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Description of the plan
of Ezekiel's temple. Holy of Holies, at the west end, was twenty cubits the accuracy and minuteness of the description, have square on the inside, ver. 4. The holy place, or outer nothing equal to them in the Old Testament Scriptures. eourt at the east end, was forty cubits, ver. 12. The On such portions, I have felt it my duty to be very parlength of the porch on the north side was twenty cu- ticular, that I might be able to point out spiritual beaubits; the breadth was eleven cubits, chap. xl. 49; and ties and excellencies in this book which are beyond all the width of the separate place on the south side twenty praise ; while I passed slightly over prophecies and cubits. On each side of the temple, towards the four symbols which I did not fully understand ; but have left gates in the outer wall, stood two courts, eight in the to time, by the fulfilment of the events, to prove to whole, each one hundred cubits square, chap. xl. 19, successive generations with what heavenly wisdom this 23, 27. In each of these were thirty-six little cham- much neglected prophet has spoken.
And I take this bers or buildings, about six cubits square, viz., sir at opportunity to recommend this book to the serious pethe entrance of the gate, chap. xl. 7, 17, 20, &c., and rusal of every pious man; and while he wonders at thirty on the pavement, ver. 17, &c., which were for the extent of the wisdom by which Ezekiel has fathomed lodgings for the priests, for hanging up their garments, the depth of so many Divine mysteries, let him give and their part of the sacrifices, chap. xlii. 13.” God the glory for this additional testimony to the un
Calmet has constructed a map to show the position searchable riches of Christ, and that plenary salvation of the tribes, and the quantum of space each was to which he has purchased for, and freely offers to, the possess. As this will give a better view of the sub- vilest of the vile, and to the whole of the descendants ject than any written description can, I have inserted of Adam. one constructed for this work, which, consulting the
MÁSoretic Notes. —Number of verses, 1,273. places said to be connected with the possessions of the different tribes, shows that the tribes did not all possess
Middle verse, chap. xxvi. 1. Masoretic sections, 29. the same quantum of space, five of the southern tribes
DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAN OF EZEKIEL'S TEMPLE. possessing only one half as much as those of the north.
Verse 35. The name of the city from that day shall As I utterly despair of making the prophet's debe, The Lord is there.] It would have been better to scription of this temple intelligible without a plan, I have retained the original words :
have introduced one drawn up with great labour and
skill by Dom. August. Calmet, where the measure700 7177' YEHOVAH SHAMMAH.
ments, distances, gates, chambers, courts, inclosures, This is an allusion to the shechinah, or symbol of the &c., are all carefully entered as far as they could posDivine Presence, which was in the first, but most cer- sibly be ascertained from Ezekiel's description ; which, tainly was not in the second temple; but Ezekiel tells it must be allowed, though wondrously circumstantial, us that the Divine Presence should be in the city of is in several respects obscure. But by referring to the which he speaks ; and should be there so fully and so places, both in Kings and Chronicles, as well as in this · powerfully, that it should give name to the city itself; prophet, where the same things are mentioned, this and that the very name, Jehovah shammah, should re- obscurity will be considerably diminished, if not enmind all men of the supereminently glorious Being who tirely removed. At the same time, for a description had condescended to make this city his habitation. of the temple in general, I beg leave to refer the reader
Two points must be considered here :-1. That the to 1 Kings vi., at the end, where this subject is conprophet intended that, when they should be restored, sidered at large. they should build the temple, and divide the land as he
THE PLAN. here directs, if the thing could be found to be practicable. 2. That he had another temple, another holy [Let it be observed that the Hebrew cubit is about city, another Promised Land, in view. The land of
twenty inches and a half.) Immanuel, the city of the New Jerusalem; and his AAAA The first inclosure, or wall of six hundred temple, the Christian Church, which is the house of cubits, i. e., one thousand and twenty-five royal feet the living God, 1 Tim. iii. 15, in which the presence in length on each side, chap. xlv. 2 ; 'and six cubits of Christ shall ever be found; and all its inhabitants, or ten feet three inches high, and as many in breadth, all that believe on his name, shall be temples of the chap. xl. 5. Holy Ghost. Nor can there be any reasonable doubt BBBB The court of the Gentiles, or first court, fifty that the prophet here, by the Spirit of God, not only cubits in breadth, or eighty-five feet five inches, chap. points out the return of the Israelites from the Baby- xl. 2. lonish captivity, and what was to befall them previously CCCC The outward wall of the court of Israel, or to the advent of Jesus Christ; but also the glorious inclosure, five hundred cubits square, i. e., eight hunspread of the Gospel in the earth, and the final con- dred and fifty-four feet two inches. This wall might version of the tribes of Israel by the preaching of that be thirty cubits high, taken from the level of the Gospel.
threshold of the gate. In conclusion, I think it necessary to state, that there DDDD The court of Israel, one hundred cubits, or are but few of the prophets of the Old Testament who one hundred and seventy feet len inches broad, chap. have left a more valuable treasure to the Church of xl. 19. God than Ezekiel. It is true; he is in several places EEEE The outer wall, or inclosure of the court of obscure ; but there is a great proportion of the work the priests, two hundred cubits, or three hundred that is in the highest degree edifying ; and several por- and forty-one feet eight inches square, is supposed to tions that for the depth of the salvation predicted, and be thirty cubits, or fifty-one feet three inches in height.
Description of the plan
of Ezekiel's temple. FFF The court of the priests, one hundred cubits, the altar, chap. xl. 46; the aisles which were to the
or one hundred and seventy feet ten inches square, west of the north gate and of the south gate, chap. xl. 7 ; xli. 14, 15.
contained the halls where the priests ate, chap. G The Sanctuary, or Holy of Holies, twenty cubits, xlii. 13.
or thirty-four feet two inches square, chap. xli. 4; TT The kitchens of the court of the priests were 1 Kings vi. 2.
those where they dressed the trespass-offering, sinH The holy place, forty cubits long by twenty broad, offering, and the meat-offerings, forty cubits, or sir
or sixty-eight feet two inches long by thirty-four feet ty-eight feet four inches long, and thirty cubits, or
two inches broad, chap. xli. 2, and i Kings vi. 2. fifty-one feet five inches broad, chap. xlvi. 20. He I The vestibule or porch, twenty cubits in breadth, speaks only of that on the north.
by ten (or according to Ezekiel, eleven) cubits in VVVV Flights of steps which led to the court of
XXX Flights of steps which led to the court of the K The altar of burnt-offerings, twelve cubits, or priests; in each there were eight steps, chap. xl. 31, twenty feet six inches square, according to Ezekiel,
34, 37. chap. xliii. 12, 13, &c., or ten cubits high by twenty YY A flight of steps which led to the porch of the broad, i. e., seventeen feet one inch high, and thirty- Temple, eight steps in each, chap. xl. 49. four feet two inches broad, according to 2 Chron. aaa Chambers about the Temple, thirty-three in numiv. 1.
ber, Ezekiel makes them four cubits in breadth, chap. LLL The wall of separation which encompassed the xli. 5; but in 1 Kings vi. 5, 6, they are stated to
Temple, and the altar of burnt-offerings, of which be five cubits in the lower stage, sit in the second, the Scriptures do not give the dimensions.
and seven in the third. twenty cubits from the buildings in the court of the bb Flights of steps opposite to the chambers, which priests, and five from the Temple, chap. xli: 9, 10. were continued round the temple, chap. xli. 7, and Josephus makes it three cubits high, Antiq. lib. viii. 1 Kings vi. 8. c. 2.
The steps of the altar of burnt-offerings turned to-
court of the priests, all of the same dimensions, dddd Tables of hewn stone, which were in the por-
outward wall of the thirty-three chambers, which were NNNNNNNN Galleries around the court of Israel, around the holy place and the sanctuary, was only fire
chap. xl. I place there thirty pillars on a line of cubits broad, and fifteen high ; i. e., eight feet six inches
that of the priests, are of the same dimensions. The 00000000 Chambers or apartments round the wall where was the opening was six cubits, or ten feet
court of Israel; there were thirty on both sides of three inches in thickness. The gate was eighi cubits, the gate, or fifteen on each side, chap. xl. 17. or thirteen feet eight inches wide ; and the opening of PPPP
The kitchens of the Temple, forty cubits, or the gate was one cubit, and the gate was thirteen cusitty-eight feet four inches long by thirty cubits, or bits, or twenty-two feet two inches and a half high, fifty-one feet three inches broad, chap. xlv. 21, 22, chap. xl. 9, 11. 23, 24.
The western gate of the Temple is not mentioned Q The north gate of the court of the priests, where by Ezekiel, because, according to his plan, the king's
the victims were prepared, and where they slew the palace was not to be near the temple ; and consequently
animals designed for sacrifice, chap. xl. 38, 39. this gate, which was the gate of the king, did not exist. RRRR Galleries around the court of the priests, But this was not followed, as we find that, after the rechap. xlii. 3.
turn from Babylon, there were gates on the western SSSSSS Apartments continued round the court-of the side of the Temple, according to Josephus ; and before
priests. The aisle, which was to the south of the the captivity the western gate did most certainly exist,
Description of the plan
of Ezekiel's temple. 2. The gate of the holy place was ten eubits, or bits; for the temple was not higher, neither was Soloseventeen feet one inch wide, chap. xli. 1, 2.
mon's palace. See 1 Kings vii. 2. 3. The gate of the sanctuary was six cubits, or ten ExplanATION OF THE PLAN FOR THE DIVISION OF THE feet three inches wide. The wall of the separation was only two cubits, chap. xli. 1, 3.
LAND OF CANAAN, ACCORDING TO EZEKIEL'S VISION, 4. The east gate of the court of the priests was
chap. xlviii. shut all the week, and was not opened but on the Sab- A The Temple of the Lord, five hundred cubits square, bath and new moons, according to Ezekiel.
chap. xlv. 2. there that the king had his seat, a sort of tribunal, chap. BB The city of the Levites, four thousand five hunxliv. 2–4; xlvi. 1, 2, &c.
dred cubits square, and eighteen thousand in comCalmet observes, with respect to his plan, that he pass, chap. xlviii. 16. assigns only two galleries to the apartments which were Suburbs of the city of the Levites, two hundred around the court of Israel ; but those which were around and fifty cubits in breadth, chap. xlviii. 17. the court of the priests had three, chap. xlii. 3, 5, 6. dddd The twelve gates of the Levitical city, four on There is another difference between the palace (atrium) each side, chap. xlvii. 31–34. of the court of the priests, and that of the court of EE City of the lay persons or workmen employed Israel. The walls of the first were built with three in the service of the priests and of the Levites, five rows of hewn stones and one of cedar alternately, i thousand broad by twenty-five thousand cubits long, Kings vi. 36 ; but this is not said to be the same in chap. xlv. 6. the structure of the outward court, or that of the people. FF Cultivated ground for the maintenance of the lay
In the Old Testament we find no mention of the artisans, chap. xlviii. 15. court of the Gentiles. Only two courts are mentioned | GG Portion of the prince of Israel, twenty-five thouthere, one of the priests, the other of the people ; one sand cubits long by twelve thousand five hundred the inner, the other the outer court; but it is certain broad, chap. xlviii. 21. that such a court did exist, and is here marked BBBB. The whole extent of the land from Kadesh-barnea
The height of the aisles, or apartments that were south to (ethlon or Hamath north, was about two hunaround the two courts, is not mentioned any where in dred and twenty miles, its mean breadth about one the Scriptures; but they are here fixed at thirty cu- l hundred.
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK
DANIEL is said to have descended from the royal family of David ; and he appears to
have been carried into Babylon when very young, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah, A. M. 3393, B. C. 602, or 606 before the vulgar era. He and his three fellowcaptives, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, being likely youths, were chosen to be about the king's court, and were appointed to have an education suitable to the employments for which they were destined. As they had been carefully bred up in the Mosaic institutions, they regulated their conduct by them, even in the court of a heathen king, where they were in the capacity of slaves ; hence, though ordered to be fed from the royal table, they would not touch that food, because the Chaldeans ate of meat forbidden by the Mosaic law; and probably even that which might be denominated clean became defiled by having been sacrificed to idols before it was prepared for common' use: At their earnest request, the officer under whose care they were placed permitted them to use vegetables only; and finding that they grew healthy and strong by this aliment, did not oblige them to use the portion sent from the king's table.
Daniel appears to have been instructed in all the wisdom of the Chaldeans, which was at that time greatly superior to the learning of the ancient Egyptians; and he was soon distinguished in the Babylonish court, as well for his wisdom and strong understanding as for his deep and steady piety.
His interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the variously compounded metallic image raised his credit so high at the court that he was established governor of the province of Babylon, and made chief of all the Magians, or wise men in that country. The chief facts and incidents of his history are so particularly woven throughout the book bearing his name, and undoubtedly written by himself, that they need not be detailed here.
The reputation of Daniel was so great, even in his lifetime, that it became a proverb. “ Thou art wiser than Daniel,” said Ezekiel ironically to the king of Tyre, chap. xxviii. 3 ; and by the same prophet God ranks him among the most holy and exemplary of men, when he declares, speaking relative to Jerusalem, which had been condemned to destruction,
Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own lives by their righteousness," chap. xiv. 14, 20.
Josephus, Ant. lib. x., c. 12, says that God bestowed many favours on him : that he was advanced to the rank of the most considerable prophets; that he enjoyed the favour of princes, and the affection of the people during his life; and that after his death his memory became immortal. He observes also that, in the complexion of his predictions, he differs widely from all other prophets; they foretold scarcely any thing but disastrous events; on the contrary, he predicts the most joyous events, and fixes the times of accomplishment with more circumstantial precision than they did. And this is so true, that we cannot help thinking that God had given this eminent man a greater degree of light to fix the times when his predictions should issue, than he had given in general to all his predecessors, who simply declared the mind of God in relation to things future, without attempting to indicate the distance of time in which they should be fulfilled. There are but very few exceptions to this either in Isaiah or Jeremiah. And in this respect the prophecy of the seventy weeks of Daniel exceeds all that INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL. have gone before, as the incidents and transactions relative to its fulfilment were so various, and yet so fixed and declared six hundred years before the time, that when the time came in which they were predicted to take place, they were expected, and occurred exactly according io the prediction, and the expectations founded upon it. This prophet therefore, far from occupying a lower place among divinely inspired men, deserves to be placed in the front rank with all those who have been most distinguished among the men who have partaken most largely of the prophetic gift.
The rabbins have endeavoured to degrade Daniel, and have placed his prophecies among the hagiographa, books which they consider to possess a minor degree of inspiration, and it is probable that he meets with this treatment from them because his prophecies are proofs too evident that Jesus Christ is the true Messiah, and that he came at the very time that Daniel said the Prince Messiah should come. But the testimony and sayings of such, men are infinitely overpowered by the testimony of Ezekiel, which has been produced above ; and the testimony of our LORD, who gives him the title of prophet, Matt. xxiv. 15, without the slightest intimation that he was to wear this title with abatement.
It is very probable that Daniel did not return at the general restoration from the Babylonişh captivity. At that time, if alive, he must have been an old man; and it is most likely that he finished his days in Babylon, though some Asiatic authors hold that he returned to Judea with Ezra, came back afterward to Persia, and died in the city of Susa.
Josephus speaks of his skill in architecture, Antiq. lib. x., c. 12, and that he built a famous tower at Ecbatane or Susa, which remained to his time, and was so exquisitely finished that it always appeared as if newly built. In this tower or palace the kings of Persia were interred; and in consideration of its founder, the guard of it was always chosen from the Jews.
Daniel is famous among the orientalists.' The author of the Tareekh Muntekheb says that Daniel flourished in the time of Lohorasp, king of Persia ; and consequently in that of Ceresh, or Cyrus, who gave him the government of Syria; that he taught these two princes the knowledge of the true God; that he preached the true faith through the whole of the Babylonian Irak; and was, on the death of Nebuchadnezzar, sent by Bahman, (Artaxerxes Longimanus,) son of Asfendiar, who then reigned in Persia, into Judea ; and that, having returned, he died at Shouster, or Susa, the capital of Persia, where he lies interred.
Some have supposed that the Zoroaster or Zeradusht of the Persians is 'a confused picture of the Prophet Daniel. The account given by. Abul Pharaje, in his fifth dynasty, may be. considered favourable to this opinion. He says, " Zeradusht, author of the Magiouseiah Magism, or sect of the worshippers of fire, flourished in the reign of Cambasous, (Cambyses ;) that he was a native of the province of Adherbigian, or Media, or, according to others, of Assyria; that he foretold to his disciples the coming of the Messiah, who should be pointed out by a star which should appear in the day time at his birth ; that they should have the first information of his advent; that he should be born of a virgin; and that they should present him with gifts į because he is the WORD that made the heavens." See Pococke's Abul Pharajius, p. 83 of the Arabic, and 54. of the Latin.
D'Herbelot, on this account, makes the following remark : “We may sce by these words of the historian, that the prophecy of Balaam was pretty generally known throughout the east, and that the Magi, who came to worship our Lord, were the true Magians of Persia, and not Arab kings."
The account given by Abul Pharaje makes Daniel and Zeradusht contemporary, and thus far is favourable to the opinion that the history of the former may be disguised under that of the latter. There have been several Zoroasters, of whom many fables are told; and no wonder, when the persons themselves are generally fabulous.
The Asiatics make him the inventor of Los remel, or geomancy; and among them he passes for the author of a work entitled Assoul ol Tabeer, “The Principles of the Interpretation of Dreams.” I have in my own library a very ancient work which pretends to be drawn from this, and is entitled Somnia Daniel ; it was printed in the infancy of printing,