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A Divine messenger


is sent to Daniel. written about A. D. 1136, which has 13*pi

and its be genuine, but is less liable to suspicion, as the summer.”

MS. appears to be the work of some Christian ; it D'V “ sixty." But one of Kennicott's MSS. has is written from the left to the right hand, and is

b'ydu O'N “sixty weeks ;" and another adds the accompanied by the Vulgate Lalin, if this be an conjunction, AND sixty.

attempt to accommodate the Hebrew to the Vulnin “shall destroy.” But one of De Rossi's has gate, it should be stated that they who have exanow" "shall be destroyed.”

mined this MS. closely, have asserted that there is Dy " the people.” Dy im," with,” is the reading of one no evidence that the writer has endeavoured to con

of Kennicott's, with the Septuagint, Theodotion, Sy- form the Hebrew to the Latin text, unless this be riac Hexapla, Vulgate, and Arabic.

accounted such. The ancient versions give this " with a flood." One MS. has goun “ the reading great credit. flood.”

D gipe “ abominations."

One of mine has less fully qua Syy " and upon the wing." Nearly twenty MSS. have 799" and unto," &c.

." . " .” “

"and unto,” is wanting in one of mine; 4299" and end ;” and one has 581" and upon."

upon” is the reading in one other. YP. “ the end.” One has ny " the time ;” and another Dale by“ until the desolation.” do “ the desolation.” , “ the time of the end."

. Disipe na Syn" and upon the wing (or battlement) wanting ; but is added in the margin, by a later

abomination.” Instead of this, one of the Parisian hand, in another of these ancient MSS. MSS. numbered three hundred and thirteen in Ken- I have thus set down almost all the variations mennicott's, has ripv i'm banat " and in the temple tioned by Kennicott and De Rossi, and those furnished there shall be abomination." See the preceding notes. by three ancient MSS. of my own, that the learned This is a similar reading to Theodotion, the Vulgate, reader may avail himself of every help to examine Septuagint, Syriae Hexapla, and the Arabic ; and thoroughly this important prophecy. Upwards of thirty is countenanced by our Lord, Matt. xxiv. 15. After various readings in the compass of four verses, and all that has been said on this reading, (which may several of them of great moment.

.שקצים ,משומם desolation." One of mine has more fully *משמם

וער | to the * עד- ".and unto the end * יעד קץ .27 Verse

עת קץ ,both

is על .without the \ tau שמס One of mine has


This and the two following chapters give an account of Daniel's last vision, wherein the succession of the

Persian and Grecian monarchies is described, together with the wars that should take place between Syria and Egypt under the latter monarchy. The last part of the vision (from chap. xi. 36) seems to relate chiefly to the persecutions of the Church in the times of Antichrist, till it be purified from all its pollutions ; after which will follow that glorious kingdom of the saints spoken of in the seventh and eighth chapters. This chapter begins with an account of Daniel's fasting and humiliation, 1-3. Then we have a description of the Divine person who appeared to the prophet, not unlike him who appeared to the apostle in the isle of Patmos, 4-21. See Rev. i. 10-16.

A. M. 3470. IN the third year of Cyrus king | 3 I ate no s pleasant bread,

B. C. 534. OI. LXI. 3. of Persia a thing was revealed neither came flesh nor wine in Anno Tarquinii

Anno Tarquinii Superbi, unto Daniel, 4 whose name was my mouth, h neither did I anoint Superbi, R. Roman., 1.

called Belteshazzar; band the myself at all, till three whole R. Roman.. 1. thing was true, but the time appointed was weeks were fulfilled. a long; and he understood the thing, and had 4 And in the four and twentieth day of the understanding of the vision.

first month, as I was by the side of the great 2 In those days I Daniel was mourning river, which is i Hiddekel; three f full weeks.

5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, ,

A. M. 3470.
B. C. 534.

OI. LXI. 3.

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termination of the last vision. Calmet proves this by Verse 1. In the third year of Cyrus] Which an- several reasons. swers to the first year of Darius the Mede.

Verse 3. I ate no pleasant 'bread] This fast was, The time appointed was long] 5179 sayi vetsaba rather a general abstinence; living all the while on gadol, but the warfare long ; there will be many con- coarse and unsavoury food; drinking nothing but tentions and wars before these things can be accom- water; not using the bath, and most probably wearplished.

ing haircloth next the skin, during the whole of Verse 2. Iwas mourning three full weeks.] The the time. weeks are most probably dated from the time of the Verse 4. By the side of-Hiddekel] The same as A Divine messenger


is sent to Daniel.

A M. 3470. B. C. 534. OI. LXI. 3.

A. M. 3470. and behold a certain man 11 And he said unto me, o
B. C. 534.
OI. LXI. 3. clothed in linen, whose loins were Daniel, bao man greatly beloved,
Anno Tarquinii

Anno Tarquinii Superbi,

girded with • fine gold of understand the words that I speak Superbi, ,

unto thee, and stand upright: for R. Roman., 1, 6 His body also was Plike the beryl, and unto thee am I now sent. And when he had his face 9 as the appearance of lightning, "and spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling. his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and 12 Then said he unto me, e Fear not, Daniel: his feet like in colour to polished brass, ' and the for from the first day that thou didst set thine voice of his words like the voice of a multitude. heart -to understand, and to chasten thyself

7 And I Daniel " alone saw the vision : for before thy God, thy words were heard, and the men that were with me saw not the vision; I am come for thy words. but a great quaking fell upon them, so that 13 & But the prince of the kingdom of Persia they fled to hide themselves.

withstocd me one and twenty days : but, lo, 8 Therefore I was left alone, and saw this 5 Michael, one of the chief princes, came to great vision, and there remained no strength help me; and I remained there with the kings in me : for my w comeliness * was turned in me of Persia. into corruption, and I retained no strength. 14 Now I am come to make thee understand

9 Yet heard I the voice of his words : Yând what shall befall thy people in the latter when I heard the voice of his words, then days : 1 for yet the vision is for many days. was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my 15

15 And when he had spoken such words face toward the ground.

unto me," I set my face toward the ground, 10 - And, behold, a hand touched me, which and I became dumb. * set me upon my knees and upon the palms 16 And, behold, n one like the similitude of of my hands.

the sons of men ° touched my lips : then I

Chap. xii. 6, 7. -m Heb. one man. -n Rev. i. 13, 14, 15; b Chap. ix. 23. Heb. a man of desires.- . Heb. stand up XV. 6.

Jer. x. 9. Ezek. i. 16. - Ezek. i. 14. Rev. on thy standing. Le Rev. i. 17. Chap. ix. 3, 4, 22, 23; Acts i. 14; xix. 12.- Ezek. i. 7; Rev. i. 15.- Ezek. i. 24; Rev. X. 4. — Ver. 20. wh Ver. 21; chap. xii. 1; Jude 9; Rev. xii. i. 15. -u 2 Kings vi. 17; Aets ix. 7. — Chap. viii. 27.- 0:, 7.- i Or, the first: Gen. xlix. 1 ; chap. ii. 28. Chap, viu. vigour. * Chap. vii. 28.5 Chap., viii. 18. --2 Jer. i.9; ch. 26; ver. 1 ; Hab. ii. 3.- Ver. 9; chap. viii. 18. -Chapix. 21; Rev. i. 17. a Heb. moved.

viii. 15. - Ver. 10; Jer. i. 9.

the Tigris, the great river of Assyria ; as the Eu- Verse 13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia phrates of Syria, and the Nile of Egypt.

withstood me) I think it would go far to make a leVerse 5. Clothed in linen] The description is in- gend or a precarious tale of this important place to tended to point out the splendour of the garments. endeavour to maintain that either a good or evil ANGEL Gold of Uphaz] The same as Ophir.

is intended here. Cyrus alone was the prince of PerVerse 6. His body also was like the beryl] The sia, and God had destined him to be the deliverer of description of this person is very similar to that of our his people; but there were some matters, of which we Lord in Rev. i. 13-15.

are not informed, that caused him to hesitate for some Verse 7. The men that were with me saw not the time. Fearing, probably, the greatness of the work, vision] An exactly parallel case with what occurred and not being fully satisfied of his ability to execute it, at the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, Acts ix. 7. There he therefore for a time resisted the secret inspirations was a Divine influence which they all felt, but only which God had sent him. The opposition might be Daniel saw the corporeal appearance.

in reference to the building of the temple. Verse 9. Was I in a deep sleep] I fell into a swoon. But lo, Michael] Gabriel, who speaks, did not

Verse 10. A hand louched me] Nothing was appa- leave Cyrus till Michael came to take his place. Mirent or palpable but a hand. A hand had written Bel-chael, he who is like God, sometimes appears to sig. shazzar's fate upon the wall; and the hand is frequently nify the Messiah, at other times the highest or chief mentioned when the power or majesty of God is in- archangel. Indeed there is no archangel mentioned tended. Perhaps by hand God himself may be meant in the whole Scripture but this one. See Jude 9; It is remarkable that in a very ancient MS, of the Rev. xii. 7., Septuagint, more than a thousand years old, now in Verse 14. For yet the vision is for many days.] the imperial library of Vienna, adorned with paintings There are many things which remain yet to be revealed, which have been engraved for the catalogue of Lam- and the time of their accomplishment is very distant. bechius, and transferred to that of Nesselius, all the Verse 15. I set my face toward the ground] He was appearances of God are represented by a hand in the standing upright, ver. 11, and he now bent his body in clouds.

reverence, and looked down upon the ground. Verse 12. I am come for thy words) On account And became dumb.) Found himself unable to speak. of thy prayers I am sent to comfort and instruct thee. Verse 16, Like the similitude of the sons of men]


Another Divine personage


is sent to comfort Daniel. A. M. 3470.

A. M. 3470. opened my mouth, and spake, and not : peace be unto thee, be B. C. 534.

B. C. 534. Olymp. LXI. 3. said unto him that stood before strong, yea,

be strong.

And Olymp. LXI. 3. Anno Tarquinii

Anno Tarquini Superbi, me, O my lord, by the vision when he had spoken unto me, I

Superbi, R. Roman., 1.

my sorrows are turned upon me, was strengthened, and said, Let R. Roman., 1. and I have retained no strength.

my lord speak, for thou hast strengthened me. 17 For how can 9 the servant of this


lord 20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore talk with this

my lord ? for as for me, straight- I come unto thee? and now will I return to way there remained no strength in me, neither fight with the king of Persia : and when I am is there breath left in me.

gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. 18 Then there came again and touched me 21 But I will show thee that which is noted one like the appearance of a man, and he in the scripture of truth: and there is none strengthened me,

that holdeth with me in these things, but 19 *And said, O man greatly beloved, * fear Michael your prince. - Or, this servant of my lord. Ver. 11.- Judg. Ver. 13. Heb. strengtheneth himself. - Ver. 13; Jude 9;

Rev. xii. 7.

p Ver. 8.

vi. 23.

I think Gabriel is here meant, who appeared to Da- the mind of Cyrus can account for his decree in faniel in a human form ; and so in ver. 18, and see also vour of the Jews. He had no natural, no political chap. ix. 21.

inclination to it; and his reluctance to obey the heaTouched my lips] Before this he was unable to venly motions is here represented as a fight between speak.

him and the angel. By the vision] The vision that I have already had, The prince of Grecia shall come.] , I believe this and of which I have not a proper knowledge, has refers to Alexander the Great, who was to destroy the greatly afflicted me, because I see it intimates grievous Persian empire. See the second and third verses of calamities to my people. See chap. ix. 26.

the following chapter. Verse 17. Neither is there breath] He could not Verse 21. Noted in the scripture of truth] Perhaps breathe freely; he was almost suffocated with sorrow. this refers to what he had already written down. See

Verse 19. O man, greatly beloved] niton vs ish the preceding visions, which Daniel did not fully unchamudoth, man of delights; the most amiable of men. derstand, though a general impression from them had

Let my lord speak] I am now so strengthened and filled his heart with sorrow. encouraged, that I shall be able to bear

any revelation

Michael your prince.) The archangel mentioned that thou mayest make.

before, ver. 13, and who has been always supposed to Verse 20. Knowest thou wherefore I come] So be appointed by God as the guardian of the Jewish high art thou in the favour of God, that he hath sent nation. It appears that God chose to make use of the me unto thee to give thee farther satisfaction; though ministry of angels in this work; that angels, as they I was elsewhere employed- upon a most important could be only in one place at one time, could not pro · mission, and I must speedily return to accomplish it, duce influence where they were not ; and thạt, to carry vie.

on the operation on the mind of the Persian king, it To fight with the king of Persia] To remove all was necessary that either Gabriel or Michael should the scruples of Cyrus, and to excite him to do all that be present with him, and when one went on another God designs him to do for the restoration of my peo- commission another took his place; see ver. 13. But ple, àad the rebuilding of the city and temple of Jeru. we know so little of the invisible world that we cannot sale.a. Nothing less than a supernatural agency in | safely affirm any thing positively.

CHAPTER XI. This chapter gives a more particular explanation of those events which were predicted in the eighth chaptert

The prophet had foretold the partition of Alexander's kingdom into four parts. Two of these, in which were included Egypt and Syria, the one to the north, the other to the south, in respect of Judea, appear to take up the chief attention of the prophet, as his people were particularly concerned in their fate ; these being the countries in which by far the greatest number of the Jews were, and still are, dispersed. Of these countries he treats (according to the views of the most enlightened expositors) down to the conquest of Macedon, A. M. 3836, B. C. 168, when he begins to speak of the Romans, 1-30; and then of the Church under that power, 31-35. This leads him to speak of Antichrist, who was to spring up in that quarter, 36-39 ; and of those powers which at the time of the end, or the latter days of the Roman monarchy, (as this term is generally understood,) were to push at it, and overthrow many countries, 40-43. By the king of the south in the fortieth verse, the dominion of the Saracens, or Arabs, is supposed to be intended, which was an exceeding great plague to the Roman empire in the east, and also to several papistical countries, for the space of one hundred and fifty years, i. e. from A. D. 612, when Mohammed and his The angel shows the succession DANIEL.

of kings in Persia, Greece followers first began their depredations, to A. D. 762, when Bagdad was built, and made the capital of the caliphs of the house of Abbas; from which epoch the Saracens became a more settled people. By the king of the North in the same verse the prophet is supposed by some to design that great scourge of eastern Christendom, the Olloman or Othman empire, by which, after about a hundred and fifty years of almost uninterrupted hostilities, the Roman empire in the east was completely overturned, A. D. 1453. The chapter concludes with a prediction of the final overthrow of this northern power, and of the manner in which this great event shall be accomplished, 44, 45. But it should be observed that, notwithstanding the very learned observations of Bishop Newton and others upon this chapter, their scheme of interpretation presents very great and insurmountable difficulties ; among which the very lengthy detail of events in the Syrian and Egyptian histories, comprising a period of less than two hundred years, and the rather uncouth transition to the incomparably greater transactions in Antichristian times, and of much longer duration, which are passed over with unaccountable brevity, are not the least. On all these subjects, however, the reader must judge for himself. See the notes.

of B. C.597. ALSO I, • in the first

A. M. 3470. year 3 And ca mighty king shall

B. C. 534 Olymp. LXI. 3. b Darius the Mede, even I, stand up, that shall rule with great Olymp. LXI. 3. Anno Tarquinii

Anno Tarquinn Superbi,

stood to confirm and to strengthen dominion, and a do according to Superbi, R. Roman., 1. him. his will

R. Roman., 1. 2 And now will I show thee the truth. Be- 4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom hold, there shall stand up yet three kings in shall be broken, and shall be divided toward Persia ; and the fourth shall be far richer the four winds of heaven, and not to his posthan they all : and by his strength through terity, nor according to his dominion which his riches he shall stir up all against the realm he ruled : for his kingdom shall be plucked of Grecia.

up, even for others beside those. a Chap. ix. 1.- Chap. v. 31.-e Chap. vii. 6; viii. 5. d Chap. viii. . 4; ver. 16, 36.

Chap. viii. 8. - Chap. viu. 22. NOTES ON CHAP. XI.

dom, that although rivers were dried up by his Verse 1. In the first year of Darius the Mede) numerous armies, yet his wealth remained This is a continuation of the preceding discourse. exhausted." Bp. Newton, who is ever judicious and instructing, He shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.] remarks: It is the usual method of the Holy Spirit to His military strength was such, that Herodotus, who make the latter prophecies explanatory of the former; lived in that time, informs us that his army amounted and thus revelation " is a shining light, that shineth to five millions, two hundred and eighty-three thoumore and more unto the perfect day.” The four great sand, two hundred and twenty men. Besides these, empires shown to Nebuchadnezzar, under the symbol the Carthaginians furnished him with an army of three of a great image, were again more particularly repre- hundred thousand men, and a fleet of two hundred sented to Daniel under the forms of four great wild ships. He led an army against the Greeks of eight beasts. In like manner, the memorable events that hundred thousand men, and twelve hundred and seven were revealed to Daniel in the vision of the ram and ships, with three banks of rowers each. As he marched he-goat, are here more clearly revealed in this last along, he obliged all the people of the countries through vision by an angel ; so that this latter prophecy may which he passed to join him. not improperly be said to be a comment on the former. Verse 3. A mighty king shall stand up] This was It comprehends many signal events. The types, Alexander the Great. It is not said that this mighty figures, and symbols of the things are not exhibited in king shall stand up against Xerxes, for he was not this, as in most other visions, and then expounded by born till one hundred years after that monarch ; but the angel ; but the angel relates the whole : and, not simply that he should stand up, i. e., that he should by way of vision, but by narration, informs Daniel of that reign in Greece. which is noted in the Scripture of truth, chap. x. 21. Verse 4. His kingdom shall be broken] Shall, after

Verse 2. There shall stand up yet three kings] his death, be divided among his four chief generals, Gabriel had already spoken of Cyrus, who was now as we have seen before. See chap. viii. 22. reigning; and after him three others should arise. And not to his posterity] The family of Alexander These were, 1. Cambyses, the son of Cyrus. 2. Smer- had a most tragical end : 1. His wife Statira was dis, the Magian, who was an impostor, who pretended murdered soon after his death by his other wife Rorto be another son of Cyrus. And, 3. Darius, the son 2. His brother Aridæus, who succeeded him, of Hystaspes, who married Mandane, the daughter of was killed, together with his wife Euridice, by comCyrus.

mand of Olympias, Alexander's mother, after he had Cambyses reigned seven years and five months ; been king about six years and some months. 3. OlymSmerdis reigned only seven months; and Darius Hys- pias herself was killed by the soldiers in revenge. 4. taspes reigned thirty-six years.

Alexander Ægus, his son, together with his mother The fourth shall be far richer than they all] This Rorana, was slain by order of Cassander. 5. Two was Xerxes, the son of Darius, of whom Justin says : years after, his other son Hercules, with his mother He had so great an abundance of riches in his king- Barsine, was privately murdered by Polysperchon ; 80 610

€ 39* )


A. M. 3470.
B. C. 534.

A. M. 3470.
B. C. 534.

And in Egypt

and Syria. 5 And the king of the south stand up k in his estate, which Olymp. LXI. 3. shall be strong, and one of his shall come with an army, and Olymp. LXI. 3. Anno Tarquinii

Anno Tarquinii Superbi, princes; and he shall be strong shall enter into the fortress of

Superbi, R. Roman., 1. above him, and have dominion; the king of the north, and shall R. Roman, 1. his dominion shall be a great dominion. deal against them, and shall prevail :

6 And in the end of years they & shall join 8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt themselves together : for the king's daughter their gods, with their princes, and with their of the south shall come to the king of the precious vessels of silver and of gold; and north to make han agreement : but she shall he shall continue more years than the king of not retain the power of the arm ; neither shall the north. he stand, nor his arm : but she shall be given 9 So the king of the south shall come into ap, and they that brought her, and i he that his kingdom, and shall return into his own begat her, and he that strengthened her in land. these times.

10 But his sons mshall be stirred up, and 7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one shall assemble a multitude of great forces :

& Heb. shall associate themselves. Heb. rights. Or, whom * Or, in his place, or office ; ver. 20.-—. - Heb. vessels of their deshe brought forth

sire. Or, shall war.

that in fifteen years after his death not one of his fa- whom she brought forth;" the son being murdered, mily or posterity remained alive!

as well as the mother, by order of Laodice. “ Blood calls for blood.” He (Alexander) was the And he that strengthened her] Probably her father great butcher of men. He was either poisoned, or Ptolemy, who was excessively fond of her, and who killed himself by immoderate drinking, when he was had died a few years before. only thirty-two years and eight months old : and a Verse 7. But out of a branch of her roots] A retributive Providence destroyed all his posterity, so branch from the same root from which she sprang. that neither root nor branch of them was left on the This was Ptolemy Euergetes, her brother, who, to face of the earth. Thus ended Alexander, the great avenge his sister's death, marched with a great army butcher; and thus ended his family and posterity. against Seleucus Callinicus, took some of his best

Verse 5. The king of the south) This was Ptolemy places, indeed all Asia, from Mount Taurus to India, Lagus, one of his generals, who had the government and returned to Egypt with an immense booty, forty of Egypt, Libya, &c., which are on the south of Judea thousand talents of silver, precious vessels, and He was strong, for he had added Cyprus, Phænicia, images of their gods two thousand five hundred, with Caria, &c., to his kingdom of Egypt.

out Callinicus daring to offer him battle. I can but And one of his princes-shall be strong above him] touch on these historic facts, for fear of extending This was Seleucus Nicator, who possessed Syria, Ba- these notes to an immoderate length. bylon, Media, and the neighbouring countries. This Verse 8. He shall continue more years] Seleucus was the king of the north, for his dominions lay north Callinicus died (an exile) by a fall from his horse; of Judea.

and Ptolemy Euergetes survived him four or five years. Verse 6. In the end of years] Several historical —Bp. Newton. circumstances are here passed by.

Verse 9. So the king of the south] Ptolemy EuerThe king's daughter of the south] Berenice, daughter getesof Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, was married Shall come into his kingdom] That of Seleucus to Antiochus Theos, king of Syria. These two sove- Callinicus. reigns had a bloody war for some years; and they And shall return) Having heard that a sedition agreed to terminate it by the above marriage, on had taken place in Egypt, Ptolemy Euergetes was condition that Antiochus would put away his wife obliged to return speedily in order to repress it ; else Laodice and her children, which he did : and Berenice he had wholly destroyed the kingdom of Callinicus. having brought an immense fortune to her husband, all Verse 10. But his sons shall be stirred up) That things appeared to go on well for a time.

is, the sons of Callinicus, who were Seleucus Ceraunus But she shall not retain the power of the arm] yn and Antiochus, afterwards called the Great. zaro, her posterity, shall not reign in that kingdom. Shall assemble a multitude] Seleucus Ceraunus did

But she shall be given up] Antiochus recalled his assemble a multitude of forces in order to recover former wife Laodice and her children ; and she, his father's dominions ; but, not having money to pay fearing that he might recall Berenice, caused him to them, they became mutinous, and he was poisoned be poisoned and her to be murdered, and set her son by two of his own generals. His brother Antiochus Callinicus upon the throne.

was then proclaimed king; so that one only of the And they that brought her] Her Egyptian women, sons did certainly come, and overflow, and pass striving to defend their mistress, were many of them through; he retook Seleucia, and regained Syria. killed.

He then returned, and overcame Nicolaus the EgypAnd he that begat her] Or, as the margin, “hetian general ; and seemed disposed to invade Egypt,

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