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Daniel's vision of the

DANIEL.

four great beasts. minion is without end. It is an everlasting-dominion, Verse 28., 80. this Daniel prospered] He had under an everlasting rule, by an everlasting God. 6. served five kings : Nebuchadnezzar, Evil-merodach, He delivereth them that are in danger and bondage. Belshazzar, Darius, and Cyrus. Few courtiers 7. He rescueth those who have fallen into the hands, have had so long a' reign, served so many masters of their enemies, and implore his succour. 8. He without flattering any, been more sụccessful in their worketh signs in the heavens. 9. And wonders upon management of public affairs, been so useful to the earth ; showing that both are under his sway, and are states where they were in office, or have been more parts of his dominion. 10. And to complete all, He owned of God, or have left such an example to hath delivered Daniel. Before our own eyes he has posterity. 'given the fullest proof of his power and goodness, in :- Where shall we find ministers like Samuel and rescuing his faithful servant from the teeth of the Daniel ? . None so wise, so holy, so disinterested, so lions. What a fine eulogium on the great God and his useful, have ever since appeared in the nations of the faithful servant!

earth.

CHAPTER VII. The prophet having, in the preceding chapters of this book, related some remarkable events concerning him

self and his brethren in the captivity, and given proof of his being enabled, by Divine assistance; to interpret the dreams of others, enters now into a detail of his own visions, returning to a period prior to the transactions recorded in the last chapter. The first in order of the prophet's visions is that of the four beasts, which arose out of a very tempestuous ocean, 1-9; and of one like the Son of man who annihilated the dominion of the fourth beast, because of the proud and blasphemous words of one of its horns, 9–14. An angel deciphers the hieroglyphics contained in this chapter, declarıng that the FOUR beasts, diverse one from another, represent the FOUR PARAMOUNT empires of the habitable globe, which should succeed each other; and are evidently the same which were shadowed forth to Nebuchadnezzar by another set of hiero glyphics, (see the second chapter,) 15-26. But for the consolation of the people of God, it is added thal, at the time appointed in the counsel of Jehovah," the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the king. dom under the whole heaven, shall by given to the saints of the Most High';" and that this kingdom shall never be destroyed or transferred to another people, as all the preceding dominations have been, but shell itself stand for ever, 27, 28. It will be proper to remark that the period of a time, times, and a half, mentioned in the twenty-fifth verse' as the duration of the dominion of the little horn that made war with the saints, (generally supposed to be a symbolical representation of the papal power,) had most probably its commencement in A. D. 755 or 756, when Pepin, king of France, invested ike pope with temporal power. This hypothesis will bring the conclusion of the period to about the year of Christ 2000, a time fired by Jews and Christians for some remarkable revolution ; when the world, as they suppose, will be renewed, the wicked cease from troubling the Church, and the saints of the Most High have dominion over the whole habitable globe. But this is all hypothesis. A: M. cir. 3449, B. C. cir. 555. IN the first year of Belshazzar 2 Daniel spake and said, I saw 4. M. cir

. 3449 Ol. cir. LVI. 2. king of Babylon * Daniel • had in my vision by night, and, behold, Ol. cir. LVI.? Servii Tullii,

Servi Tullii, R. Roman., a dream and c visions of his head the four winds of the heaven

R. Roman.,

cir. annuin 24. upon his bed : then he wrote the strove upon the great sea. dream, and told the sum of the d matters. 3 And four great beasts

came up

from a Num. xii. 6; Amos iii. 7. -b Chald. saw.

cChald. ii. 28. -d Or, words. Rev. xiii. 1, NOTES ON CHAP. VII.

the great sea] The idea of strife is taken here from Verse 1. In the first year of Belshazzar] This is the effects that must be produced, were the east, the the same Belshazzar who' was slain at the taking of west, the north, and the south winds to rise tempestaBabylon, as we have seen at the conclusion of chap. ously, and meet on the surface of the sea. By the

That chapter should have followed both this and great sea, the Mediterranean is meant ; -and is so callthe succeeding. The reason why the fifth chaptered to distinguish it from those Lakes called seas by was put in an improper place was, that all the his- the Hebrews; such as the Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea, toric parts might be together, and the prophetic be- by Sea of Tiberias, &c.; but even that may refer to themselves; and, accordingly, the former end with Asia, the scene of all these contentions. This dream the preceding chapter, and the latter with this. The is the same in meaning, under different emblems, as division therefore is not chronological, but merely arti- that of Nebuchadnezzar's metallic image'; but in Daficial.

niel's dream several circumstances are added. It is Told the sum of the matters.] That he might not supposed that Daniel had this dream about forty-eight forget this extraordinary dream, he wrote down the years after Nebuchadnezzar had the vision of the leading particulars when he arose.

great image. Verse 2. The four winds of the heaven strove upon. Verse 3, Four great beasts came up from the sea]

cir. annum 24.

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Daniel's vision of the

CHAP. VII.

four great beasts. A. M. cir. 3449. the sea, diverse one from an- | upon the feet as a man, and

A. M. cir. 3449. B. C. cir. 555.

B. C. cir. 555. Ol. cir. LVI. 2. other.

man's heart was given to it. Ol. cir. LVI. 2. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman.,

4 The first was like a lion, 5 h And behold another beast, R. Roman., cir. annum 24.

and had eagle's wings : I beheld a second, like to a bear, and it cir. annum 24. till the wings thereof were plucked, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three was lifted up from the earth, and made stand ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: (Deut. xxviii. 49; 2 Sam. i. 23 ; Jer. iv. 7, 13; xlviii. 40; Ezek. & Or, wherewith. do Chap. ii. 39.- Or, it raised up one xvii. 3; Hab. i. 8.

dominion. The term sea, in Hebrew O' yam, from 7700 hamah, as was truly surprising ; and all tended to show with to be tumultuous, agilated, &c., seems to be used here what propriety this eagle-winged lion is here made to point out the then known terraqueous globe, be- his emblem. cause of its generally agitated state ; and the four The wings thereof were plucked] Lydia, Media, winds striving: point out those predatory wars that and Persia, which had been provinces of the Babyprevailed almost universally among men, from the days lonish empire, cast off the yoke, and put themselves of Nimrod, the founder of the Assyrian or Babylonish under kings of their own. Besides, the rapidity of monarchy, down to that time, and in the end gave its conquests was stopped by its wars with the Medes birth to the four great monarchies whieh are the sub- and Persians ; by whom it was at last conquered, ject of this vision.

and divided between Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Diverse one from another.] The people were dif- Persian. ferent ; the laws and customs different; and the admi- And it was lifted up from the earth] That is, the ristralion of each differently executed.

wings were plucked, rendered unfit for farther flight, Verse 4. The first was like a lion, and had eagle's | by which it had before been lifted up from the earth ; wings) Bp. Newton well remarks, that these great making its conquests almost with the rapidity of an beasts, as explained by the angel, ver. 17, are kingdoms. eagle's flight. In what a short time did NebuchadThey arise out of a stormy and tempestuous sea ; that nézzar, who is here chiefly intended, conquer Syria, is, out of the wars and commotions of the world; and Phænicia, Judea, Egypt, Arabia, &c.! But on his they are called great in comparison of other states and death the wings were plucked ; and no farther exten. kingdoms, and are denominated beasts for their tyran- sion of the empire took place under Evil-merodach or nical and cruel oppression.

Belsházzar, till it was lost by the latter, and became These four beasts are indeed monstrous produc- divided as we have seen above. tions; a lion with eagle's wings ; a bear with three And made stand upon the feet as a man] This I ribs in its mouth ;' a leopard with four wings, and four think refers to the taming of Nebuchadnezzar's pride. heads'; and a beast with ten horns. But such em- He had acted like a fierce and ravening lion. God blems and hieroglyphics were usual among the eastern struck him with insanity; he then lived the life of a nations, as may be seen in the monuments of antiquity. beast, and had a beast's heart-disposition, and habits. A winged lion, and such-like fictitious animals, may At last God restored him. be seen in many parts of the ruins of Persepolis. And a man's heart 'was given to it.] He became Horns are attributed to beasts which naturally have humane, humblé, and pious ; and in this state he apnone, being used in hieroglyphic writings for symbols pears to have died. of strength and power. And such figures are sup- Verse 5. Another beast-like to a bear] This was posed to be the symbols of different nations ; and are the Medo-Persian empire, represented here under the not more strange thań many that are still used in he- synıbol of the bear, as the largest species of these raldry. I believe the science of heraldry arose out animals was found in Media, a mountainous, cold, and of the knowledge gained from the symbols used in the rough country, covered with woods. The Medes and Sacred Writings; and the little acquaintance anciently Persians are compared to a bear on account of their obtained of the meaning of some of the Egyptian hie- cruelty and thirst after blood, a bear being a most voroglyphics.". Hence, our wiverons, griffins, unicorns, racious and cruel animal ; the bear is termed by Ariswith a congeries of natural and unnatural things, split totle an all-devouring animal; and the Medo-Persians eagles, two-headed swans, &c., &c., &c.

are known to have been great robbers and spoilers. The beast like a lion is the kingdom of the Baby-See Jer. li. 48–56. The Persians were notorious for lonians ; and the king of Babylon is compared to a the cruelty of their punishments. See Calmel. lion, Jer. iv. 7; Isa. v. 29; and is said to fly as an Raised up itself on one side] Cyrus arose on the eagle, Jer, xlviii. 40 ; Ezek. xvii. 3,7. The lion is borders of Chaldea, and thus the bear appeared to put considered the king of the beasts, and the eagle the itself-in the position to attack the lion. king of the birds; and therefore the kingdom of Baby- It had three ribs in the mouth of it] As if it had lon, which was signified by the golden head of the just finished its repast on some animal that it had great image, was the first and noblest of all the king- seized. Some think three tusks, curved like ribs, are doms ; and was the greatest then in being. The wings meant; others three throats, j'vby illin, by which it of the eagle denote the rapidity with which the lion—(Cyrus) had absorbed the three empires of the BabyNebuchadnezzar, made his conquests ; fot in a few lonians, Medes, and Persians; for these symbolic aniyears, by his own arms, he brought his empire to such mals do not so much denote four empires, as four an extent, and raised it to such a degree of eminence, | kings. See ver. 17. Others think three rows of teeth Daniel's vision of the

DANIEL.

four great beasts. 4. M. cir. 3449. and they said thus unto it, Arise, | and strong exceedingly; and it A.M.Cor. 3449. Ol. cir. LVI. 2. devour much flesh.

had great iron teeth : it devoured 01. cis. LVI. 2. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., 6 After this I beheld, and lo and brake in pieces, and stamped R. Roman,

cir. Anum 24. cir, annum 24. another, like a leopard, which the residue with the feet of it: had

upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were the beast had also I four heads; and dominion before it; m and it had ten horns. was given to it.

8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there 7 After this I saw in the night visions, and came up among them another little horn, before behold la fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, whom there were three of the first horns plucked * Chap. viii. 8, 22. — Chap. ii. 40; ver. 19, 23.

m Chap. ii. 41; Rev. xiü. 1.- Ver. 20, 21, 24; chap. Fiii 9. are meant, to denote the triple power of the Medes, its feet. It reduced Macedon into a Roman province Persians, and Babylonians, conjoined. Or the east, | about one hundred and sixty-eight years before Christ ; north, and south, which were subdued by the Persians. the kingdom of Pergamos about one hundred and But the ribs being between the teeth of the bear may thirty-three years ; Syria about sixty-five; and Egypt show how Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt were ground about thirty years before Christ. And, besides the reand oppressed by the bear—the Persians ; though, as mains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many ribs strengthen the body, they were a powerful sup- other provinces and kingdoms; so that it might, by a port to their conquerors.

very usual figure, be said to devour the whole earth, Verse 6. Another, like a leopard-four wings-four to treud it down, and break it to pieces; and became heads] This was the Macedonian or Greek empire ; in effect, what the Roman writers delight to call it, and Alexander the Great its king. Alexander and his the empire of the whole world. subjects are fitly compared to a leopard. 1. The leo- It (the fourth beast) was diverse from all the beasts pard is remarkable for its swiftness, Alexander and that were before it.] Not only in its republican form the Macedonians were very rapid in their conquests. of government, but also in power and greatness, extent 2. The leopard is a spotted animal ; a proper emblem of dominion, and length of duration. of the various nations, with their various customs and It had ten horns) The ten kingdoms into which the languages, which constituted the Macedonian empire. Roman empire was afterwards divided, Calmet says, It may refer to the character of Alexander himself, ten Syrian kings: and he finds them thus :- 1. Sesometimes mild, at others cruel ; sober and drunken; leucus Nicator. 2. Antiochus Soter. 3. Antiochus continent and lecherous; having a great power of self- Theos. 4. Antiochus Callinicus. 5. Seleucus Ceraugovernment, and at other times being a slave to his nus. 6. Antiochus the Great. 7. Seleucus, surnamed passions. 3. The leopard, though small, is not afraid Philopater, brother of Antiochus Epiphanes. 8. Laoto attack the lion.

medon of Mitylene, to whom Syria and Phænicia had Four wings of a fowl] The Babylonian empire been intrusted. 9. Antigone. And, 10. His son Dewas represented with two wings; and they sufficiently metrius, who possessed those provinces, with the title marked the rapidity of Nebuchadnezzar's conquests ; of kings. This is too much like forced work. There but the Macedonian has here four wings ; for nothing, are different opinions concerning these ten kings; or in the history of the world, was equal to the conquests rather which they were that constituted this division of Alexander, who ran through all the countries from of the Roman empire. They are reckoned thus :- 1. Illyricum and the Adriatic Sea to the Indian Ocean The Roman senate. 2. The Greeks, in Ravenna. and the River Ganges; and in twelve years subdued 3. The Lombards in Lombardy. 4. The Huns in part of Europe, and all Asia.

Hungary. 5. The Alemans, in Germany. 6. The The beast had also four heads] Signifying the em- Franks in France. 7. The Burgundians in Burpire after the death of Alexander, divided between his gundy. 8. The Saracens in Africa, and a part of four generals. Cassander reigning over Macedon and Spain. 9. The Goths, in other parts of Spain. 10. Greece; Lysimachus, over Thrace and Bithynia ; Pto- And the Sarons, in Britain. lemy, over Egypt; and Seleucus, over Syria.

Verse 8. Another little horn] Among Protestant Dominion was given to it.] It was not owing to writers this is considered to be the popedom. the skill, courage, or valour of Alexander and his Before whom there were three of the first horns troops, that he made those wondrous conquests; the plucked up] These were probably, 1. The exarchate nations were given to him. For, as Bishop Newton of Ravenna. 2. The kingdom of the Lombards. And, says, had he not been assisted by the mighty power of 3. The state of Rome. The first was given to the God, how could he, with only thirty thousand men, Pope; Stephen II., by Pepin, king of France, A. D. have overcome Darius with six hundred thousand ; and 755 ; and this constituted the pope's temporal princes. in so short a time have brought the countries from The second was given to St. Peter by Charlemagne, Greece as far as India into subjection?

in 774. The third, the state of Rome, was vested in Verse 7. I sawa fourth beastit had great iron the pope, both in spirituals and temporals, and conteeth] This is allowed, on all hands, to be the Romanfirmed to him by Lewis the pious. These are the empire. It was dreadful, terrible, and exceeding strong: three horns which were plucked up from the roots beit devoured, and brake in pieces, and stamped the resi-fore the little horn, due, that is, the remains of the former kingdoms, with Were eyes like the eyes of a man) Intimating cun594

( 38* )

A. M. cir. 3449.
B. C. cir. 555.

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cir. annum 24.

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Daniel's vision of the

CHAP. VII.

four great beasts. up by the roots : and, behold, in 13 I saw in the night visions, 4 M. cir. 3440 Ol . cit. LVI. 2. this horn were eyes like the eyes and, behold, one like the Son of Ol. cir. LVI. 2. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., of man, Pand a mouth speaking man came with the clouds of

R. Roman., great things.

heaven, and came to a the An9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, cient of days, and they brought him near and "the Ancient of days did sit, whose gar- before him. ment was white as snow, and the hair of his 14 And there was given him dominion, head like the pure wool: his throne was like and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. nations, and languages, should serve him :

10 u A fiery stream issued and came forth his dominion is an everlasting dominion, from before him : thousand thousands mi- which shall not pass away, and his kingdom nistered unto him, and ten thousand times ten that which shall not be destroyed. thousand stood before him : "the judgment 15 I Daniel • was grieved in my spirit in the was set, and the books were opened. midst of my body, and the visions of my head

11 I beheld then because of the voice of the troubled me. great words which the horn spake : * I beheld 16 I came near unto one of them that stood even till the beast was slain, and his body de- by, and asked him the truth of all this. So stroyed, and given to the burning flame. he told me, and made me know the interpreta

12 As concerning the rest of the beasts, they tion of the things. had their dominion taken away: yet their 17 & These great beasts, which are four, are lives were prolonged for a season and time. four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.

o Rey. ix. 7. - Psa. xii. 3; ver. 25; Rev. xiii. 5. - Rev. * Ezek. iv. 26; Matf. xxiv. 30; xxvi. 64; Rev. i. 7, 13; xiv. XX. 4. - Psa. xc. 2; ver. 13, 22. — - Psa. civ. 2; Rev, i. 14. 14.- La Ver. 9. - Psa. ii. 6, 7, 8; vi. 6; cx. 1, 2; Matt. xi. i Ezek. i. 15, 16.-u Psa. 1. 3.; xcvii. 3; Isa. xxx. 33; Ixvi. 15. 27; xxviii. 18; John 11. 35; 1 Cor. xv. 27; Eph. i. 22. -c Ch. " Kings xxij. 19; Psa, lxviii. 17; Heb. xii. 22; Rev. v. 11.

. Psa. cxlv. 13; chap. ii. 44; ver. 27; Mic. iv.7; Luke * Rev. xx. 4, 12. Rev. xix. 20.- -y Chald. a prolonging in i. 33; John xii. 34; Heb. xii. 28. - Ver. 28. Chald. life was given them.

sheath. -- Ver. 3.

jii. 4.

ning and superintendence; for the pope calls himself their bodies were not destroyed, but suffered to conEpiscopus episcoporum, the Overseer of overseers.. tinue still in being; but when the dominion shall be

And a mouth speaking great things.) Full of boast-. taken away from this beast, his body shall be totally ing; pretending to unlimited jurisdiction ; binding and destroyed ; because other kingdoms succeeded to those, loosing at pleasure ; promising to absolve from all but no other earthly kingdom shall succeed to this.— sins, present, past, and future ; and threatening to send Bishop Newton. to everlasting destruction all kings, kingdoms, and in- Verse 13. One like the Son of man came with the dividuals, who would dare to dispute his power and clouds of heaven] This most certainly points out the authority.

Lord Jesus, WIN 10 bar enosh, the Son of miserable Verse 9. The thrones were cast down] 197 might man ; who took our nature upon him that he might be translated erected; so the Vulgate, positi sunt, and redeem us unto himself. To prove himself to be the so all the versions; but that ours is a proper transla-, Messiah he applies, before the high priests, these words tion, is sufficiently evident from chap. iii. 6, 15, 20; of the Prophet Daniel to himself, Matt. xxiv. 30. vi. 17, &c. ; where the original word can be used in Near before him.) The Ancient of days. no other sense than that of throwing or casting down. Verse 14. And there was given him dominion) This There is a reference here to preparations made for a also is applied to our Lord Jesus by himself, after his general assize, or to the convocation of the sanhedrin, resurrection, Matt. xxviii. 18. where the father of the consistory sat with his asses- His dominion is an everlasting dominion] Chrissors on each side in the form of a semicircle, and the tianity shall increase, and prevail to the end of the people stood before them.

world. See the parallel passages in the margin. The Ancient of days) God Almighty; and this is Verse 15. I Daniel was grieved, &c.] The words he only place in the sacred writings where God the in the original are uncommonly emphatic. My spirit Father is represented in a human form.

was grieved, or sickened, 07393 112 bego nidneh, within Verse 10. A fiery stream issued] This is not spoken its sheath or scabbard. Which I think proves,'1. That of the final judgment; but of that which he was to the human spirit is different from the body. 2. That execute upon this fourth beast, the Roman empire ; and it has a proper subsistence independently of the body, the little boasting horn, which is a part of the fourth which is only its sheath for a certain time. 3. That beast, and must fall when the other falls.

the spirit may exist independently of its body, as the Verse 11. I beheld then because of the voice (or, the sword does independently of its sheath. beast will be destroyed because) of the great words Verse 17. These great beasts—are four kings] See which the horn spake-his body destroyed] When the preceding verses; where the following explanations the dominion was taken from the rest of the beasts, I are inserted and illustrated.

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An angel interprets

DANIEL.

the vision of Daniel. A. M. cir. 3449. 18 But the saints of the judgment was given to the saints A. M. cir. 3449 B. C. cir. 555.

B. C. cir. 555. 01. cir. LVI. 2. i Most High shall take the king- of the Most High ; and the time Ol, cir. LVI. 2. Servii Tullii,

Servii Tullii, R. Roman., dom, and possess the kingdom came that the saints possessed

R. Roman., cir. annum 24. for ever, even for ever and ever. the kingdom.

cir. annum 24. 19 Then I would know the truth of the 23 Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be fourth beast, which was diverse from all the P the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall deof iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, vour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with and break it in pieces. his feet;

24 4 And the ten horns out of this kingdon 20 And of the ten horns that were in his are ten kings that shall arise : and another head, and of the other which came up, and shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse before whom three fell; even of that horn from the first, and he shall subdue three that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very kings. great things, whose look was more stout than 25 ' And he shall speak great words against his fellows.

the Most High, and shall • wear out the saints 21 I beheld, m and the same horn made of the Most High, and think to change times war with the saints, and prevailed against and laws: and they shall be given into his them ;

hand ' until a time and times and the dividing 22 * Until the Ancient of days came, and of time.

b Isa. Ix. 12, 13, 14; ver. 22, 27; 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12; Rev. ii. o Ver. 18; 1 Cor. vi. 2; Rev. i. 6; y. 10; xx. 4. —p Chap. ii. 26, 27; iii. 21 ; xx. 4.- - Chald, high ones, that is, things or 40.- Ver. 7, 8, 20; Rev. xvii. 12. - Isa. xxxvi. 23 ; chap. places.

-k Ver. 7.- - Chald. from all those.-- Chap. viji. viii. 24, 25; xi. 28, 30, 31, 36; 1 Mac. I. 46; Rev. xii. 5, 6. 12, 24; xi. 31; Rev. xi. 7; xiii. 7 ; xvii. 14 ; xix. 19. * Rev. xvii. 6; xviii. 24. I

· Chap. ii. 21. Rev. xu. 7. n Ver. 9.

Chap. xii. 7; Rev. xii. 14. Verse 18. But the saints of the Most High shall take Verse 22. Saints of the Most High] To the superthe kingdom] I doubt whether this be the true sense eminent saints ; see the note on ver. 18. ,

Verse 25. He shall speak great words against the vikabbelun malcutha kaddishey elyonin, “But the su- Most High] Sermones quasi Deus loquetur; “He preme holy ones shall receive the kingdom ;" or, “they shall speak as if he were Godo?' So St. Jerome quotes shall receive the kingdom of the supreme saints." from Symmachus. To none can this apply so well or Properly translated by Montanus, Et suscipient reg- so fully as to the popes of Rome. They have assumed num sanctorum altissimorum. Whatever we may infallibility, which belongs only to God. They prothink of the patriarchs and the Jews in their best fess to forgive sins, which belongs only to God. They times, there has never been so much holiness of heart profess to open and shut heaven, which belongs only possessed, and so much righteousness practised, as to God. They profess to be higher than all the kings by the genuine disciples of Christ. Christianity alone of the earth, which belongs only to God. And they has provided a full redemption for man. They are go beyond God in pretending to loose whole nations the chief saints, and to them God gives the kingdom: from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such and this Gospel dispensation, called often the kingdom kings do not please them! And they go againsi God of God, and the kingdom of heaven, shall last for when they give indulgences for sin. This is the worst ever, during the whole lapse of time; and for ever of all blasphemies ! and ever-throughout eternity, shall they and its bless- And shall wear out the saints] By wars, crusades, ings endure.

massacres, inquisitions, and persecutions of all kinds. Verse 19. His nails of brass] This is not men- What in this way have they not done against all those tioned in the seventh verse, where the description of who have protested against their innovations, and rethe beast is given. It might be added, for the first fused to submit to their idolatrous worship? Witness time, by the person who is now explaining the fourth the exterminating crusades published against the Walbeast. Houbigant thinks it has been lost out of the denses and Albigenses. Witness John Huss, and Jetext: but such loss is not intimated by any MS. ; nor rome of Prague. Witness the Smithfield fires in Eng. does any of the ancient Versions acknowledge this land! Witness God and man against this bloody, addition in the seventh verse.

persecuting, ruthless, and impure Church! Verse 21. The same horn made war with the saints, And think to change times and laws Appointing and prevailed against them.] Those who make Anti- fasts and feasts ; canonizing persons whom he chooses ochus the little horn, make the saints the Jewish peo- to call saints ; granting pardons and indulgences for ple. Those who understand the popedom by it, see sins; instituting new modes of worship utterly unthis as referring to the cruel persecutions of the popes known to the Christian Church ; new articles of faith; of Rome against the Waldenses and Albigenses, and new rules of practice ; and reversing, with pleasure, the Protestant Church in general.

the laws both of God and man.Dodd.

ויקבלון מלכותא קדישי עליונין of the original Chaldee

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