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A. M. cir. 3401.
B. C. cir. 603.
History of Daniel and
his three countrymen. 18. Now at the end of the days 20 y And in all matters of. A. M. cir. 3401: 01. XLIV. 2 that the king had said he should wisdom and understanding, that 01. XLIV. 2 Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., bring them in, then the prince of the king 'inquired of them, he. R. Roman., cir, annum 14. the eunuchs brought them in be found them ten times better than cir. annum 14. fore Nebuchadnezzar.
all the magicians and astrologers that were in 19 And the king communed with them; and all his realm. among them all was found none like Daniel, 21 2 And Daniel continued even unto the Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah : - therefore first year of king Cyrus.
* stood they before the king.
Gen. xli. 46; ver. 5.-91 Kings x. 1.-. Heb. wisdom of rious time of the return of his people from the Babylonian captivity, understanding. Chap. vi. 28; x. I. He lived to see that glo- though he did not die then; so till is used, Psa. cx.l; cxii. 8. order and consequences of the things be preserved in Therefore stood they before the king.] It appears them, from beginning to end, then we may presume that only four were wanting. they are supernatural. In such dreams Daniel had Verse 20. Magicians and astrologers] Probably the understanding
same as philosophers and astronomers among us. Verse 18. Now at the end of the days] That is, at Verse 21. The first year of king Cyrus.] That is, the end of three years, ver. 5.
to the end of the Chaldean empire., And we find Verse 19. And among them all]: All the young Daniel alive in the third year of Cyrus, see chap, Doble captives from different nations.
Nebuchadnezzar, in the second year of his reign, (or. in the fourth, according to the Jewish account, which
takes in the first two years in which he reigned conjointly with his father,) had a dream which greatly troubled him; but of which nothing remained in the morning but the uneasy impression., · Hence the diviners, when brought in before the king, could give no interpretation, as they were not in possession of the dream, 1-13. Daniel then, having obtained favour from God, is made acquainted with the dream, and its interpretation, 14–19; for which he blesses God in a lofty and beautiful ode, 20-23; and reveals both unto the king, telling him first the particulars of the dream, 24–35, and then interpreting it of the four great monarchies. The then existing Chaldean empire, represented by the head of gold, is the first ; the next is the Medo-Persian ; the third, the Macedonian or Grecian; the fourth, the Roman, which should break every other kingdom in pieces, but which, in its last stage, should be divided into ten kingdoms, represented by the ten toes of the image, as they are in another vision (chap. vii.) by the ten horns of the fourth beast. He likewise informs the king that in the time of this last monarchy, viz., the Roman, God would set ир
the kingdom of the Messiah ; which, though small in its commencement, should ultimately be extended over the whole earth, 36–45. Daniel and his three friends, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, (named by the prince of the eunuchs, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego,) are then promoted by the king to great ho
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B. C. 603. Ol. XLIV. 2. the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, him,
Ol. XLIV.2. Anno
Anno Tarquinii Prisci, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, 2 • Then the king commanded Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 14.
a wherewith his spirit was troub- to call the magicians, and the R. Roman., 14. a Gen. xli. 8; chap. iv. 5.- + Esth. vi. 1; chap. vi, 18.
cGen. xli. 8; Exod. vii. 11; chap. v. 7.. NOTES ON CHAP. II.
The astrologers] D'OUK ashshaphim. Perhaps from Verse 1. The second year of the reign of Nebuchad- 993 nashaph, to breathe, because they laid claim to nezzar That is, the second year of his reigning alone, Divine inspiration ; but probably the persons in quesfor he was king two years before his father's death. tion were the philosophers and astronomers among the See the notes on chap. i. 1. This was therefore the Babylonians. fifth year of his reign, and the fourth of the captivity The sorcerers) d'ov23 mechashshephim. See the of Daniel
note on Deut. xviii. 10, and on Exod. xxii. 18, and Lev. * Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams wherewith his xix. 31, where several of these arts are explained. spirit was troubled] The dream had made a deep and The Chaldeans] Who these were is difficult to be solemn impression upon his mind; and, having for ascertained. They might be a college of learned gotten all but general circumstances, his mind was dis- men, where all arts and sciences were professed and tressed
taught. The Chaldeans were the most ancient philoVerse 2. The magicians] digorri chartummim. See sophers of the world ; they might have been origithe note on Gen. xli. 8.
nally inhabitants of the Babylonian Irak; and still
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of the metallic image. astrologers, and the sorcerers, 9 But if ye will not make
and the Chaldeans, for to show known unto me the dream, there Tarquinii Prisei, the king his dreams. So they is but one decree for you: for ye Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,
came and stood before the king. have prepared "lying and corrupt 3 And the king said unto them, I have words to speak before me, till the time be dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled changed: therefore tell me the dream, and I to know the dream.
shall know that ye can show me the interpreta 4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in tion thereof. Syriac, 4 O king, live for ever : tell thy ser- 10 The Chaldeans answered before the king, vants the dream, and we will show the inter- and said, There is not a man upon the earth pretation.
that can show the king's matter : therefore 5 The king answered and said to the Chal- there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked deans, The thing is gone from me: if ye will such things at any magician, or astrologer, or not make known unto me the dream, with the Chaldean. interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut fin 11 And it is a rare thing that the king pieces, and your houses shall be made a requireth, and there is none other that can dunghill,
show it before the king, : m except the gods, 6 But if ye show the dream, and the inter- whose dwelling is not with flesh. pretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts 12 For this cause the king was angry
and and h rewards and great honour: therefore very furious, and commanded to destroy all show me the dream, and the interpretation the wise men of Babylon. thereof.
13 And the decree went forth that the wise 7 They answered again and said, Let the men should be slain; and they sought Daniel king tell his servants the dream, and we will and his fellows to be slain. slow the interpretation of it..
14 Then Daniel n answered with counsel 8 The king answered and said, I know of and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the certainty that ye would gain the time, be- king's guard, which was gone forth to slay the cause ye see the thing is gone
from me. wise men of Babylon :
- 1 Kings i. 31; chap. iii. 9; v. 10; vi. 6, 21. — Le Ezra vi. II; * Esth. iii. 15; iv. Il; ix. 14. - Prov. vi. 17; xii. 19; xxi. 6; 2 Kings x. 27; chap. iii. 29. Chald. made pieces.- -Chap. xxvi. 28.- _m Ver. 28; chap. v.11. - Chald, returned. Or, v. 16. Or, fee; chap. v. 17; ver. 48. - Chald. bry; Eph. chief marshal.-
-p Chald. chief of the erecutioners, or slaughter. men ; Gen. xxxvii. 36.
have preserved to themselves exclusively the name of means either that they wished to prolong the time that Chaldeans, to distinguish themselves from other na- he might recollect it, .or get indifferent about it; or tions and peoples who inhabited the one hundred and that they might invent something in the place of it; twenty provinces of which the Babylonish government or make their escape to save their lives, after having was composed.
packed up their valuables. See ver. 9. Verse 4. Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Verse 10. There is not a man upon the earth] The Syriac] nox aramith, the language of Aram or Syria. thing is utterly impossible to man. This was their deWhat has been generally called the Chaldee.
cision : and when Daniel gave the dream, with its O king, live for ever) "7.793 bish soha Malca leol- interpretation, they knew that the spirit of the holy min cheyi. With these words the Chaldee part of gods was in him. So, even according to their own Daniel commences; and continues to the end of the theology, he was immeasurably greater than the wisest seventh chapter. These kinds of compliments are still in Babylon or in the world. in use in the East Indies. A superior gives a blessing Verse 13. They sought Daniel and his fellows] As to an inferior by saying to him, when the latter is in the decree stated that all the wise men of Babylon the act of doing him reverence, “ Long life to thee.” should be slain, the four young Hebrews, being reA poor man, going into the presence of a king to soli- puted among the wisest, were considered as sentenced cit a favour, uses the same kind of address : O father, to death also. thou art the support of the destitute; mayest thou live Verse 14. Captain of the king's guard] Chief of to old age ! — Ward's Customs.
the king's executioners or slaughter men. Margin. Verse 5. Ye shall be cut in pieces] This was arbi- rang rab tabachaiya, chief of the butchers, he that trary and tyrannical in the extreme ; but, in the order took off the heads of those whom the king ordered to of God's providence, it was overruled to serve the be slain, because they had in any case displeased him, most important purpose.
“Go and bring me the head of Giaffer." The honourVerse 8. That ye would gain the time] The king able butcher went and brought the head in a bag on a Daniel offers to interpret
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15 He answered and said to a he knoweth what is in the dark
Arioch the king's captain, Why ness, and bthe light dwelleth Ol. XLIV. 2. Tarquinn Prisci, is the decree so hasty from the with him.
'Tarquinii Prisci, R. Rornan., 14. king? Then Arioch made the 23 I thank thee, and praise thee,
R. Roman., 14. thing known to Daniel.
O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me 16 Then Daniel went in, and desired of the wisdom and might, and hast made known unto king that he would give him time, and that he me now what we desired of thee: for thou would show the king the interpretation. hast now made known unto us the king's matter.
17 Then Daniel went to his house, and 24 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, whom the king had ordained to destroy the and Azariah, his companions :
wise men of Babylon : he went and said thus 18 . That they would desire mercies' of the unto him : Destroy not the wise men of BabyGod of heaven concerning this secret ; that lon: bring me in before the king, and I will Daniel and his fellows should not perish with show unto the king the interpretation. the rest of the wise men of Babylon.
25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before 19 Then was the secret revealed unto Da- the king in haste, and said thus unto him, " I niel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed have found a man of the captives of Judah, the God of heaven.
that will make known unto the king the inter20 Daniel answered and said, u Blessed be pretation. the name of God for ever and ever: for 26 The king answered and said to Daniel, wisdom and might are his :
whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able 21 And he changeth w the times and the to make known unto me the dream which I seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up have seen, and the interpretation thereof? kings: y he giveth wisdom unto the wise, 27 Daniel answered in the presence of the and knowledge to them that know under- king, and said, The secret which the king hath destanding :
manded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the 22 · He revealeth the deep and secret things: magicians, the soothsayers, show unto the king;
Matt. xviii. 12.-Chald. from before God. Or, that they should not destroy Daniel, &c.- Num. xii. 6; Job xxxiii. 15, 16.—Psa. exiii. 2 ; cxv. 18.- Jer. xxxii. 19. w Esth. i. 13; 1 Chron. xxix. 30; chap. vii. 25; xi. 6.- - Job xii. 18; Psa. lxxv. 6, 7; Jer. xxvii. 5; chap. iv. 17.
2 Job. xii. 22 ; Psa. xxv. 14; ver. 28, 29.- Psa. cxxxix. 1), 12; Heb. iv. 13. Chap. v. II, 14 ; James i. 17. Ver. 18. d Chald. That I have found.
Le Chald. children of the captivity
-y. James i. 5. of Judah.
dish. It was Herod's chief butcher that brought the the course of his providence that one king is put down, head of John the Baptist in a dish to the delicate and another raised up; and therefore he can distinctly daughter of Herodias. This was the custom of the tell what he has purposed to do in the great empires country. No law, no judge, no jury. The will or ca- of the earth. price of the king governed all things. Happy England! Verse 23. I thank thee and praise thee] No wonder know and value thy excellent privileges !
he should feel gratitude, when God by this merciful inVerse 16. That he would give him time] That is, terference had saved both the life of him and his felthat he might seek unto God for a revelation of the lows; and was about to reflect the highest credit on thing. The Chaldeans dared not even to promise this; the God of the Jews, and on the people themselves. they would only pledge themselves for the interpreta- Verse 24. Destroy not the wise men] The decree tion, provided the king would furnish the dream. Da- was suspended till it should be seen whether Daniel niel engages both to find the lost dream, and to give could tell the dream, and give its interpretation. the proper interpretation.
Verse 27. Cannot the wise men] Cannot your own Verse 18. That they would desire mercies] For able men, aided by your gods, tell you the secret ? this Daniel had requested a little time; and doubtless This question was necessary in order that the king both he and his three companions prayed incessantly might see the foolishness of depending on the one, or till God gave the wished for revelation ; but whether worshipping the other. it was given that same night, we do not know.
The soothsayers] One of our old words : “ The Verse 19. Then was the secret revealed-in a night tellers of truth :” but j'va gazerin is the name of vision.) Daniel either dreamed it, or it was repre- another class of those curious artists, unless we supsented to his mind by an immediate inspiration. pose it to mean the same as the CAALDEANS, ver. 2.
Verse 20. Wisdom and might are his] He knows They are supposed to be persons who divined by numall things, and can do all things.
bers, amulets, &c. There are many conjectures about Verse 21. He changeth the times) Time, duration, them, which, whatever learning they show, cast little succession are his, and under his dominion. It is in light upon this place.
Nebuchadnezzar's dream 4, M. 3401. 28 But there is a God in 35 Then was the iron, the clay,
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B. C. 603. Ol. XLIV. 2. heaven that revealeth secrets, the brass, the silver, and the OI. XLIV. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, and 5 maketh known to the king gold, broken to pieces together, Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 14. Nebuchadnezzar h what shall be and became i like the chaff of the R. Rornan., 14. in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions summer threshing-floors; and the wind carof thy head upon thy bed, are these ; ried them away, that " no place was found for
29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts i came them: and the stone that smote the image into thy mind upon thy bed, what should became a great mountain, and filled the come to pass
hereafter: kand he that revealeth whole earth. secrets maketh known unto thee what shall 36 This is the dream; and we will tell the come to pass,'
interpretation thereof before the king. 30 But as for me, this secret is not revealed 37 - Thou, O king, art a king of kings: y for to me for any wisdom that I have more than the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, any living, m but for their sakes that shall make power, and strength, and glory. known the interpretation to the king, " and that 38 And wheresoever the children of men thou mightest know the thoughts of thy dwell, the beasts of the field and ihe fowls of heart.
the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and 31 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a hath made thee ruler over them all. a Thou great image. This great image, whose briglit- art this head of gold. ness was excellent, stood before thee; and the 39 And after thee shall arise another kingform thereof was terrible.
dom inferior to thee, and another third king32 p 'This image's head was of fine geld, his dom of brass, which shall bear rule over all breast and his arms of silver, his belly and the earth. his a thighs of brass,
40 And.. the fourth kingdom shall be strong 33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and as iron : forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces, part of clay.
and subducth all things and as iron that 34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and Twithout s hands, which smote the image upon bruise. his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake 41 And whereas thou sawest fthe feet and them to pieces.
toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, (Gen. xl. 8; xli. 16 ; ver. 18, 47; Amos iv. 13. - Chald.
s Chap. viii. 25; Zech. iv. 6; 2 Cor. v. 1; Heb. ix. 24. hath made knoum. Luh Gen. xlix. 1.
* Ver. Psa. 1.4; Hos, xiii. 3. Psa. xxxvii, 10, 36. Isa. ii. 2, 22, 28.- So Gen. xli. 16; Acts iii. 12.-m Or, but for the in- 3. Psa. lxxx. 9. - Ezra vii. 12; Isa. xlvii. 5; Jer. xxvü. tent that the interpretation may be made known to the king. Ver. 16, 7; Ezek. xxvi. 7; Hos. viii. 10. —y Ezra i. 2. Cbap.
Lo Chald. wast seeing.- - See ver. 38, &c. -9 Or, sides. iv. 21, 22; Jer. xxvii. 6. La Ver. 32.—Chap. v. 28, 31. Or, which was not in hands ; as ver. 45.
c Ver. 32. Mac, i. 3.- Chap. vii. 7, 23,- Ver. 33. Verse 28. There is a God in heaven] To distin- Verse 33. His legs of iron] The Roman govern guish him from those idols, the works of men's hands; ment. and from the false gods in which the Chaldeans His feet part of iron and part of clay.) The same, trusted.
mixed with the barbaric nations, and divided into len In the latter days.] A phrase which, in the pro-kingdoms. See at the end of the chapter. phets, generally means the times of the Messiah. God Verse 34. A stone was cut out] The fifth mois about to show what shall take place from this time narchy; the spiritual kingdom of the Lord Jesus, to the latest ages of the world. And the vision most which is to last for ever, and diffuse itself over the certainly contains a very extensive and consecutive whole earth. prophecy; which I shall treat more largely at the close Verse 35. The stone-„became a great mounioin) of the chapter, giving in the mean time a short expo- There is the kingdom yox eben, of the stone, and the sition.
kingdom of the mountain. See at the end of the Verse 31. A great image] Representing the four chapter. great monarchies.
Verse 37. The God of heaven] Not given by thy Verse 32. Head was of fine gold] The Babylonish own gods, nor acquired by thy own skill and prowess; empire, the first and greatest.
it is a Divine gift. Breast and his arms of silver) The Medo-Persian Power] To rule this kingdom. empire, under Cyrus, &c.
And strength] To defend it against all foos. His belly and his thighs of brass) The Macedonian And glory.]. Great honour and dignity. empire, under Alexander the Great, and his succes- Verse 38. Thou art this head of gold) See on ver.
i Chald. came up.
31-34, and at the end.
s Ezra vi. 10.
- Ver. 28.- Ver. 6.
Daniel and his companions
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B. C. 603. Ol. XLIV. 2. but there shall be in it of the king what shall come to pass OI. XLIV. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, strength of the iron, forasmuch as 9 hereafter: and the dream is Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 14. thou sawest the iron mixed with certain; and the interpretation R. Roman., 14. miry clay.
thereof sure. 42 And as the toes of the feet were part of 46 - Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and be partly strong, and partly. 8 broken. commanded that they should offer an oblation
43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed and sweet odours unto him. with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves
47 The king answered unto Daniel, and with the seed of men : but they shall not said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a Ġod cleave one to another, even as iron is not of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer mixed with clay.
of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this 44 And in i the days of these kings shall secret. the God of heaven set up a kingdom, 'which 48 Then the king made Daniel a great man, shall never be destroyed : and the m kingdom" and gave him many great gifts, and made shall not be left to other people, " but it shall him ruler over the whole province of Babylon, break in pieces and consume all these king- and chief of the governors over all the wise doms, and it shall stand for ever.
men of Babylon. 45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone 49 Then Daniel requested of the king, and was cut out of the mountain P without hands, he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, over the affairs of the province of Babylon : the clay, the silver, and the gold ; the great but Daniel *sat in the gate of the king.
& Or, brille. -b Chald. this with this.-i Chald. their days. • Ver. 35; Isa, xxviii. 16. —p Or, which was not in hand. Ver. 28.
-Chap. iv. 3, 34; vi. 26; vii. 14, 27; Mic. iv. 7; 4 Chald. after this. - See Acts x. 25;. xiv. 13; xxviii. 6. Luke i. 32, 33.-m Chald. kingdom thereof.- Psa. ii. 9; Isa.
Chap. iv. 9.; v. 11. lx. 12; 1 Cor. xv, 24.
Chap. iii. 12. - Esth. ii. 19, 21; iii. 2. Verse 44. A kingdom which shall never be destroyed) Daniel sat in the gate of the king.) That is, was The extensive and extending empire of Christ. the chief officer in the palace; and the greatest con
Shall not be left to other people) All the preceding fidant and counsellor of the king. But whateyer his empires have swallowed up each other successively; influence and that of his friends was, it extended only but this shall remain to the end of the world.
over the province of Babylon ; not through the empire. Verse 45. The dream is certain] It contains a just
A DISCOURSE ON NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S DREAM, representation of things as they shall be. And the interpretation thereof sure.] The parts of
chap. ii: 41–45. the dream being truly explained.
I shall now consider this most important vision more Verse 46. The king-fell upon his face) Prostrated at large, and connect it with a portion of the previous himself: this was the fullest act of adoration among history of the Jewish people. the ancients.
The kingdoms of Israel and Judah after a series of Worshipped Daniel] Supposing him to be a god, the most unparalleled ingratitude and rebellion, against or Divine being. No doubt Daniel forbade him ; for displays of mercy and benevolence, only equalled by to receive this would have been gross idolatry. their rebellions, were at last, according to repeated
Verse 47. Your God is a God of gods] He is threatenings, given over into the hands of their ene greater than all others.
mies. The inhabitants of the former country were subAnd a Lord of kings] He governs both in heaven dued and carried away captives by the Assyrians; and and earth.
those of the latter, by the Chaldeans. Verse 48. Made Daniel a great man] By, 1, Giv- The people of Israel never recovered their ancient ing him many rich gifts. 2. By making him gover- territories; and were so disposed of by their conquernor over the whole province of Babylon. And, 3. By ors, that they either became amalgamated with the making him the chief or president over all the wise heathen nations, so as to be utterly undistinguishable ;
or they were transported to some foreign and recluse Verse 49. Daniel requested of the king, and he set place of settlement, that the land of their residence Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego over the affairs of though repeatedly sought for and guessed at, has for the province of Babylon] He wished his three compa- more than two thousand years been totally unknown. nions promoted, who had shared his anxieties, and Judah, after having been harassed by the Chaldeans helped him by their prayers. They all had places of Egyptians, and others, was at last invaded by Nebutrust, in which they could do much good, and prevent chadnezzar, king of Babylon ; Jerusalem besieged and much evil.
taken ; and Jehoiachin the king, who had before be,