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End of the vision according

CHAP. VIII.

to the expounding angel. d. M. cir. 3449.

26 w But the judgment shall | an everlasting kingdom, ? and all AB. M. cir. 3449. B. C. eir. 555. 01. cir. LVI. 2. sit, and they shall take away his a dominions shall serve and obey Ol. cir. LVI.2. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., dominion, to consume and to him.

R. Roman., cir, amnum 24. destroy it unto the end.

28 Hitherto is the end of the cir. annum 24. 27 And the kingdom and dominion, and matter. As for me Daniel, bmy cogitations the greatness of the kingdom under the whole much troubled me, and my countenance heaven, shall be given to the people of the changed in me: but I ¢ kept the matter in saints of the Most High, Y.whose kingdom is my heart.

w Ver. 10, 22.-_ Ver. 14, 18, 22; chap. ii. 42; Obad. 21 ; Luke i. 33; John xii. 34 ; Rev. xi. 15. -2 Isa. lx. 12. – Or, Matt. xxv. 34; Mark xi. 10; Luke xii. 32. — Chap. ii. 44; rulers. b Ver. 15; chap. viii. 27 ; x. 8, 16. - Luke ii. 19, 51

Until a time and times and the dividing of time.) true Christian Church, and will never be destroyed. In prophetic language a time signifies a year ; and a Let it throw aside all that is ritually Jewish; all that prophetic year has a year for each day. Three years is heathen; all that which pretends to be of God, and and a half (a day standing for a year, as in chap. ix. which is only of man; all doctrines that are not in the 24) will amount to one thousand two hundred and sixty Bible; and all rites and ceremonies which are not of years, if we reckon thirty days to each month, as the the appointment of Christ and his apostles; and then, Jews do.

all hail the once Roman, but now, after such a change, . If we knew precisely when the papal power began the holy, Catholic Church! Every true Protestant to exert itself in the antichristian way, then we could would wish rather the reform than the extinction of at once fix the time of its destruction. The end is this Church. probably not very distant; it has already been griev- Verse 27. The kingdom and dominion] The people pusly shaken by the French. In 1798 the French of the saints of the Most High, or the people who republican army under General Berthier took posses- are the supereminent saints, shall have the kingdom. sion of the city of Rome, and entirely superseded the Whatever name they may be distinguished-by among whole papal power. This was a deadly wound, though men, these are the people, and theirs is the Church, at present it appears to be healed; but it is but skinned that no lapse of time shall injúre, and no power be over, and a dreadful cicatrice remains. The Jesuits, able to destroy; but shall last as long as time shall not Jesus, are now the Church's doctors.

endure. If the papal power, as a horn or temporal power, be Verse 28. The end of the matter.) So said the ex, intended here, which is most likely, and we know pounding angel; and he said so because the purpose that that power was given in 755 to Pope Stephen. of God had determined it. In considering these things, II. by Pepin, king of France,) counting one thousand and looking at the evils that shall come upon the world two hundred and sixty years from that, we are brought before those auspicious times can take place, I may to A. 2015, about one hundred and ninety years say, with Daniel, My cogitations much troubled me, from the present (A. D. 1825.) But I neither lay stress and my countenance changed in me: but I keep the upon nor draw conclusions from these dates. If the malter of my conjectures and consequent feelings in Church of Rome will reform itself, it will then be the my own heart.

CHAPTER VIII.

This chapter contains Daniel's vision of the ram and he-goat, 1-14; referring, as explained by the angel,

to the Persian and Grecian monarchies, 15-26. The little horn mentioned in the ninth verse, (or fierce king, as interpreted in the twenty-third,) is supposed by some to denote Antiochus Epiphanes; but seems more properly to apply to the Roman power in general, by which the polity and temple of the Jews were destroyed, on account of the great transgressions of these ancient people of God; and particularly because of their very obstinate and unaccountable rejection of the glorious doctrines of Christianity, which had been preached among them by Jesus Christ and his apostles, and the truth of which God had attested " by signs and wonders, and by divers miracles and gifts of the Holy Ghost.", Daniel is then informed of the two thousand and three hundred prophetic days (that is, years) which must elapse before the sanctuary be cleansed ; or, in other words, before righteousness shall prevail over the whole earth. This period is supposed, with considerable probability, to have had its commencement when Alexander the Great invaded Asia, in the year before Christ 334. This will bring the close of it to about the end of the sixth chiliad of the world ; when, as already observed, some astonishing changes are expected to take place in the moral condition of the human race; when the power of Antichrist, bóth Papal and Mohammedan, shall be totally annihilated, and universal dominion given to the saints of the Most High:- The chapter concludes with the distress of Daniel on account of the fearful judgments with which his country should be visited in after Daniel's vision of the

ages, 27.

DANIEL.

ram and he-goat B. C. cir. 345. IN the third year of the reign / were high; but one was higher 4: M. cir. 3451. Ol. cir. LVI. 4. of king Belshazzar a vision than the other, and the higher Ol. cir. LVI.4. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., appeared unto me, even unto me came up last.

R. Roman., cir. annum 26. Daniel, after that which appeared

cir. annum 26.

4 I saw the ram pushing westunto me a at the first.

ward, and northward, and southward ; so that no 2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to beasts might stand before him, neither was there pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in any that could deliver out of his hand; d but he the palace, which is in the province of Elam; did according to his will, and became great. and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river 5 And as I was considering, behold, a le of Ulai.

goat came from the west on the face of the 3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and whole earth, and · touched not the ground: behold, there stood before the river a ram and the goat had fa & notable horn between which had two horns : and the two horns his eyes. * Chap. vii. I. -b Esth. i. 2. - Heb. the second. - Chap. Or, none touched him in the earth. f Heb. a horn of sight. v. 19; xi. 3, 16.

& Ver. 21. NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.

This ram had two horns ; that is, two kingdoms, viz., Verse 1. In the third year of the reign of —Bel- Media and Persia; but one was higher than the other ; shazzar] We now come once more to the Hebrew, and the higher came up last. Media, signified by the the Chaldee part of the book being finished. As the shorter horn, was the more ancient of the two king. Chaldeans had a particular interest both in the history doms. Persia, the higher horn, had come up but lately, and prophecies from chap. ii. 4 to the end of chap. vii., and was of little historic or political consequence till the whole is written in Chaldee; but as the prophecies the time of Cyrus; but in the reigns of this prince which remain concern times posterior to the Chaldean and his immediate successors, Persia attained a polimonarchy, and principally relate to the Church and tical consequence greatly superior to that possessed at people of God generally, they are written in the He- any time by the kingdom of Media ; therefore, it is said brew language, this being the tongue in which God to have been the higher, and to have come up last. chose to reveal all his counsels given under the Old Verse 4. I saw the ram pushing westward] The Testament relative to the New.

Persians, who are signified by the ram, as well as Verse 2. I saw in a vision] Daniel was at this their founder Cyrus, pushed their conquests wes!, time in Shushan, which appears to have been a strong north, and south. The principal theatre of their wars, place, where the kings of Persia had their summer says Calmel, was against the SCYTHIANS, northward; residence. It was the capital of the province of Elam against the Greeks, westward ; and against the Egypor the Elymais ; which province was most probably Tians, southward. added to the Chaldean territories by Nebuchadnezzar ; He did according to his will] There was no other see Jer. xlix. 34, 35. Here was Daniel's ordinary nation at that time that could stay the progress of the residence; and though here at this time, he, in vision, Persian arms. saw himself on the banks of the river Ulai. This is Verse 5. Behold, a he-goat] This was Alerander the same as the river Euleus, which divided Shushan the Great; and a goat was a very proper symbol of or Susiana from Elymais.

the Grecian or Macedonian people. Bp. Newton very Verse 3. A ram which had two horns) In the for- properly observes that, two hundred years before the mer vision there were four beasts, pointing out four time of Daniel, they were called Ægeada, the goals' empires; in this we have but two, as only two empires people; the origin of which name is said to be as are concerned here, viz., the Grecian and the Persian. follows : Caranus, their first king, going with a mulThe Babylonish empire is not mentioned ; its fate was titude of Greeks to seek a new habitation in Macebefore decided, and it was now at its close.

donia, was, advised by an oracle to take the goats for By the ram, the empire of the Medes and Persians his guides; and afterwards, seeing a herd of goats flywas pointed out, as explained by the angel Gabriel, ing from a violent storm, he followed them to Edessa, ver. 20; and particularly Cyrus, who was the founder and there fixed the seat of his empire, and made the of that empire. Cyrus was the son of Cambyses, king goats his ensigns or standards ; and called the place of Persia ; and grandson of Astyages, king of Media, Æge or Ægea, the goats' town; and the people by his daughter Mandane, who had been given in mar- Ægeada, the goals' people ; names which are derived riage to Cambyses. Cyrus, marrying Roxana, the from ait, ayos, a goat. The city Æge or Ægea, was daughter and only child of his uncle Cyaxares, called the usual burying-place of the Macedonian kings; and, in Scripture Ahasuerus, succeeded to both crowns, and reference to this origin, Alexander called his son thus united Media and Persia. A ram was the symbol by Roxana, Alexander Ægus, Alexander the goat. of the Persians; and a ram's head with two horns, one All this shows the very great propriety of the symbol higher than the other, appears as such in different parts here used. of the ruins of Persepolis. See the plates of these Came from the west) Europe lies westward of Asia. ruins in the supplement to the seventh volume of the On the face of the whole earth] Carrying every ancient part of the Universal History,

thing before him.

his power.

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Vision of the ram
CHAP. VIII.

and he-goat. A. M. cir. 3451. 6 And he came to the ram 8 Therefore the he-goat waxed A. M. cir. 3451. B. C. cir. 553.

B. C. cir. 553. 01. cir. LVI. 4. that had two horns, which I had very great: and when he was Ol. cir. LVI. 4. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., seen standing before the river, strong, the great horn was bro- R. Roman., cir, annum 26. and ran unto him in the fury of ken; and for it came up hfour cir. annum 26.

notable ones toward the four winds of 7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, heaven, and he was moved with choler against him, 9 i And out of one of them came forth à and smote the ram, and brake his two horns : little horn, which waxed exceeding great, and there was no power in the ram to stand be- k toward the south, and toward the east, and fore him, but he cast him down to the ground, toward the pleasant land. and stamped upon him: and there was none 10 m And it waxed great, even " to " the host that could deliver the ram out of his hand. of heaven; and Pit cast down some of the

h Chap. vij. 6; xi. 4 ; ver. 22. Chap, vii, 8; xi. 21.- Lk Ch. | xi. 16, 41, 45. Chap. xi. 28.n Or, against the host. xi. 25; i Mac. i. 16-19.—Psa. xlviii. 2; Ezek. xx. 6, 15; chap. o So Isa. xiv. 13.- p Rev. xii. 4.

Touched not the ground) Seemed to fly from con- He cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon quest to conquest. By the time Alexander was thirty him] Totally destroyed the family, and overturned the years of age he had conquered all Asia : and, because whole monarchy. of the rapidity of his conquests, he is represented as a Verse 8. The he-goat waxed very strong] He had leopard with four wings, in the preceding vision. subdued nearly the whole of the then known world.

A notable horn between his eyes.] This, says the The great horn was broken Alexander died in the angel, is the first king, ver. 21, that is, the first king. height of his conquests, when he was but about thirtydom of the Greeks in Asia, which was erected by three years of age. His natural brother, Philip AriAlexander; and continued some years in his brother dæus, and his two sons, Alexander Ægus and HerPhilip Aridæus, and in his two young sons, Alexander cules, kept up the show and name of the Macedonian Ægus and Hercules. See Newton.

kingdom for a time; but they were all murdered Verse 6. And he came to the ram.] This and the within fifteen years; and thus the great horn, the Mafollowing verse give an account of the overthrow of cedonian kingdom, was broken, Alexander's family the Persian empire by Alexander.

being now cut off, And ran unto him in the fury of his power] The And for it came up four notable ones] The regal conflicts between the Greeks and the Persians were family being all dead, the governors of provinces excessively severe. Alexander first vanquished the usurped the title of kings; and Antigonus, one of them, generals of Darius, at the river Granicus, in Phrygia ; being slain at the battle of Ipsus, they were reduced he next attacked and totally routed Darius, at the to four, as we have already seen. 1. SELEUCUS, who straits of Issus, in Cilicia ; and afterwards at the had Syria and Babylon, from whom came the Seleuplains of Arbela, in Assyria. One can hardly read cidæ, famous in history. 2. LYSIMACHUS, who had these words, says Bp. Newton, “the ram—which I Asia Minor. 3. PTOLEMY, son of Lagus, who had had seen standing by the river, ran unto him in the Egypt, from whom sprang the Lagida. And, 4. Casfury of his power,” without having the image of Da- SANDER, who had-Greece and the neighbouring counrius' army standing and guarding the river Granicus ; tries. These held dominion towards the four winds and of Alexander on the other side, with his forces of heaven. Cassander had the western parts, Lysiplunging in, swimming across the stream, and rushing machus had the northern regions, Ptolemy possessed on the enemy, with all the fire and fury that can be the southern countries, and Seleucus had the eastern conceived.

provinces. Verse 7. And brake his two horns] Subdued Per- Verse 9. Out of one of them came forth a little sia and Media ; sacked and burnt the royal city of horn] Some think that Antiochus Epiphanes is meant ; Persepolis, the capital of the Persian empire, and, but Bp. Newton contends that it is the Roman governeven in its ruins, one of the wonders of the world to ment that is intended ; and although very great at its the present day. This he did because “ he was moved zenith, yet very little in its rising." with choler" against Darius, who had endeavoured to Waxed-great toward the south] The Romans draw off his captains with bribes, and had laboured to made Egypt a province of their empire, and it coninduce some of his friends to assassinate him.- Alex- tinued such for some centuries. ander, finding this, would listen to no proposals of Toward the east] They conquered Syria, and made peace; and was determined never to rest till he had it a province. destroyed Darius and his whole empire. In Media, " Toward the pleasant land.] Judea, so called Psa. Darius was seized and made prisoner by some of his cvi. 24; Jer. iii. 19; Dan. xi. 16, 41. It is well own treacherous subjects, and afterwards basely mur- known that they took Judea, and made it a province ; dered.

and afterwards burnt the city and the temple, and There was no power in the ram to stand before him] scattered the Jews over the face of the earth. Alexander's victories over the Persians were as easy Verse 10. The host of heaven] The Jewish hieras they were rapid and decisive.

archy. The stars, the priests and Levites. The

Gabriel interprets

DANIEL.

Daniel's vision. A. M. cir. 3451. host and of the stars to the briel, make this man to under- A.M. cir. 345). B. C. cir. 553.

. . Ol.cir. LVI. 4. ground, and stamped upon them. stand the vision.

Ol. cir. LVI. 4. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., 11 Yea, 9 he magnified himself 17 So he came near where I

R. Roman., cir. annum 26.

cir. annum 26. even 'to sthe prince of the host, stood : and when he came, I was * and u by him the daily sacrifice was taken afraid, and n fell upon my face : but he said away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast unto me, Understand, 0 son of man, for at down.

the time of the end shall be the vision. 12 And was host was given him against the 18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was daily sacrifice y by reason of transgression, and in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: it cast down ? the truth to the ground; and. p but he touched me, and I set me upright. it practised, and prospered.

19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee 13 Then I heard bone sąint speaking, and know what shall be in the last end of the another saint said unto c that d certain saint indignation ; " for at the time appointed the which spake, How long shall be the vision end shall be. concerning the daily sacrifice, and the trans- 20 The ram which thou sawest having two gression of desolation, to give both the sanc- horns are the kings of Media and Persia. tuary and the host to be trodden under foot ? 21 * And the rough goat is the king of

14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand Grecia : and the great horn that is between and three hundred * days ; & then shall the his eyes u is the first king. sanctuary be h cleansed.

22 Now that being broken, whereas four 15 And it came to pass, when I, even I stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up Daniel, had seen the vision, and i sought for out of the nation, but not in his power. the meaning, then, behold, there stood before 23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, me k as the appearance of a man.

w when the transgressors *are come to the full, 16 And I heard a man's voice I between the a king Y of fierce countenance, and underbanks of Ulai, which called, and said, m Ga- standing dark sentences, 2 shall stand up.

9 Jer. xlviii. 26, 42; chap. xi. 36; ver. 25.- Or, against • Or, making desolate ; chap. xi. 31 ; xii. 11; 1 Mac. i. 51. Josh. v. 14.-1 -1 Chap. xi. 31 ; xii. 11; 1 Mac. i. 44-64. — Or, "Heb, evening morning.- -81 Mac. iv. 36, &c.

Heb justi from him.- Exod. xxix. 38; Num. xxviii. 3; Ezek. xlvi. 13. fied. - See chap. xii. 8; 1 Pet. i. 10, 11. Ezek. 1. 26. w Chap. xi. 31. Or, the host was given over for the transgres. Chap. xii. 6, 7.--- Chap. ix. 21; Luke i. 19, 26. - Ezek. i. sion against the daily sacrifice.- -y 1 Mac. i. il, &c.; 2 Mac. 28; Rev. i. 17.- Chap. x. 9, 10; Luke ix. 32. p Ezek. ii. 2. iv. 13, 17. - Psa. cxix. 43, 142; Isa. lix. 14:

-Ver. 4; ch.9 Heb. made me stand upon my standing. Chap. ix. 27; xi. 27, xi. 28, 36. b Chap. iv. 13; xii. 6; 1 Pet. i. 12.- e Or, the 35, 36; xii. 7; Hab. ii. 3.- Ver. 3. -1 Ver. 5. Chap numberer of secrels, or the wonderful numberer. d Hebrew, xi. 3. - Ver. 8; chap. xi. 4.-w1 Mac. i. 11, &c.; 11. 15. Palmoni.

* Heb. are accomplished. - Deut. xxviii. 50.-Ver. 6. powers or host of heaven are probably intended by our dred evenings and mornings, yet I think the prophetic Lord, Matt. xxiv. 29, to signify the whole Jewish day should be understood here, as in other parts of hierarchy.

this prophet, and must signify so many years. If we Verse 11. Even to the prince of the host] They date these years from the vision of the he-goat, (Alexseemed, in this case, to fight against God himself. ander's invading Asia,) this was A. M. 3670, B. C.

The daily sacrifice was taken away] By the de- 334; and two thousand three hundred years from that struction of the city and temple; and has never been time will reach to A. D. 1966, or one hundred and restored from that day until now.

forty-one years from the present A. D. 1825. This Verse 12. And a host was given him) That is, will bring it near to the time mentioned chap. vii. 25, power; or perhaps the host of heaven—the priesthood where see the note. the whole sacrificial system, by reason of trans- Verse 15. As the appearance of a man.] Supposed gression. They had filled up the measure of their to be the Messiah. iniquities, in rejecting the Lord that bought them; and Verse 17. At the time of the end shall be the vision.) the daily sacrifice, being no longer of use, was given Or, as Houbigant, “ The vision shall have an end at up with the rest to destruction.

the proper time.” Cast down the truth] Probably the whole Jewish Verse 20. The ram which thou sawest) See this ritual and religion.

explained under the vision itself, ver. 3, &c. Practised, and prospered.) Prosperity or success Verse 22. But not in his power.] The four king. followed all their acts.

doms which shall arise out of the Macedonian empire Verse 13. One saint speaking, and another saint shall not be of Alexander's power or family, nor have said] One angel asked another how long the sanc- his strength and dignity. tuary was to be trodden down?

Verse 23. When the transgressors are come to the Verse 14. Unto two thousand and three hundred full] When the utmost degradation has taken place, days) Though literally it be two thousand three hun-by the buying and selling of the high priesthood; for

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Daniel is greatly

CHAP. IX.

offected by the vision. A. M. cir. 3451.

24 And his power shall be he shall be broken without A. M. cir. 3451. B. C. cir. 553.

B. O. cir. 553. Ol. cir. LVI.4. mighty, a but not by his own hand.

Ol. cir. LVI. 4. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., power: and he shall destroy 26 And the vision of the

R. Roman., cir. annum 26. wonderfully, and shall prosper, evening and the morning which cir. annum 26. and practise, e and shall destroy the mighty was told is true : m wherefore shut thou and the holy people.

up, the vision;

for it shall be for many 25 And through his policy also he shall days. cause craft to prosper in his hand; f and he 27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick shall magnify himself in his heart, 8 and by certain days; afterward I rose up, and did peace shall destroy many: i he shall also the king's business ; and I was astonished at stand up against the Prince of princes; but the vision, p but none understood it. * Rev. xvii. 13, 17. -b Ver. 12; chap. xi. 36.

- Ver. TO;

Ver, Il; chap. xi. 36. Lk Job xxxiv. 20; Lam. iv. 6; chap. chap. vii. 25.

d Heb. people of the holy ones. Chap. xi. 21, ii. 34, 45; 1 Mac. vi. 8-13; 2 Mac. ix. 9. &c. - Chap. X., 23, 24.—Ver. 11; chap. xi. 36; 2 Mac. ix. 4, 7, 8, 11. 1. Ezek. xii. 27; chap. x. 14; xii. 4, 9; Rev. xxii. 10. &1 Mac. i. 30, &c.- Or, prosperity.

Chap. vii. 28; 1. 8, 16. Chap. vi. 2, 3. Onias was ejected for a sum of money, to make room were slain. So they destroyed this once mighty and for wicked Jason ; and Jason again was supplanted holy people! for a greater sum by a worse man, if possible, than Verse 25. He shall cause craft to prosper] They himself, Menelaus ; and the golden vessels of the subdued as many, by their diplomatic skill and political temple were sold to pay for this sacrilegious purchase. intrigues as they did by the sword. Thus transgressions were come to the full, before the He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes] Romans had commission to destroy Jerusalem and its Against Christ; for it was by the Roman authority temple, &c.

that he was condemned to death and crucified ; and A king of fierce countenance) The Roman govern- their persecutions had nearly destroyed the Christianment, as before ; for king is often taken for kingdom religion ; but the house was founded on a rock. or empire.

But he shall be broken without hand.] The tide was Understanding dark sentences) Very learned and turned by the invisible hand of God; and thus heathen skilful in all things relating to government and its in- Rome was overcome, and converted to Christianity. trigues. The learning of Rome is proverbial to the Verse 26. The vision of the evening and the morning

which was told is true]. That mentioned in ver. 14, Verse 24. But not by his own power] The strength For it shall be for many days.) Not less than two of the other kingdoms consisted in themselves ; but thousand three hundred years ! the Roman empire, as a horn or kingdom of the goat, Verse 27. Daniel fainted] To foresee the desowas not mighty by its own power—was not strong by lations that were coming on the land, the city, the virtue of the goat, but drew its nourishment and strength temple, and the people. from Rome and Italy. There grew the trunk and body Did the king's business Transacted the affairs of of the tree; though the branches extended over Greece, state that belonged to my department, after having Asia, Syria, and Egypt.—Bp. Newton.

been sick for certain days through the effects of this Shall destroy wonderfully] In the taking of Jeru- vision. He had a pious and feeling heart; and he salem by the Romans ninety-seven thousand Jews was distressed for the desolations that were coming were made captives, and eleven hundred thousand upon his people.

present time.

CHAPTER IX.

Daniel, understanding from the prophecies of Jeremiah that the seventy years' captivity was now terminat

ing, pours out his soul in fervent prayer to God, and earnestly supplicales pardon and restoration for his captive people, 1-12. When thus supplicating God in behalf of Israel, the angel Gabriel is sent to inform him of the seventy prophetic weeks, or four hundred and ninety natural years, which should elapse from the date of the edict to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple to the death of the Messiah, 20-27 ; a prophecy most exactly fulfilled by the event, according to the computation of the best chronologers. Dean Prideaux states the commencement of these seventy prophetic weeks to have been in the month Nisan, in the year of the Julian period 4256, which corresponds with A. M. 3546, B. C. 458, according to the Usherian account. How awfully are the Jews blinded, who, in contradiction lo so clear a prophecy, still expect the Messiah who was cut off, and, after suffering, is, entered into his glory!

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