangs such variety of images, persons, and distinct actions, shall seize them”] The Septuagint, Syriac, and Chalwith such rapidity and ease of transition, in so small dee read Dink yochezum, instead of juinka yochezun, a compass, as in this ode of Isaiah. For beauty of which does not express the pronoun them, necessary disposition, strength of colouring, greatness of sen- to the sense. timent, brevity, perspicuity, and force of expression, Verse 10. For the stars of heaven_“Yea, the stars it stands, among all the monuments of antiquity, unri- of heaven") The Hebrew poets, to express happiness, valled.-L.

prosperity, the instauration and advancement of states,

kingdoms, and potentates, make use of images taken NOTES ON CHAP. XIII.

from the most striking parts of nature, from the heaVerse 1. The burden of Babylon) The prophecy venly bodies, from the sun, moon, and stars : which that foretells its destruction by the Medes and Per- they describe as shining with increased splendour, and sians : see the preceding observations.

never setting. The moon becomes like the meridian Verse 2. Exalt the voice] The word ons lahem, sun, and the sun's light is augmented sevenfold ; (see “ to them,” which is of no use, and rather weakens Isa. xxx. 26 ;) new heavens and a new earth are the sentence, is omitted by an ancient MS., and the created, and a brighter age cominences. On the conVulgate.

trary, the overflow and destruction of kingdoms Verse 3. I have commanded my sanctified ones) presented by opposite images. The stars are obscured, vipamekuddashai, the persons consecrated to this very the moon withdraws her light, and the sun shines no purpose. Nothing can be plainer than that the verb more! The earth quakes, and the heavens tremble ;


The desolation


of Babylon. A. M. cir. 3292. 11 And I will punish the world a sheep that no man taketh up:

A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712.

B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. for their evil, and the wicked for 'they shall every man turn to his Olymp. XVII. I. Numæ Pompilii

, their iniquity ; • and I will cause own people, and flee every one Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4.

R. Roman., 4. the arrogancy of the proud to into his own land. cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of 15 Every one that is found shall be thrust the terrible.

through; and every one that is joined unto 12 I will make a man more precious than them shall fall by the sword. fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge 1

16 Their children also shall be w dashed to of Ophir.

pieces before their eyes; their houses shall 13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and be spoiled, and their wives ravished. the earth shall remove out of her place, in the 17 Behold, I will stir up the Medes wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day against them, which shall not regard silver ; of his fierce anger.

and as for gold, they shall not delight 14 And it shall be as the chased roe, and as in it. • Chap. ii. 17. Hag. ii. 6. Psa. cx. 5; Lám. i. 12. * Psa. cxxxvii. 9; Nah. iii. 10; Zech. xiv. 2. - Chap. xxi. 2; Jer. 1. 16; li. 9.

Jer. li. 11, 28; Dan. v. 28, 31. and all things seem tending to their original chaos. sword of the enemy. The Septuagint have understood See Joel ii. 10, iii. 15, 16; Amos viii. 9; Matt. xxiv. it in this sense, which they have well expressed 29; and De S. Poës. Herb. Præl. VI. et IX.

“Ος γάρ αν αλω ηττηθησεται, , And the moon shall not cause her light to shine)

Και οίτινες συνηγμενοι εισι πεσουνται μαχαιρα. This in its farther reference may belong to the Jewish

. polity, both in Church and state, which should be to

“Whosoever is caught shall be overthrown, tally eclipsed, and perhaps shine no more in its distinct

And all that are collected together shall fall by state for ever.

the sword.” Verse 11. I will punish the world—“I will visit Where, for isononderal, MS. Pachom has exxsvēncesai, the world”] That is, the Babylonish empire; as net oi r Cod. Marchal. in margine, et MS. 1. D. 11. Olxoupevn, for the Roman empire, or for Judea, Luke Exxevtnonostas, which seems to be right, being properii. 1 ; Acts xi. 28. So the universus orbis Romanus, ly expressive of the Hebrew. for the Roman empire ; Salvian. lib. v. Minos calls Verse 17. Which shall not regard silver" Who Crete his world : “ Creten, quæ meus est orbis ;” Ovid. shall hold silver of no account"] That is, who shall Metamorph. viii. 9.

not be induced, by large offers of gold and silver for Verse 12. I will make a man more precious than ransom, to spare the lives of those whom they have fine goldwedge of Ophir.) The Medes and Persians subdued in battle; their rage and cruelty will get the will not be satisfied with the spoils of the Babylonians. better of all such motives. We have many examples They seek either to destroy or enslave them; and in the Iliad and in the Æneid of addresses of the vanthey will accept no ransom for any man-either for quished to the pity and avarice of the vanquishers, to VIIX enosh, the poor man, or for 078 adam, the more induce them to spare their lives. honourable person. All must fall by the sword, or go

Est domus alta : jacent penitus defossa talenta into captivity together; for the Medes, (ver. 17,) re

Cælati argenti : sunt auri pondera facti gard not silver, and delight not in gold.

Infectique mihi : non hic victoria Teucrum Verse 14. “ And the remnant"] Here is plainly a

Vertitur; aut anima una dabit discrimina tanta. defect in this sentence, as it stands in the Hebrew

Dixerat: Æneas contra cui talia reddit : the subject of the proposition is lost. What is

Argenti atque auri memoras quæ multa talenta it that shall be like a roe chased? The Septuagint

Gnatis parce tuis.

Æn. x. 526. happily supply it, oi katale del LEVOI, 98V shear, the remnant. A MS. here supplies the word v1'

High in my dome are silver talents rolled, yosheb, the inhabitant; which makes a tolerably

With piles of laboured and unlaboured gold. good sense ; but I much prefer the reading of the

These, to procure my ransom, I resign; Septuagint.

The war depends not on a life like mine : They shall-turn—"They shall look”] That is,

One, one poor life can no such difference yield, the forces of the king of Babylon, destitute of their

Nor turn the mighty balance of the field. leader, and all his auxiliaries, collected from Asia Mi

Thy talents, (cried the prince,) thy treasured store,

Pitt. nor, and other distant countries, shall disperse and flee

Keep for thy sons." to their respective homes.

It is remarkable that Xenophon makes Cyrus open Verse 15. Every one that is found—“ Every one a speech to his army, and in particular to the Medes, that is overtaken”] That is, none shall escape from who made the principal part of it, with praising them the slaughter; neither they who flee singły, dispersed for their disregard of riches. Avdpss Mndos, xai Ravand in confusion; nor they who endeavour to make τες οι παροντες, εγω υμας οιδα σαφως, ότι ουτε χρημαtheir retreat in a more regular manner, by forming FW de Ouevos Ouv Euoi ežnadete: “ Ye Medes, and others compact bodies : they shall all be equally cut off by the who now hear me, I well know that you have not ac


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B. C. cir. 712.

eir. annum

The desolation

of Babylon. A. M. cir. 3292

18 Their bows also shall dash be as when God overthrew A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. the young men to pieces; and a Sodom and Gomorrah.

Olymp. XVII. I Numa Pompilii

, they shall have, no pity on the 20 b It shall never be inhabited, Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. fruit of the womb; their eye shall neither shall it be dwelt in from

R. Roman., not spare children.

generation to generation : neither shall the 19 » And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall shepherds make their fold there.


» Chap, riv. 4, 22.- - Heb. as the overthrowing: Gen. xix.

24, 26; Deut. xxix. 23 ; Jer. xlix. 18; I. 40.

Jer. I. 3, 39; li. 29, 62.

companied me in this expedition with a view of acquir- entering the place at night by the dry channel. The ing wealth.”—Cyrop. lib. v.

river being never restored afterward to its proper Verse 18. Their bows also shall dash—“ Their course, overflowed the whole country, and made it bows shall dash”) Both Herodotus, i. 6'1, and Xeno- little better than a great morass"; this and the great phon, Anab. iii., mention, that the Persians used large slaughter of the inhabitants, with other bad consebows raža usyaha;, and the latter says particularly. quences of the taking of the city, was the first step to that their bows were three cubits long, Anab. iv. They the ruin of the place. The Persian monarchs ever were celebrated for their archers, see chap. xxii

. 6; regarded it with a jealous eye ; they kept it under, Jer. xlix. 35. Probably their neighbours and allies, and took care to prevent its recovering its former the Medes, dealt much in the same sort of arms. In greatness. · Darius Hystaspes not long afterward most Psa. xviii

. 34, and Job xx. 24, mention is made of a severely for a revolt, greatly depopulated bow of steel; if the Persian bows were of metal, we the place, lowered the walls, and demolished the gates. may easily conceive that with a metalline bow of three Xerxes destroyed the temples, and with the rest the cabits' leogth, and proportionably strong, the soldiers great temple of Belus, Herod. iii. 159, Arrian. Exp. might dash and slay the young men, the weaker and Alexandri, lib. vii. The building of Seleucia on the unresisting of the inhabitants (for they are joined with Tigris exhausted Babylon by its neighbourhood, as the fruit of the womb and the children) in the general well as by the immediate loss of inhabitants taken carnage on taking the city. nonnr. terattashnah, away by Seleucus to people his new city, Strabo, lib. shall be broken or shivered to pieces. This seems to xvi. A king of the Parthians soon after carried away refer, not to d'y nearim, young men, but to sinep into slavery a great number of the inhabitants, and keshathoth, their bows. The bows of the young men burned and destroyed the most beautiful parts of the shall be broken to pieces.

city, Valesii Excerpt. Diodori, p. 377;. Strabo (ibid.) On the fruit, &c.—“And on the fruit,” &c.] A says that in his time great part of it was a mere deMS. of Dr. Kennicotts, reads no 5991 veal peri, and sert; that the Persians had partly destroyed it; and on the fruit. And nine MSS. (three ancient) and two that time and the neglect of the Macedonians, while editions, with the Septuagint, Vulgale, and Syriac, they were masters of it, had nearly completed its deadd likewise the conjunction i vau, and, to by al, upon, struction. Jerome (in loc.) says that in his time it afterwards.

was quite in ruins, and that the walls served only for Verse 19. And Babylon] The great city of Baby- the inclosure for a park or forest for the king's huntlon was at this time rising to its height-of glory, while ing. Modern travellers, who have endeavoured to the Prophet Isaiah was repeatedly denouncing its utter find the remains of it, have given but a very unsatisdestruction. From the first of Hezekiah to the first factory account of their success. What Benjamin of of Nebuchadnezzar, under whom it was brought to Tudela and Pietro della Valle supposed to have been the highest degree of strength and splendour, are about some of its ruins, Tavernier thinks are the remains of one hundred and twenty years. I will here very some late Arabian building. Upon the whole, Babybriefly mention some particulars of the greatness of lon is so utterly annihilated, that even the place where the place, and note the several steps by which this re- this wonder of the world stood cannot now be determarkable prophecy was at length accomplished in the mined with any certainty! See also note on chap. total ruin of it.

xliii. 14. It was, according to the lowest account given of it We are astonished at the accounts which ancient by ancient historians, a regular, square, forty-five miles historians of the best credit give of the immense exin compass, -inclosed by a wall two hundred feet high tent, height, and thickness of the walls of Nineveh and and fifty broad; in which there were a hundred gates Babylon ; nor are we less astonished when we are asof brass. Its principal ornaments were the temple of sured, by the concurrent testimony of modern travelBelas, in the middle of which was a tower of eightlers, that no remains, not the least traces, of these stories of building, upon a se of a quarter of a mile prodigious works are now to be found. Scattered square, a most magnificent palace, and the famous fragments of its tiles and bricks are yet to be found. hanging gardens, which were an artificial mountain, Proud Babylon reduced now to a few brick-bats! Our raised upon arches, and planted with trees of the largest wonder will, I think, be moderated in both respects, as well as the most beautiful sorts.

if we consider the fabric of these celebrated walls, and Cyras took the city by diverting the waters of the the nature of the materials of which they consisted. Euphrates which ran" through the midst of it, and Buildings in the east have always been, and are to this

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