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into captivity

B. C. cir. 760.

R. Alban., cir. annum 37.

Israel shall be led

A. M. cir. 3244, the calf of Samaria shall be 11 Because

Ephraim hath A. M. cir. 3244
B. C. cir. 760.
Ante U. C. 7. broken in pieces.



altars to sin, Ante U. C. 7. Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban., 7 For k they have sown the altars shall be unto him to cir. annum 37. wind, and they shall reap the sin. whirlwind : it hath no 1 stalk : the bud shall 12 I have written to him ' the great things yield no meal : if so be it yield, m the strangers of my law, but they were counted as a strange shall swallow it up.

thing 8 · Israel is swallowed up : now shall they 13 · They sacrifice flesh for the sacrifices be among the Gentiles as a vessel wherein of mine offerings, and eat it; b but the LORD is no pleasure.

accepteth them not; now will he remember 9 For " they are gone up to Assyria, a wild their iniquity, and visit their sins : d they shall ass alone by himself : Ephraim hath hired return to Egypt. * lovers.

14 • For Israel hath forgotten' his Maker, 10 Yea, though they have hired among the and's buildeth temples : and Judah hath mulnations, now will I gather them, and they tiplied fenced cities : but I will send a fire shall u

little for the burden of w the upon his cities, and it shall devour the palaces king of princes.




k Prov. xxii. 8; Chap. x. 12, 13. Or, standing corn. y Deut. iv. 6, 8; Psa. cxix. 18; cxlvii. 19, 20.- -2 Jer. vii. 21; m Chap. vii. 9. -n 2 Kings xvii. 6. — Jer. xxii. 28; xlviii. Zech. vii. 6. Or, in the sacrifices of mine offerings they, &c. 38.—P2 Kings xv. 19.- -9 Jer. ii. 24. - Isa. xxx. 6; Ezek. Jer. xiv. 10, 12; Chap. v. 6; ix. 4; Amos v. 22. Chap. ix. xvi. 33, 34. —Heb. loves.- Ezek. xvi. 37 ; Chap. x. 10. 9; Amos viii. 7. a Deut. xxvii. 68; Chap. ix. 3, 6; xi. 5. u Or, begin. Or, in a little while, as Hag. ii. 6.

e Deut. xxxii. 18. - Isa. xxix. 23; Eph. ii. 10.-51 Kings 8; Ezek. xxvi. 7; Dan. ii. 37. Chap. xii. 11.

xii. 31. h Jer. xvii. 27; Amos ii. 5.

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w Isa. X.

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This is an overwhelming argument against all idols. keep a whole flock of feinales to himself, suffer do Nothing need be added. The workman has made other to approach them, and even bite off the genitals them ; therefore they are not God.

of the colts, lest in process of time they should beVerse 7. They have sown the wind, and they shall come his rivals. “ Mares singuli fæminarum gregibus reap the whirlwind] As the husbandman reaps the imperitant ; timent libidinis æmulos, et ideo gravidas same kind of grain which he has sown, but in far custodiunt, morsuque natos mares castrant.”—Hist. greater abundance, thirty, sixty, or one hundred fold; Nat., lib. viii., c. 30. The Israelites, with all this so he who sows the wind shall have a whirlwind to selfishness and love of liberty, took no step that did reap. The 'vental seed shall be multiplied into a not necessarily lead to their thraldom and destruction. tempest; so they who sow the seed of unrighteous- Ephraim hath hired lovers.) Hath subsidized the ness shall reap a harvest of judgment. This is a fine, neighbouring heathen states. bold, and energetic metaphor.

Verse 10. For the burden of the king of princes.) It hath no slalk] Nothing that can yield a blossom. The exactions of the Assyrian king, and the princes If it have a blossom, that blossom shall not yield fruit; of the provinces. if there be fruit, the sower shall not enjoy it, for Verse 11. Many altars to sin] Though it does strangers shall eat it. The meaning is, the labours of not appear that the Jews in Babylon were obliged to this people shall be utterly unprofitable and vain. worship the idols of the country, except in the case

Verse 8. Now shall they be among the Gentiles) mentioned by Daniel, yet it was far otherwise with They shall be carried into captivity, and there be as the Israelites in Assyria, and the other countries of à vessel wherein there is no pleasure ; one soiled, their dispersion. Because they had made many altars unclean, infectious, to be despised, abhorred, not used to sin while they were in their own land, they were The allusion is to a rotlen, corrupted skin-bottle ; a obliged to continue in the land of their captivity a bottle made of goat, deer, or calf hide, still commonly similar system of idolatry against their will. Thus used in Asia and Africa. Some of them are splen- they felt and saw the evil of their idolatry, without didly ornamented. This is the case with one now power to help themselves. before me made of a goat's skin well dressed, variously Verse 12. I have written to him the great things painted, and ornamented with leather fringes, tassels, of my law] I have as it were inscribed my laws to &c. In such a bottle there might be pleasure ; but them, and they have treated them as matters in which the Israelites are compared to such a bottle, rough, ill- they had no interest. dressed, not ornamented, old, musty, and putrid. This Verse 13. They sacrifice flesh) Bp. Newcome shows the force of the comparison.

translates thus : “ They sacrifice gifts appointed unto Verse 9. They are gone up to Assyria] For me, and eat flesh.” They offer to their idols the succour.

things which belong to Jehovah ; or, while pretending A wild ass alone by himself] Like that animal, to offer unto the Lord, they eat and drink idolatrously; jealous of its liberty, and suffering no rival. If we and therefore the Lord will not accept them. may credit Pliny and others, one male wild ass will They shall return to Egypt.] Many of them did 642

( 41* )

Israel's desolation


is at hand.

return to Egypt after the conquest of Palestine by Verse 14. Israel hath forgotten his Maker] And Shalmaneser, and many after the ruin of Jerusalem therefore built temples to other gods. Judah had by Nebuchadnezzar; but they had in effect returned to lost all confidence in the Divine protection, and thereEgypt by setting up the worship of the golden calves, fore built many fenced cities. But the fire of God's which were in imitation of the Egyptian Apis. anger burnt up both the temples and the fortified cities.


cir. annum 37.

The prophet reproves the Israelites for their sacrifices and rejoicings on their corn-floors, by which they

ascribed to idols, as the heathen did, the praise of all their plenty, 1: For which reason they are threatened with famine and exile, 2, 3, in a land where they should be polluted, and want the means of worshipping the God of their fathers, or observing the solemnities of his appointment, 4, 5. Nay more; they shall speedily fall before the destroyer, be buried in Egypt, and leave their own pleasant places desolate, 6-9. God is then introduced declaring his early favour for his people, and the delight he took in their obedience ; but now they had so deeply revolted, all their glory will take wing, God will forsake them, and

their offspring be devoted to destruction, 10-16. AB.M.C.1.760. REJOICE not, O Israel, for the bread of mourners; all that 8. M. cir

: 5204

. Ante. U C. 7. joy, as other people : for eat thereof shall be polluted: for Ante U.C.7 Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban., thou • hast gone a whoring from their bread for their soul shall Amulii Sylvii,

thy God, thou hast loved a re- not come into the house of the cir. annum 37. ward upon every corn-floor.

LORD. 2 . The floor and the wine-press shall not 5 What will ye do in the solemn day, and feed them, and the new wine shall fail in her. in the day of the feast of the Lord ?

3 They shall not dwell in the Lord's 6 For, lo, they are gone because of Pdeland; 6 but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, struction : 9 Egypt shall gatheř them up, and they shall eat unclean things i in As- Memphis shall bury them : ' the pleasant syria.

places for their silver, ' nettles shall possess 4. They shall not offer wine offerings to them : thorns shall be in their tabernacles. the LORD, 'neither shall they be pleasing unto 7. The days of visitation are come, the days him : m their sacrifices shall be unto them as of recompense are come ; Israel shall know

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• Chap. iv. 12; v. 4, 7.- _ Jer. xliv. 17; chap. ii. 12. Or, Chap. iii. 4. — Jer. vi. 20; chap. viii. 13.- Luh Deut. xxvi. in, &c. d Chap. ii. 9, 12. Or, wine-fat.-Lev. xxv. 23; 14. Lo Lev. xvii. 11. Chap. ii. 11.

Hebrew, spoil. Jer. ii. 7 ; xvi. 18. -5 Chap. viii. 13 ; xi. 5; not into Egypi 4 Chap. vii. 16; ver. 3.- Or, their silver shall be desired, the itself, but into another bondage as bad as that. Ezek. iv. nettle, &c.- --Heb. the desire. - Isa. v. 6; xxxii. 13 ; xxxiv. 13; Dan. i. 8-i 2 Kings xvii. 6; chap. xi. 11.

13; chap. x. 8.


subjection to the Assyrians did worship the true God, Verse 1. Rejoice not] Do not imitate the heathens, and offer unto him the sacrifices appointed by the law, nor serve their idols. Do not prostitute thy soul and though in an imperfect and schismatic manner; and it body in practising their impurities. Hitherto thou was a great mortification to them to be deprived of hast acted as a common harlot, who goes even to the their religious festivals in a land of strangers. See common threshing places; connects herself with the Calmet. meanest, in order to get a hire even of the grain there Verse 6. For, lo, they are gone] Many of them threshed out.

fled to Egypt to avoid the destruction ; but they went Verse 3. But Ephraim shall return to Egypt] See there only to die. on chap. viii. 12.

Memphis] Now Cairo, or Kahira, found them Verse 4. As the bread of mourners) By the law, a graves. dead body, and every thing that related to it, the house The pleasant places for their silver] The fine eswhere it lay, and the persons who touched it, were all tates or villas which they had purchased by their polluted and unclean, and whatever they touched was money, being now neglected and uninhabited, are considered as defiled. See Deut. xxvi. 14; Num. covered with netlles; and even in their tabernacles, xix. 11, 13, 14.

thorns and brambles of different kinds grow. These For their bread for their soul] The bread for the are the fullest marks of ulter desolation. common support of life shall not be sanctified to them Verse 7. The days of visilation] Of panishment by having the first-fruits presented at the temple.

Verse 5. What will ye do in the solemn day] When The prophel is a fool] Who has pretended to foreye shall be despoiled of every thing by the Assyrians; tell, on Divine authority, peace and plenty ; for behold for the Israelites who remained in the land after its all is desolation.

are come.

cir. annum 37.

Judgments denounced


against Ephraim. A. M. cir. 3244. it: the prophet is a fool, u the nations were according as they 4. M. cir. 3244 B. C. cir. 760.

B. C. Ante U. C. 7. spiritual man is mad, for the loved.

Ante U. C. 7. Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban.,

multitude of thine iniquity, and 11 As for Ephraim, their glory R. Alban., the great hatred.

shall fly away like a bird, from cir. annum 37. 8 The w watchman of Ephraim was with my the birth, and from the womb, and from the God: but the prophet is a snare of a fowler conception. in all his ways, and hatred - in the house of 12 - Though they bring up their children, his God.

yet i will I bereave them, that there shall not 9 y They have deeply corrupted themselves, be a man left: yea, wo also to them when as in the days of 2 Gibeah : & therefore he will I ' depart from them! remember their iniquity, he will visit their sins. 13 Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus, is planted

10 I found Israel likes grapes in the wil- in a pleasant place ; but Ephraim shall derness; I saw your fathers as the first ripe bring forth his children to the murderer. in the fig tree at her first time: but they 14 Give them, O LORD : what wilt thou give? went to a Baal-peor, and separated them- give them a miscarrying womb and dry breasts. selves funto that shame; 8 and their abomi- 15 All their wickednessis in Gilgal : for

u Heb. man of the spirit. — Ezek. xii. 3, &c.; Mic. ji. 11; & Psa. Lxxxi. 12; Ezek. XX. 8; Amos, iv. 5.- Job Ixti. Zeph. iii. 1. -w Jer. vi. 17; xxxi. 6; Ezek. iii. 17; xxxiii. 7. - Deut. xxviii. 41, 62. k Deut. xxxi. 17; 2 Kings xvii. * Or, against. -y Isa. xxxi. 6; chap. x. 9.- -z Judges xix, 22. 18 ; chap. v. 6.- See 1 Sam. xxviii. 15, 16. a Chap. viii. 13.- Isa. xxviii. 4; Mic. vii. 1. e See chap. xxvi., xxvii., xxviii. Ver. 16; chap. xiii. 16.- LLuke

- Num. xxv. 3; Psa. cvi. 28. Chap. iv. 14. xxiij. 29. - Heb. that casteth the fruit.- -9 Chap. iv. 15; I Jer. xi. 13; see Judg. vi. 32.

xii. 11.


um See Ezek.

ii. 15.

The spiritual man] 1177 Vox ish haruach, the man children shall be born, no woman shall be pregnant, of spirit, who was ever pretending to be under a Divine for none shall conceive. Here judgment blasts the very afflatus.

germs of population. Is mad] He is now enraged to see every thing Verse 12. Though they bring up their children] And falling out contrary to his prediction.

were they even to have children, I would bereave them Verse 8. The watchman of Ephraim] The true of them ; for, when I depart from them, they shall have prophet, was withfaithful to, God.

all manner of wretchedness and wo. The prophet] The false prophet is the snare of a Verse 13. Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus] Tyre was fowler; is continually deceiving the people, and lead strongly situated on a rock in the sea ; Samaria was ing them into snares, and infusing into their hearts on a mountain, both strong and pleasant. But the deep hatred against God and his worship.

strength and beauty of those cities shall not save them Verse 9. They have deeply corrupted themselves, as from destruction. in the days of Gibeah] This relates to that shocking Ephraim shall bring forth his children to the mut, rape and murder of the Levite's wife, mentioned Judg. derer.) The people shall be destroyed, or led into xix. 16, &c.

captivity by the Assyrians. Of the grandeur, wealth, Verse 10. I found Israel like grapes in the wilder- power, &c., of Tyre, see the notes on Ezekiel, chap. ness] While they were faithful, they were as accept- xxvii. and xxviii. able to me as ripe grapes would be to a thirsty tra- Verse 14. Give them, O Lord: what will thou veller in the desert.

give ?] There is an uncommon beauty in these words. I saw your fathers) Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, The prophet, seeing the evils that were likely to fall Joshua, Caleb, Samuel, &c.

upon his countryinen, begins to make intercession for As the first ripe] Those grapes, whose bud having them; but when he had formed the first part of his come first, and being exposed most to the sun, have petition, “ Give them, O Lord !" the prophetic light been the first ripe upon the tree; which tree was now discovered to him that the petition would not be anin the vigour of youth, and bore fruit for the first time. swered, and that God was about to give them someA metaphor of the rising prosperity of the Jewish state. thing widely different. Then changing his petition,

But they went to Baal-peor] The same as the Ro- which the Divine Spirit had interrupted, by signifying man Priapus, and worshipped with the most impure that he must not proceed in his request, he asks the rites.

question, then, “ What wilt thou give them ?" and the And their abominations were according as they answer is, “ Give them a miscarrying womb, and dry loved.] Or, “ they became as abominable as the ob breasts.” And this he is commanded to announce. ject of their love.” So Bp. Newcome. And this was It is probable that the Israelites had prided themselves superlatively abominable.

in the fruitfulness of their families, and the numerous Verse 11. Their glory shall Ay away) It shall sud- population of their country. God now tells them that denly spring away from them, and return no more. this shall be no more ; their wives shall be barren, and

From the birth] “ So that there shall be no birth, their land cursed. no carrying in the womb, no conception.”- Newcome. Verse 15. 'All their wickedness is in Gilgal] Though They shall cease to glory in their numbers ; for no we are not directly informed of the fact, yet we have

The parable of an empty vine


applied to Israel. A M. cir. 3244. there I hated them; for the they bring forth, yet will I slay AM.cir: 3244.

Ante V. C.?: wickedness of their doings I will even the beloved fruit of their Ante U. C. 7: Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Albani, drive them out of mine house, womb.

R. Alban., cir. annum 37.

cir. annum 37. I will love them no more : s all 17 My God will cast them their princes are revolters.

away, because they did not hearken unto him: 16 Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried and they shall be wanderers among the up, they shall bear no fruit : yea, though nations. . Chap. i. 6. Isa. i. 23. _ Ver. 13.

u Heb. the desires ; Ezek. xxiv. 21. - Deut. xxviij. 64, 65. reason to believe they had been guilty of some scan- denunciations; and to vindicate the Divine justice, dalous practices of idolatry in Gilgal. See chap. from which they proceeded. It isiv. 15.

Because they did not hearken unto him] That “ my For there I hated them] And therefore he deter-God,” the fountain of mercy and kindness, “ will cast mined, " for the wickedness of their doings, to drive them away.”

them out of his house," so that they should cease to And they shall be wanderers among the nations.)

be a part of the heavenly family, either as sons or And where they have wandered to, who can tell ? and servants ; for, he would “ love them no more," and in what nations to be found, no man knows. Wanbear with them no longer.

derers they are ; and perhaps even now unknown to Verse 16. Ephraim is smitten] The thing themselves. Some have thought they have found being determined, it is considered as already them in one country ; some, in another; and a very done.

pious writer, in a book entitled, The Star in the West, Their root is dried up] They shall never more be thinks he has found their descendants in the American a kingdom. And they never had any political form Indians; among whom he has discovered many cusfrom their captivity by the Assyrians to the present toms, apparently the same with those of the ancient day.

Jews, and commanded in the Law. He even thinks Yea, though they bring forth] See the note on ver. that the word Je-ho-vah is found in their solemn festa! 11, 12.

cry, Ye-ho-wa-he. If they be this long lost people, Verse 17. My God will cast them away] Here the they are utterly unknown ta themselves; their origin prophet seems to apologize for the severity of these being lost in a very remote antiquity.


This chapter treats of the same subject, but elegantly varied. It begins with comparing Israel to a fruitful

vine, but corrupted by too much prosperity, 1. It next reproves and threatens them for their idolatry, 2 ; anarchy, 3 ; and breach of covenant, 4. Their idolatry is then enlarged on; and ils fatal consequences declared in terms full of sublimity and pathos, 5-8. God is now introduced complaining of their excessive guilt; and threatening them with captivity in terms that bear a manifest allusion to their favourite idola. try, the worshipping the similitude of a calf or heifer, 9-11. Upon which the prophet, in a beautiful allegory suggested by the preceding metaphors, exhorts them to repentance; and warns them of the dreadful consequences of their evil courses, if obstinately persisted'in, 12–15. B.C. CIT. 5261 ISRAEL is an bempty vine, (creased the altars ; according 4M. cir. 3264. A. U. C. cir. 14. he bringeth forth fruit unto to the goodness of his land A. U.C. cir. 14.

R. Roman., himself : according to the multi- a they

they have

made goodly R. Roman., cir, annum 14.

cir. annum 14. tude of his fruit che hath in- • images. a Nah. ii. 2. - Or, a vine emptying the fruit which it Chap. viii. 11 ; xii. 11.- -d Chap. viii. 4.

e Heb. statues, giveth.

or standing images. NOTES ON CHAP. X.

“ So God's best gifts, usurp'd by wicked ones, Verse 1. Israel is an empty vine) Or, a vine thal To poison turn, by their con-ta-gi-ons." casleth its grapes.

Another poet, of a higher order, but worse school, He bringeth forth fruit] Or, he laid up fruit for himself. He abused the blessings of God to the purposes of idolatry. He was prosperous; but his

Effodiuntur opes, irritamenta malorum.-Ovid. prosperity corrupted his heart.

Of which the words of St. Paul are nearly a literal According to the multilude of his fruit] He became rendering, idolatrous in proportion to his prosperity ; and in pro

Ριζα γαρ παντων των κακων εστιν η φιλαργυρια. portion to their wealth was the costliness of their images, and the expensiveness of their idol worship. “ For the love of money is the root of all these evils." True is the homely saying of old Quarles :

I Tim. vi. 10. Pity that this beautiful metal, on


A. M. cir. 3264.
B. C. cir. 740.

R. Roman.,

Romuli, R. Roman., cir. annum 14.

The idolatry of the


inhabitants of Samaria. 2 * Their heart is divided ;| priests thereof that rejoiced on it, 4. M. cir. 3264. A. U. C. cir. 14. now shall they be found faulty : ° for the glory thereof, because A. U.C. cir. 14. Romuli,

he shall break down their altars, it is departed from it. cir. annum 14. he shall spoil their images,

6 It shall be also carried unto 3 i For now they shall say, We have no Assyria for a present to King Jareb: king, because we feared not the Lord; what Ephraim shall receive shame, and Israel shall then should a king do to us?

be ashamed 4 of his own counsel. 4 They have spoken words, swearing falsely 7" As for Samaria, her king is cut off as in making a covenant : thus judgment spring- the foam upon the water.

as hemlock in the furrows of the 8. The high places also of Aven, the sin of field.

Israel, shall be destroyed : 'the thorn and the 5 The inhabitants of Samaria shall fear be- thistle shall come up on their altars; and cause of the calves of m Beth-aven : for the they shall say to the mountains, Cover us; people thereof shall mourn over it, and " the and to the hills, Fall on us.

eth up

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"Or, He hath divided their heart. 61 Kings xviii. 21 ; Matt. Or, Chemarim; 2 Kings xxiii. 5; Zeph. i. 4-0 i Sam. vi. 24,-h Heb. behead. -i Chap. iii. 4 ; xi, 5; Mic. iv. 9; iv. 21, 22 ; chap. ix. 11. - Chap. v. 13. — * Chap. xi. 6. ver. 7.

k See Deut. xxix. 18; Amos v. 7; vi. 12; Acts viii. - Ver. 3, 15. - Heb. the face of the water.- Chap. iv. 15. 23; Heb. xii. 15.-i Kings xii. 28, 29; chap. viii. 5, 6. Deut. ix. 21 ; 1 Kings xii. 30. Chap. ix. 6. * Isa. ii. 19; m Chap. iv. 15.

Luke xxiii, 30; Rev. vi. 16; ix. 6.

which God has bestowed such a large portion of mine- object of their worship carried into captivity, as well ral perfection, and then hid in the earth, should, on its as themselves. being digged up by man, become the incentive to so And the priests thereof) Drno kemarim. The many vices, and draw away his heart from the Creator priests of Samaria, says Calmet, are here called kemaof all things, and the fountain of ineffable perfection rim, that is, black coats, or shoulers, because they made and goodness.

loud cries in their sacrifices. Instead of 15 yagrlu, Verse 2. Their heart is divided] They wish to "they shall rejoice;" learned men propose 15.5. yalilu, serve God and Mammon, Jehovah and Baal : but this “shall howl,” which is likely to be the true reading : is impossible. Now God will do in judgment what but it is not supported by any of the MSS. yet disthey should have done in contrition, “ break down their covered. But the exigentia loci, the necessity of the altars, and spoil their images."

place, requires some such word. Verse 3. We have no king] We have rejected the Verse 6. A present to King Jareb] See on chap. v. King of kings; end had we any king, he would be of 13. If this be a proper Dame, the person intended is no service to us in this state, as he would be a captive not known in history : but it is most likely that Pul, Hike ourselves; nor could we have the approbation of king of Assyria, is intended, to whom Menahem, king God, as we now justly lie under his displeasure. of Israel, appears to have given one of the golden

Verse 4. They have spoken words] Vain, empty, calves, to insure his assistance. deceitful words.

Verse 7. Her king is cut off as the foam) As lightly Swearing falsely] This refers to the alliances made as a puff of wind blows off the foam that is formed with strange powers, to whom they promised fidelity below by a fall of water, so shall the kings of Israel without intending to be faithful; and from whom they be cut off. “We have already seen that not less than promised themselves protection and support, notwith four of them died by assassination in a very short standing God was against them, and they knew it. time.' See on chap. vii, 7. All their words were vain, and in the end as bilter Verse 8. The high places) Idol temples. as gall.

Of Aren] Beth-aven. Judgment springeth up as hemlock] As our land The thorn and the thistle shall come up on their lies without cultivation, so that we have nothing but altars] Owing to the uncultivated and unfrequented noxious weeds instead of crops ; so we have no admi- state of the land, and of their places of idol worship, nistration of justice. What is done in this way is a the people being all carried away into captivity. perversion of law, and is as hurtful to society as hemlock would be to animal life. All this may refer

" And they shall say to the mountains, Cover us, to the anarchy that was in the kingdom of Israel be

And to the hills, Fall on us." fore Hoshea's reign, and which lasted, according to

“ This sublime description of fear and distress our Archbishop Usher, nine years, They then, literally, Lord had in view, Luke xxiii. 30, which may be a “ had no king."

reference, and not a quotation. However, the Sep!uVerse 5. The inhabitants of Samaria shall fear] agint, in the Codex Alerandrinus, has the same order According to Calmet, shall worship the calves of Beth- of words as occurs in the evangelist. The parallelism aven ; those set up by Jeroboam, at Beth-el. Fear makes the passages more beautiful than Rev. vi. 16; is often taken for religious reverence,

and Isa. ü. 19 wants the animated dramatic form. The people thereof shall mourn) On seeing the . That there is a reference to the caverns that abounded

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