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The prophet exhorts his people

CHAP. II.

to put away idolatry. A. M. cir. 3219. shall be as the sand of the sea, 11 v Then shall the chil- A. M. cir. 3219. B. C. cir. 785,

B. C. cir. 785. Ante U. C. 32. which cannot be measured nor dren of Judah and the children Ante U. C. 32. Amului. Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii; R. Alban., numbered ; r and it shall come of Israel be gathered together, R. Alban.,

cir, annum 12. to pass, that in the place where and appoint themselves it was said unto them, • Ye are not my people, head, and they shall come there it shall be said unto them, Ye are " the the land : for great shall be the day of sons of the living God.

Jezreel.

oir. annum 12.

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* Rom. ix. 25, 26; 1 Pet. ii. 10.Or, instead of that.--! Ch.

ii. 23.

John i. 12 ; 1 John i. 1.--"

- Isa. xi. 12, 13; Jer. iii. 18; Ezek. xxxiv. 23 ; xxxvii. 16-24.

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thinned and scattered them, yet the spirit and design the prophet the one Head may mean Jesus Christ,
of his promise and covenant shall be fulfilled. An under whom the true Israel, Jews and Gentiles, shall
Israel there shall be. In the place of the reprobated be fin lly gathered together; so that there shall be one
people, who were now no longer his people, there shall flock, and one Shepherd over that flock.
be found an Israel that shall be the children of the They shall come up out of the land] Assyria and
living God. See the above scriptures, and 1 Pet. ii. 10. Chaldea in particular; but also from the various places
This must mean either the Israelites after their con- of their dispersions in general.
version to Christianity, or even the Gentiles themselves Great shall be the day of Jezreel.] He alludes to
converted to God, and now become the true Israel. the meaning of the word, the seed of God. God who

Verse 11. The children of Judah and the children has dispersed-sown, them in different lands, shah of Israel] After the return from Babylon, the distinc-gather them together; and that day of God's power tion between Israel and Judah was entirely destroyed ; shall be great and glorious. It was a wonderful seed and those of them that did return were all included | time in the Divine justice ; it shall then be a wonderful under one denomination, Jeros ; and the one head may harvest in the Divine mercy.

He sowed them among refer to Zerubbabel their leader, and afterwards under the nations in his wrath ; he shall reap them and gather Ezra and Nehemiah. In the more extensive view of them in his bounty.

CHAPTER II.
The prophet exhorts his people to speak and to act as became those who obtained mercy of God; and to

remonstrate strongly against the conduct of their mother, (Samaria,) whose captivity is threatened on
account of her forsaking God, and ascribing her prosperity to idols, 1-5. As an amplification of this
threatening, the prophet enumerates a series of afflictions which were to befall her to bring her to a sense
of her duty to God; and of her folly in seeking after idols, and falsely ascribing to them the blessings of
Providence, 6–13. After these corrections, however, God promises to conduct Israel safely to their
own land; perhaps alluding to their restoration from the Babylonish captivity, for this prophecy is sup-
posed to have been delivered about two hundred and fifty years prior to this event, 14, 15.

He farther engages to deal with them as a tender husband, and not as a severe master, as were the idols which they served, 16, 17. The rest of the chapter promises the people of God, the true Israel, security from every evil, with the possession of every blessing, under a new covenant; and that in terms full of beauty, energy, and consolation. Heaven and earth, and whatever they contain ; all nature, and the God of nature, are represented as uniling to make the people of God happy; so that if they only breathe a wish, one part of nature, animate or inanimale, echoes it to another, and all join in sweet harmony to transmit it to the ear of the Almighty. I will hear, saith the LORD, I will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the earth;

and the earth shall hear the corn, and the wine, and the oil ; and they shall hear Jezreel.A. M. cir. 3219.

SAY ye unto your brethren, sher husband : let her there. 4. M. cir 3219. Ante U. C. 32. Ammi; and to your sisters, fore put away her d whore. Ante U. C, 32. Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban., • Ruhamah.

doms out of her sight, and her R. Alban., cir. annum. 12.

2 Plead with your mother, adulteries from between her plead: for she is not my wife, neither am I breasts ;

B. C. cir. 785.

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cir. annum 12.

. That is, My people.

That is, Having obtained mercy.

c Isa. l. 1.- Ezek. xvi. 25.

Verse 2. Plead with your mother] People of JuVerse 1. Say ye unto your brethren, Ammi] Idah, accuse your mother, (Jerusalem,) who has abanprefer the interpretation of these proper 'names. Say doned my worship, and is become idolatrous ; convince ye unto your brethren, MY PEOPLE; and to your sisters, her of her folly and wickedness, and let her return to who have OBTAINED MERCY,

NOTES ON CHAP. II.

him from whom she has so deeply revolted.

A. M. cir. 3219.

B. C.cir. 785.

Ante U. C. 32,

R. Alban., cir. annum 12.

cir. annum 12.

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Threatenings of punishment

HOSEA.

against the idolatrous Israelites. 3 Lest I strip her naked, and corn, and wine, and oil, and A. M. cit. 3219. B. C. cir. 785.

set her as in the day that she multiplied her silver and gold, Ante V. C. 32 Ajulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, was born, and make her kas " which they prepared for Baal.

. R. Alban., a wilderness, and set her like a 9 Therefore will I return, and dry land, and slay her with h thirst.

take away my corn in the time thereof, and 4 And I will not have mercy upon her chil- my wine in the season thereof, and will w dren; -for they be the i children of whoredoms. cover my wool and my flax given to cover

5 For their mother hath played the harlot : her nakedness. she that conceived them hath done shamefully : 10 And now I will I discover her lewdness for she said, I will go after my lovers, ? that in the sight of her lovers, and none shall deliver give me my bread and my water, my wool and her out of mine hand. my flax, mine oil and my m drink.

11 z I will also cause all her mirth to cease, 6 Therefore, behold, I will hedge up thy her a feast days, her new moons, and her Sabway with thorns, and o make a wall, that she baths, and all her solemn feasts. shall not find her paths.

12 And I will destroy her vines and her 7. And she shall follow after her lovers, but she fig-trees, whereof she hath said, These are shall not overtake them; and she shall seek my rewards that my lovers have given me : them, but shall not find them: then shall she say, and I will make them a forest, and the beasts PI will go and return to my 4 first husband ; of the field shall eat them. for then was it better with me than now. 13 And I will visit upon her the days of

8. For she did not know that • I gave her Baalim, wherein she burned incense to them,

V

• Jer. xiji. 22, 26; Ezekiel xvi. 37, 39.-JEzekiel xvi. 4. a Ezek. xvi. 8. - Isa. i. 3.- s Ezek. xvi. 17, 18, 19, Heb. & Ezek. xix. 13. h Amos viii. 11, 13. Li John viii. 41.-ok Isa. new wine. -u Or, wherewith they made Baal ; chapter vu. 4. i. 21 ; Jer. iii. 1, 6, 8, 9; Ezek. xvi. 15, 16, &c. Ver. 8, 12; Ver. 3.--"Or, take away. — - Ezek. xvi. 37; wiu. 29. Jer. xliv. 17. _m Heb. drinks. -- Job iii. 23 ; xix. 8; Lam. y Heb. folly or villany:- -2 Åmos viii. 10.- - Kings xii. 32; üi. 7, 9.—Heb. wall a wall.-p Chapter v. 15; Luke Amos viii. 5.- _b Heb. inake desolate. -c Verse 5. Psalm xv. 18.

Ixxx, 12, 13; Isa. v. 5.

Verse 3. Lest I strip her naked) Lest I expose them having ever returned to Judea. And, if in being, her to infamy, want, and punishment. The punish- where they arc now is utterly unknown. ment of an adulteress among the ancient Germans was Verse 8. For she did not know that I gave her corn) this : “ They shaved off her hair, stripped her naked How often are the gifts of God's immediate bounty in the presence of her relatives, and in this state drove attributed to fortuitous causes—to any cause but the her from the house of her husband." See on Isa. iii. right one! 17; and see also Ezek. xvi. 39; xxiii. 26. How- Which they prepared for Baal.] And how often ever reproachful this might be to such delinquents, it are the gifts of God's bounty perverted into means of had no tendency to promote their moral reformation. dishonouring him! God gives us wisdom, strength,

And set her like a dry land] The Israelites, if and property; and we use them to sin against him with obedient, were promised a land flowing with milk and the greater skill, power, and effect! Were the goods honey; but, should they be disobedient, the reverse. those of the enemy, in whose service they are employed, And this is what God here threatens against disobedient the crime would be the less. But the crime is deeply Israel.

engrained, when God's property is made the instrument Verse 4. They be the children of whoredoms.) to dishonour himself. They are all idolaters; and have been consecrated to Verse 9. Therefore will I return, and take away) idols, whose marks they bear.

In the course

my providence, I will withhold those Verse 5. That give me my bread] See the note benefits which she has prostituted to her idolatrous on Jer. xliv. 17, 18, where nearly the same words are services. And I will neither give the land rain, nor found and illustrated.

fruitful seasons. Verse 6. I will hedge up thy way with thorns] I Verse 10. In the sight of her lovers] Her idols, will put it out of your power to escape the judgments and her faithful or faithless allies. I have threatened ; and, in spite of all your attachment : Verse 11. Her feast days) Jerusalem shall be to your idols, you shall find that they can give you nei-pillaged and destroyed; and therefore all her joyous ther bread, nor water, nor wool, nor flar, nor oil, nor assemblies, and religious feasts, &c., shall cease. drink.

And ye shall be brought into such circumstan- Verse 12. These are my rewards] They attributed ces, that the pursuit of your expensive idolatry shall all the blessings of Providence as rewards received be impossible. . And she shall be led so deep into cap- from the idols which they worshipped. tivity, as never to find the road back to her own land. Verse 13. Days of Baalim] To visit sigòifies to And this is the fact; for those who were carried away inflict punishment ; the days are taken for the acts of into Assyria have been lost among the nations, few of idolatrous worship committed on them; and Baalim

Ante U. C. 32.

cir. annum 12:

God promises the

CHAP 1:

restoration of Israel. A M. cir. 3219. and she decked herself with her more be remembered by their M. cir. 3219 Ante V. C. 32. earrings and her jewels, and she name. Amulu Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban.,

went after her lovers, and forgat 18. And in that day will I R. Alban., cir. annum 12. me, saith the LORD.

make a P covenant for them with 14 Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of bring her into the wilderness, and speak heaven, and with the creeping things of the & comfortably h unto her,

ground : and I will break the bow and the 15 And I will give her vineyards from thence, sword, and the battle out of the earth, and and the valley of Achor for a door of hope: will make them to ' lie down safely. and she shall sing there, as in the days 19 And I will betroth thee unto me for ever; her youth, and 'as in the day when she came yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousup out of the land of Egypt.

ness, and in judgment, and in lovingkindness, 16 And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, and in mercies. that thou shalt call me m Ishi; and shalt call 20 I will even betroth thee unto me in faithme no more » Baali.

fulness; and thou shalt know the LORD. 17 For • I will take away

the names of 21 And it shall come to pass in that day, 'I Baalim out of her mouth, and they shall no will hear, saith the LORD, I will hear the hea

e Ezek. xxiii. 40, 42. Ezek. xx. 35.- - Or, friendly • Exod. xxii, 13; Josh. xxvi. 7; Psa. xvi. 4; Zech. xui. 2. h Heb. to her heart.-i Josh. vii. 26; Isa. Ixv. 10.- * Jer. 11. P Job v. 23; Isa. xi. 6-9; Ezek. xxxiv., 25. -Psa. xlvi. 9; 2; Ezek. xvi. 8, 22, 60.- I Exod. xv.l. _m That is, My hus. Isa. ii. 4; Ezek. xxxix. 9, 10; Zech, ix. 10. * Lev. xxvi. 5; band. That is, My lord.

Jer. xxii. 6.---- Jer. xxxi. 33, 34; John xvii. 3. Zech. viii. 12.

means the multitude of false gods worshipped by them. they should scrupulously avoid idolatry; and they had. Baal was a general name for a male idol, as Astarte such a full proof of the inefficacy of their idolatrous was for a female. Baalim includes all the male idols, worship that, after their captivity, they never more as Ashtaroth all those that were female. But the spe- served idols. cies of idol was often designated by some adjunct; as Verse 18. Will I make a covenant for them). I Baal-Zebub, Baal-Peor, Baal-Zephon, Baal-Berith, &c. will make an agreement between them and the birds,

Her earrings] 001nizmah, signifies rather a nose beasts, and reptiles, so that they shall not be injured by jewel. These are worn by females in the East to the those ; their flocks shall not be destroyed, nor their present day, in great abundance.

crops spoiled. I will also prevent every species of And her jewels) innihni vechelyatah, rings, armlets, war, that they may no more have the calamities that bracelets, ankle-rings, and ornaments of this kind. arise from that source. They shall also be safe from

Verse 14. I will allure her, and bring her into the robbers and nightly alarms; for I will make them to lie wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her.) After down in safety. inflicting many judgments upon her, I will restore her Verse 19. I will betroth thee unto me] The people again. I will deal with her as a very affectionate are always considered under the emblem of a wife husband would do to an unfaithful wife. Instead of unfaithful to her husband. making her a public example, he takes her in private, In righteousness) According to law, reason, and talks to and reasons with her; puts her on her good equity. behaviour; promises to pass by all, and forgive all, if In judgment] According to what is fit and beshe will now amend her ways. In the meantime he coming. provides what is necessary for her wants and comfort- In lovingkindness] Having the utmost affection able support; and thus, opening a door of hope for her, and love for thee. she may be fully reconciled; rejoice as at the begin- ' In mercies.] Forgiving and blotting out all past ning, when he first took her by the hand, and she be- miscarriages. Or there may be an allusion here to came his bride. This is most probably the simple the dowry given by the husband to his wife : “I will meaning of the above metaphorical expressions. The give righteousness," &c., as a dowry. valley of Achor was very fruitful ; it lay to the north Verse 20. In faithfulness) Thou shalt no more of Jericho, not far from Gilgal. See Isa. lxv. 10. prostitute thyself to idols, but be faithful to him who

Verse 15. She shall sing there] There she shall calls himself thy husband. sing the responsive song, as on high festival occasions, Thou shalt know the Lord. There shall be no and in marriage ceremonies. The Book of Canticles more infidelity on thy part nor divorce on mine ; and is of this sort.

thou shalt experience me to be the sole, present, and Verse 16. Thou shalt call me Ishi] That is, my eternal good of thy, immortal spirit : and when this man, or my husband; a title of love and affection, and conviction is fully rooted, then there can be no more not Baali, my master, a title exciting fear and appre- idolatry, for it shall be seen that an idol is nothing in hension ; whích, howsoever good in itself, was now the world. rendered improper to be applied to Jehovah, having Verse 21. I will hear, saith the Lord] The senbeen prostituted to false gods. This intimated that tence is repeated, to show how fully the thing was

B. C. cir. 785.

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God's provision for

HOSEA.

the wants of men. A. M. cir. 3219.

vens, and they shall - hear the w and I will have mercy upon her A M. cir. 3219. Ante U. C. 32. earth;

that had not, obtained mercy; Ante W. C. 32. Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban., 22 And the earth shall hear the and I will say to them which R. Alban., cir, annum. 12.

cir. annum 12 corn, and the wine, and the oil; were not my people, Thou art u and they shall hear Jezreel.

my people; and they shall say, Thou art my 23 And I will sow her unto me in the earth, God. Chap. i. 4.- Jer. xxxi. 27; Zech. x. 9.- Chap. i. 6. * Chap. i. 10; Zech. xiii. 9; Rom. ix. 26 ; 1 Pet. ü. 10. determined by the Almighty, and how implicitly they them with his winds, or strike them with his thunder, might depend on the Divine promise.

so as to cause them to fall down in drops to fertilize I will hear the heavens) . The visible heavens, the the earth with their showers. atmosphere, where vapours are collected. The clouds, Thus then when they wish to deposit their fertilizing showers 1. God works upon the heavens. upon the earth.

2. In them the clouds are collected. They shall hear the earth] When it seems to sup- 3. The clouds drop their moisture upon the earth. plicate for rain.

4. The earth exerts its vegetative influence upon Verse 22. Shall hear the corn, and the wine] When the germs which it contains. they seem to express a desire to supply the wants of 5. They expand, increase, and become matured, man.

under the genial influences of the heavens, sun, air, And they shall hear Jezreel.] The destitute people water, from the clouds, &c. who are in want of the necessaries of life.

6. Man receives and applies those bounties of ProThis most elegant gradation in the exertion of the vidence, and variously prepares them for the support influences of nature, for the supply of the wants of and comfort of life. man, may be considered thus :

Take all this in still fewer words : 1. There is a concord, harmony, and mutual influ- As Jezreel or the Israelites are here considered as ence, which God has established in the parts of created perishing for want of food, all inanimate nature is renature, in reference to the support and preservation of presented as invoking God in their behalf. the human race.

1. The heavens have prayed that they be stored 2. God alone is the author of all this; and unless with clouds, that they may drop down fatness upon the he give his command, communicate his energetic influ- earth. ence to the different parts of nature, these effects will 2. The Lord answers the heavens, and clouds are not, cannot be produced.

formed. 3. Jezreel, the people who have been dispersed for 3. The earth invokes the clouds, that they may drop their iniquities, and now about to be sown or planted down their fatness into its bosom. in their own land, will require the most fostering care. 4. The bottles of heaven are, consequently, unstopped See on ver. 23.

for this purpose. 4. They are heard in desiring oil, wine, and corn. 5. Then the corn, vine, and olive, implore the earth These are necessary to the support and comfort of life; to put forth its vegetative energy. and to those the desire of animal life naturally aspires. 6. The earth answers, and corn, wine, and oil are

5. These products are looked for from the Earth. produced. On it, and by it, grass grows for the cattle, and corn 7. Jezreel cries for the necessaries of life, and the for the service of man.

abundance of the above supplies all his wants. 6. The seeds or germs, whence proceed corn, wine, All these are dependent on each other, as the links and oil, live and grow in the earth ; but cannot come are which constitute a chain; and God has the governto perfection, unless the earth be impregnated with the ment of the whole, and he manages all for the benefit dews and rains from the clouds. They are therefore of man. How wondrous is this providence! How represented as imploring the heavens to collect their gracious is this God! clouds, to pour down their fructifying moisture upon it. Here is a series of prosopopeias together. Corn,

7. The clouds, or materials of which they are com- wine, oil, the earth, the clouds and their contents, the posed, not being able to arrange themselves, nor aggre-heavens, sun, moon, &c., are ałt represented as intelligate themselves so as to meet those demands, prevent gent beings, speaking to and influencing each other. drought, and maintain an effective vegetation, are re- God is at one end of the chain, and man at the other; presented as calling upon the heavens to form, arrange, and by means of the intermediate links the latter is and supply them with the requisite quantity of moisture. kept in a state of continued dependence upon the for

8. God, who is the author of all being and all bounty, mer for life, breath, and all things. dependent on nothing, comes forward and says, I will Verse 23. I will sow her] Alluding to the import hear the heavens, the clouds which are gathered in the of the name Jezreel, the seed of God. Then shall it atmosphere; he will arrange the particles, saturate appear that God has shown mercy to them that had not those that are light, till they become sufficiently im- obtained mercy. Then the covenant of God will be pregnated with the necessary fluid; and then direct renewed; for he will call them his people who were them in his providence where to deposit their contents. not his people ; and they shall call Jehovah their God, And,

who before had him not for the object of their worship. 9. When brought to the proper plaće, he will shake It does not appear that these promises have had their God's offer of mercy

CHAP. III.

to penitent offenders. fulfilment among the Jews. · They must either be un- The sentences in the latter part of this verse are derstood of the blessings experienced by the Gentiles very abrupt, but exceedingly expressive; leaving out on their conversion to God by the preaching of the those words supplied by the translators, and which un Gospel, or are yet to be fulfilled to the Jews on their nerve the passage, it stands thus : I will say to not embracing the Gospel, and being brought back to their MY PEOPLE, THOU MY PEOPLE; and they shall sav, My own land.

God.

CHAPTER III.

By the prophet's taking back his wife, for whom he (her friend or husband) still retained his affection,

though she had proved unfaithful; by his entering into a new contract with her; and by his giving her hopes of reconciliation, after she should for some time proye, as in a state of widowhood, the sincerity of her repentance ; is represented the gracious manner in which God will restore the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, 1-4. It is also very strongly intimated that the whole house of Israel will be added to the Church of Christ in the latter days, 5. 8. C. cir.33. THEN said the Lord unto of silver, and for a homer of 1. M. cir

. 325. me, * Go yet, love a woman barley, and a d half homer of Ante V. C. 32. Amulii Sylvii,

Amulii Sylvii, R. Alban., beloved of her friend, yet an barley : :

R. Alban., eir annum 12 adulteress, according to the love 3 And I said unto her, Thou - cir. annum 12. of the Lord toward the children of Israel, who shalt abide for me many days; thou shalt look to other gods, and love flagons of not play the harlot, and thou shalt not be for wine.

another man: so will I also be for thee. 2 So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces 4 For the children of Israel shall abide many

Ante U. C. 32.

· Chap. i. 2. — Jer. iii. 20.

_c Heb. of grapes.

a Heb. lethech. Deut. xxi. 13.

NOTES ON CHAP. III.

Verse 2. Fifteen pieces of silver] If they were Verse 1. Go yet, love a woman} This is a different shekels, the price of this woman was about two pounds command from that mentioned in the first chapter. five shillings. That denoted the infidelity of the kingdom of Israel, A homer of barley] As the homer was about eight and God's divorce of them. He gave them up to their bushels, or something more, the homes and half was enemies, and caused them to be carried into captivity. about twelve or thirteen bushels. The woman mentioned here represents one who was a Verse 3. Thou shalt abide for me many days) He lawful wife joining herself to a paramour ; then di- did not take her home, but made a contract with her vorced by her husband ; afterwards repenting, and de- that, if she would abstain from her evil ways, he would sirous to be joined to her spouse ; ceasing from her take her to himself after a sufficient trial. In the meanadulterous commerce, but not yet reconciled to him. time he gave her the money and the barley to subsist This was the state and disposition of the Jews under upon, that she might not be under the temptation of the Babylonish captivity. Though separated from becoming again unfaithful. their own idols, they continued separated from their So will I also be for thee.) That is, if thou, Israel, God. He is still represented as having affectionate wilt keep thyself separate from thy idolatry, and give feelings towards them; awaiting their full repentance me proof, by thy total abstinence from idols, that thou and contrition, in order to renew the marriage cove- wilt be my faithful worshipper, I will receive thee nant. These things are pointed out by the symbolical again, and in the meantime support thee with the neactions of the prophet.

cessaries of life while thou art in the land of thy capBeloved of her friend] Or, a lover of evil; or, tivity. This is farther illustrated in the following verses. loving another : for the Hebrew words yo nanx mean Verse 4. Many days without a king] Hitherto one who loves evil or a friend : because yo signifies a this prophecy, has been literally fulfilled. Since the friend, or evil, according as it is pointed. The former destruction of the temple by the Romans they have seems to be its best_sense here; yo rea is a friend ; neither had king nor prince, nor any civil government yn ra is evil.

of their own, but have lived in different nations of the According to the love of the Lord] This woman, earth as mere eriles. They have neither priests nor who had proved false to her husband, was still be sacrifices, nor urim nor thummim ; no prophet, no loved by him, though he could not acknowledge her; oracle, no communication of any kind from God. as the Israelites were beloved by the Lord, while they Without an image-ephod-leraphim] The Septuwere looking afler other gods. The flagons of wine agint read, Ovde ovons Puolas, ovde ovros Qvolaornplov, were probably such as were used for libations, or drunk oude lepareias, ovde ondwv: “ Without a sacrifice, within idol feasts. Others think that the words should be out an altar, without a priesthood, and without oracles;” translated cakes of dried grapes, sweet cakes, conse- that is, the urim and thummim. The Vulgale, Arabic, crated wafers,

and Syriac read nearly the same. Instead of ayna

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