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The vision

of Isaiah. A. M. 3245. mundone ; because I am rus? Then said I, - Here am I ;

A. M. 3245. B. C. 759.

B. C. 759. Anno Olymp. man of unclean lips, and I dwell -send me.

Anno Olymp. Quintæ 2.

Quintæ 2. Ante Urbem in the midst of a people of un- 9 And he said, Go, and tell Ante Urbem Conditam 6.

Conditam 6. clean lips; for mine eyes have this people, Hear ye " indeed, seen the King, the Lord of hosts.

but understand not; and see ye windeed, 6 Then flew one of the seraphims unto but perceive not. me, n having a live coal in his hand, which 10 Make - the heart of this people fat, and he had taken with the tongs from off • the make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes : altar :

y lest they see with their eyes, and hear with 7 And he plaid it upon my mouth, and their ears, and understand with their heart, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and convert, and be healed. thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin 11 Then said I, Lord, how long? And he purged.

answered, : Until the cities be wasted without 8 Also I heard the voice of the Lord, say- inhabitant, and the houses without man, and ing, Whom shall I send, and who will go for the land be a utterly desolate,

m Heb. cut off. un Heb. and in his hand a live coal.-- co Rev. 40; Acts xxviii. 26; Rom. xi. 8. —° Or, without ceasing, &c. vii. 3. Heb. caused it to touch. -9 See Jer. i. 9; Dan. x. Heb. hear ye in hearing, &c.—w Heb. in seeing -* Psalm

-r Gen. i. 26 ; iii. 22; xi. 7.—.Heb. Behold . - Ch. cxix. 70; chap. Ixiii. 17. y Jer. v. 21. z Mic. iii. 12. xliii. 8; Matt. xvi. 14; Mark iv. 12; Luke viii. 10; John xii. a Heb. desolate with desolation. been a man of unclean lips, and because thou hast still mon saying in many languages. Demosthenes uses it, an unclean heart..

and expressly calls it a proverb: ώστε το της παροιI am undone—“I am struck dumb"] 1973 nid- Mas ópwvras un opąv, kai akovovras un akovelv ; Contra meythi, twenty-eight MSS. (five ancient) and three Aristogit. I., sub. fin. The prophet, by the bold figure editions. I understand it as from 017 dum or 097 in the sentiment above mentioned, and the elegant form dainam, silere, “ to be silent;" and so it is rendered and construction of the sentence, has raised it from a by the Syriac, Vulgate, Symmachus, and by some of common proverb into a beautiful mashal, and given it the Jewish interpreters, apud Sal. b. Melec. The the sublime air of poetry. rendering of the Syriac is "J8 917 tavir ani, stupens, Or the words may be understood thus, according to attonitus sum, “I am amazed.” He immediately the Hebrew idiom : “ Ye certainly hear, but do not ungives the reason why he was struck dumb : because derstand ; ye certainly see, but do not acknowledge." he was a man of polluted lips, and dwelt among a Seeing this is the case, make the heart of this people people of polluted lips; and was unworthy, either to fat-declare it to be stupid and senseless ; and remove join the seraphim in singing praises to God, or to be from them the means of salvation, which they have so the messenger of God to his people. - Compare Exod. long abused. iv. 10; vi. 12; Jer. i. 6.

There is a saying precisely like this in Æschylus :Verse 6. A live coal] The word of prophecy,

βλεποντες εβλεπον ματην, , which was put into the mouth of the prophet.

Κλυοντες ουκ ήκουον. .

Æsch. Prom. Vinct. 456. From off the altar] That is, from the altar of burnt.

“Seeing, they saw in vain; and hearing, they did offerings, before the door of the temple, on which the

not understand.” fire that came down at first from heaven (Lev. ix. 24; 2 Chron. vii. 1) was perpetually burning. It was never

And shul—"Close up"] yon hasha. This word to be extinguished, Lev vi. 12, 13.

Sal. ben Melec explains to this sense, in which it is Verse 9. And he said] 5'li, to me, two MSS: hardly used elsewhere, on the authority of Onkelos. and the Syriac. Thirteen MSS. have 17raah, in He says it means closing up the eyes, so that one canthe regular form.

not see; that the root is yu shava, by which word Verse 10. Make the heart of this people fat— the Targum has rendered the word nu tach, Lev. xiv. “Gross”] The prophet speaks of the event, the fact 42, n'a ne noi vetach eth beith, “and shall plaster the as it would actually happen, not of God's purpose and house." And the word no tach is used in the same act by his ministry. The prophets are in other places sense, Isa. xliv. 18. So that it signifies to close up

Mr. said to perform the thing which they only foretell :- the eyes by some matter spread upon the lids.

Harmer very ingeniously applies to this passage a prac“Lo! I have given thee a charge this day

rice of sealing up the eyes as a ceremony, or as a kind Over the nations, and over the kingdoms;

of punishment used in the East, from which the image To pluck up, and to pull down;

may possibly be taken. Observ. ii. 278. To destroy, and to demolish ;

With their heart"With their hearts”] 130521 To build, and to plant."

Jer. i. *10.

ubilebabo, fifteen MSS. of Kennicoll's and fourteen of And Ezekiel says, “When I came to destroy the De Rossi's, and two editions, with the Septuagint, Sycity;" that is, as it is rendered in the margin of our riac, Chaldee, and Vulgate. version, “when I came to prophesy that the city And be healed—" And I should heal”] X9781 veershould be destroyed;" chap. xliii. 3. To hear, and pa, Septuagint, Vulgate. So likewise Matt. xjü. 14; not understand ; to see, and not perceive; is a com- | John xii. 40 ; Acts xxviii. 27.

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against Judah. A. M. 3245. 12 And the LORD have re- 1 shall return, and shall be eaten :

A. M. 3245 B. C. 759.

B. C. 759. Anno Olymp. moved inen far away, and there as a teil tree, and as an oak, Anno Olymp Quintæ 2.

Quintæ 2. Ante Urbem be a great forsaking in the midst whose d substance is in them, Ante Urbem Conditam 6.

Conditam 6. of the land.

when they cast their leaves : So 13 But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it e the holy seed shall be the substance thereof. b 2 Kings xxv. 21. - Or, when it is returned, and hath been 4 Or, stock or stem.- - Ezra ix. 2; Mal. i. 13; Romans

xi. 5. Verse 11. Be utterly desolate--"Be left”] For and had become very numerous again in their country ; anon tishach, the Septuagint and Vulgate read 7x0n Hadrian, provoked by their rebellious behaviour, slew lishshaer.

above half a million more of them, and a second time Verse 13. A tenth] This passage, though somewhat almost extirpated the nation. Yet after these signal obscure, and variously explained by various interpret- and almost universal destructions of that nation, and ers, has, I think, been made so clear by the accom- after so many other repeated exterminations and masplishment of the prophecy, that there remains little sacres of them in different times and on various occaroom to doubt of the sense of it. When Nebuchad- sions since, we yet see, with astonishment, that the nezzar had carried away the greater and better part stock still remains, from which God, according to his of the people into captivity, there was yet a lenth re- promise frequently given by his prophets, will cause his maining in the land, the poorer sort left to be vine- people to shoot forth again, and to flourish.-L. dressers and husbandmen, under Gedaliah, 2 Kings A tenth, 770Y asiriyah. The meaning, says Kimxxv. 12, 22, and the dispersed Jews gathered them-chi, of this word is, there shall yet be in the land ten selves together, and returned to him, Jer. xl. 12; yet kings from the time of declaring this prophecy. The even these, fleeing into Egypt after the death of Ge- names of the ten kings are Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, daliah, contrary to the warning of God given by the Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiachin, Jeprophet Jeremiah, miserably perished there. gain, hoiakim, and Zedekiah ; then there shall be a general in the subsequent and more remarkable completion of consumption, the people shall be carried into captivity, the prophecy in the destruction of Jerusalem and the and Jerusalem shall be destroyed. dissolution of the commonwealth by the Romans, when For a bam, in them, above seventy MSS., eleven the Jews, after the loss of above a million of men, had of Kennicott's, and thirty-four of De Rossi's, read 03 increased from the scanty residue that was left of them, I bah, in it; and so the Septuagint.


CHAPTER VII. The king of Judah and the royal family being in the utmost consternation on receiving accounts of the inva

sion of the kings of Syria and Israel, the prophet is sent to assure them that God would make good his promises to David and his house ; so that, although they might be corrected, they could not be destroyed, while these prophecies remained to be accomplished, 1-9. The Lord gives Ahaz a sign that the confederacy against Judah shall be broken, which sign strikingly points out the miraculous conception of the Messiah, who was to spring from the tribe of Judah, 10-16. Prediclion of very heavy calamities which the

Assyrians would inflict upon the land of Judea, 17-25. A. M. cir. 3262. B. C. cir. 742. ND it came to pass in the Syria, and "Pekah the son of A. M. cir. 3262.

B. C. cir. 742. Anno Olymp. days of a Ahaz the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up

Anno Olymp. Nona 3.

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king toward Jerusalem to war against Ante Urbem Conditam 12. of Judah, that Rezin the king of it, but could not prevail against it.

Conditam 12. a 2 Kings xvi. 5 ; 2 Chron xxiii. 5, 6.

62 Kings xv. 25, 30, 37. The confederacy of Rezin, king of Syria, and Pe- subject of this, and the following, and the beginning of kah, king of Israel, against the kingdom of Judah, was the ninth chapters, in which there are many and great formed in the time of Jotham ; and perhaps the effects difficulties. of it were felt in the latter part of his reigu ; see 2 Chap. vii. begins with an historical account of the Kings xv. 37, and note on chap. i. 7-9. However, occasion of this prophecy ; and then follows, ver. 4-16, in the very beginning of the reign of Ahaz, they jointly a prediction of the ill success of the designs of the Isinvaded Judah with a powerful army, and threatened raelites and Syrians against Judah; and from thence to destroy or to dethrone the house of David. The king to the end of the chapter, a denunciation of the calaand royal family being in the utmost consternation on mities to be brought upon the king and people of Jureceiving advices of their designs, Isaiah is sent to dah by the Assyrians, whom they had now hired to them to support and comfort them in their present dis-assist them. Chap. viii. has a pretty close connection tress, by assuring them that God would make good his with the foregoing; it contains a confirmation of the promises to David and his house. This makes the prophecy before given of the approaching destruction

B. C. . .



against Judah. A. M. cir. 3262. B. C. cir. 742.

2 And it was told the house of Remaliah, have taken evil coun- 4. M. cir. 3262. Anno Olymp. David, saying, Syria cis con- sel against thce, saying,

Anno Olymp.

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem federate with Ephraim. And his 6 Let us go up against Judah, Ante Urbem Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. heart was moved, and the heart and i vex it, and let us make a of his people, as the trees of the wood are breach therein for us, and set a king in the moved with the wind.

amidst of it, even the son of Tabeal ; 3 Then said the LORD unto Isaiah, Go forth ng Thus saith the Lord God, It shall not now to meet Ahaz, thou, 4 and Shearjashub stand, neither shall it come to pass. thy son, at the end of the conduit of the 8 For the head of Syria is Damascus, and upper pool in the 8 highway of the fuller's field; the head of Damascus is Rezin ; and within

4 And say unto him, Take heed and be threescore and five years shall Ephraim be quiet; fear not, h neither be faint-hearted for broken, - that it be not a people. the two tails of these smoking firebrands, for 9 And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria,, and of the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son. n If the son of Remaliah.

°ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be 5 Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of established.

• Heb. resteth on Ephraim. Chap, x. 21. That is, The tender. Or, wakr.- * Prov. xxi. 30; chapter viii. 10. Temant shall return ; see ch. vi. 13 ; x. 21.- - 2 Kings xviii. 17; 2 Sam. viii. 6.- Heb. from a people. - See 2 Chron. xx. 20. chap. xxxvi. 2.- Or, causeway.-- - Heb. let not thy heart be • Or, Do ye not believe ? it is because ye are not stable.


of the kingdoms of Israel and Syria by the Assyrians, of them, and casting his eye on the third, might easily of the denunciation of the invasion of Judah by the proceed to write after the first line beginning with same Assyrians. Verses 9, 10, give a repeated gene- vxri verosh, that which ought to have followed the ral assurance, that all the designs of the enemies of third line beginning with oxy verosh. Then finding God's people shall be in the end disappointed, and his mistake, to preserve the beauty of his copy, added brought to naught; ver. 11, &c., admonitions and at the end the distich which should have been in the threatenings, (I do not attempt a more particular ex- middle; making that the second distich, which ought planation of this very difficult part,) concluding with to have been the third. For the order as it now stands an illustrious prophecy, chap. ix. 1-6, of the manifes- is preposterous : the destruction of Ephraim is detation of Messiah, the transcendent dignity of his cha- nounced, and then their grandeur is set forth ; whereas racter, and the universality and eternal duration of his naturally the representation of the grandeur of Ephraim kingdom,

should precede that of their destruction. And the de

struction of Ephraim has no coherence with the granNOTES ON CHAP. VII.

deur of Syria, simply as such, which it now follows: Verse 3. Now] *3 na, is omitted by two MSS., the but it naturally and properly follows the grandeur of Septuagint, Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate,

Ephraim, joined to that of Syria their ally. Verse 4. The Syriac omits 0781 vearam," and Sy- “The arrangement then of the whole sentence seems ria ;" the Vulgate reads Ow7509 melech aram, “king originally to have been thus :of Syria :" one or the other seems to be the true reading. I prefer the former : or, instead of ja? 19 Though the head of Syria be Damascus ; vearam uben, read ja npoi vepekach ben, and pekah | And the head of Ephraim be Samaria ,

And the head of Damascus Retsin;

And the head of Samaria Remaliah's son: Verse 5. Because_Remaliah] All these words are omitted by one MS. and the Syriac ; a part of them Yet within threescore and five years also by the Septuagint.

Ephraim shall be broken that he be no more a people.”

DR. JUBB. Verses 8, 9. For the head of Syria, fc.)

Threescore and five years] It was sixty-five years Though the head of Syria be Damascus, And the head of Damascus Retsin;

from the beginning of the reign of Ahaz, when this Yet within threescore and five years

prophecy was delivered, to the total depopulation of Ephraim shall be broken, that he be no more a the remains of the ten tribes which had been left by

the kingdom of Israel by Esarhaddon, who carried away people :

Tiglath-pileser, and Shalmaneser, and who planted the And the head of Ephraim be Samaria ;

country with new inhabitants. That the country was And the head of Samaria Remaliah's son.

not wholly stripped of its inhabitants by Shalmaneser “ Here are six lines, or three distichs, the order of appears from many passages of the history of Josiah, which seems to have been disturbed by a transposition, where Israelites are mentioned as still remaining there, occasioned by three of the lines beginning with the 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6, 7, 33 ; xxxv. 18; 2 Kings xxiii. same word wxi verosh, “and the head," which three 19, 20. This seems to be the best explanation of the lines ought not to have been separated by any other chronological difficulty in this place, which has much line intervening ; byt a copyist, having written the first embarrassed the commentators : see Usserii Annal.

son, MS.

p. 283.


Promise of

the Messiah. A. M. cir. 3262.

10 » Moreover the Lord spake men, but will ye weary my God 4M. cir. 3262. B. C. cir 742 Anno Olymp. again unto Ahaz, saying, also ?

Anno Olymp. Nonæ 3.

Nonæ 3. Ante Urbem 11 ? Ask thee a sign of the 14 Therefore the LORD' himself Ante Urbem Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. Lord thy God ; ' ask it either in shall give you a sign ; • Behold, a the depth, or in the height above.

virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and 12 But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither u shall call his name Immanuel. will I tempt the LORD.

15 Butter and honey shall he eat, that he 13 And he said, Hear ye now, O house of may know to refuse the evil, and choose the David, Is it a small thing for you to weary good.

PHeb. And the LORD added to speak.- - Judg. vi. 36, &c.; Chap. ix. 6. u Or, thou, O virgin, shalt call; see Genesis Matt. xii. 33. Or, make thy petition deep. Matt. i. 23 ; iv. 1, 25; xi. Il ; xxix. 32 ; xxx. 6, 8; 1 Sam. iv. 21.- Ch. Luke i. 31, 34.

viii. 8. V. T. ad an. 3327, and Sir I. Newton, Chronol. close connection of this threat to the Jews with the

prophecy of the destruction of Israel, is another strong “ That the last deportation of Israel by Esarhaddon proof that the order of the preceding lines above prowas in the sixty-fifth year after the second of Ahaz, is posed is right." - DR. JUBB. probable for the following reasons : The Jews, in Sès “ If ye believe not in me.”—The exhortation of Jeder Olam Rabba, and the Talmudists, in D. Kimchi on hoshaphat, 2 Chron. xx. 20, to his people, when God Ezek. iv., say, that Manasseh king of Judah was car- had promised to them, by the prophet Jahaziel, victory ried to Babylon by the king of Assyria's captains, 2 over the Moabites and Ammonites, is very like this Chron. xxxiii. 11, in the twenty-second year of his both in sense and expression, and seems to be delivered reign ; that is, before Christ 676, according to Dr. in verse : Blair's tables. And they are probably right in this.

“ Hear me, 0 Judah ; and ye inhabitants of JeruIt could not be much earlier ; as the king of Assyria was not king of Babylon till 680, ibid. As Esarhad

Believe in JEHOVAH your God, and ye shall be don was then in the neighbourhood of Samaria, it is

established : highly probable that he did then carry away the last

Believe his prophets, and ye shall prosper." remains of Israel, and brought those strangers thither who mention him as their founder, Ezra iv. 2. But Where both the sense and construction render very this year is just the sixty-fifth from the second of Ahaz, probable a conjecture of Archbishop Secker on this which was 740 before Christ. Now the carrying away place ; that instead of 'ki, we should read '3 bi. “ If the remains of Israel, who, till then, though their king. ye will not believe in me, ye shall not be established." dom was destroyed forty-five years before, and though So likewise Dr. Durell. The Chaldee has, “ If ye small in number, might yet keep up some form of be- will not believe in the words of the prophet ;" which ing a people, by living according to their own laws, seems to be a paraphrase of the reading here proposed. entirely put an end to the people of Israel, as a people In favour of which it may be farther observed, that in separate from all others : for from this time they never one MS.') ki is upon a rasure ; and another for the returned to their own country in a body, but were con- last xs lo reads xsi velo, which would properly follow founded with the people of Judah in the captivity; and a bi, but could not follow'd ki. the whole people, the ten tribes included, were called Some translate thus, and paraphrase thus : If ye Jews." - DR. JUBB. Two MSS. have twenty-five in- will not believe, surely ye shall not be established. Or, stead of sixty-five; and two others omit the word five, If ye do not give credit, it is because ye are unfaithreading only sixty.

ful. Ye have not been faithful to the grace already If ye will not believe" If ye believe not”] “ This given : therefore ye are now incapable of crediting my clause is very much illustrated by considering the cap- promises. tivity of Manasseh as happening at the same time with Verse 11. In the depth="Go deep to the grave"] this predicted final ruin of Ephraim as a people. The So Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the Vulgate. near connection of the two facts makes the prediction

Verse 14. The Lord-JEHOVAH"] For '97% Adonai, of the one naturally to cohere with the prediction of twenty-five of Kennicott's MSS., nine ancient, and the other. And the words are well suited to this event fourteen of De Rossi's, read 1717. Yehovah. And so in the history of the people of Judah : •If ye believe ver. 20, eighleen MSS. not, ye shall not be established ;' that is, unless ye be- Immanuel.] For Sugby Immanuel, many MSS. and lieve this prophecy of the destruction of Israel, ye Jews editions have 5s viny immanu El, God with us. also, as well as the people of Israel, shall not remain Verse 15. That he may know-"When he shall established as a kingdom and people ; ye also shall be know") “ Though so much has been written on this visited with punishment at the same time : as our Sa- important passage, there is an obscurity and inconseviour told the Jews in his time, ‘Unless ye repent, ye quence which still attends it, in the general run of all shall all likewise perish ;' intimating their destruction the interpretations given to it by the most learned. by the Romans ; to which also, as well as to the cap- And this obscure incoherence is given to it by the false tivity of Manasseh, and to the Babylonish captivity, rendering of a Hebrew particle, viz., 5 le, in inyos the views of the prophet might here extend. The I ledato. This has been generally rendered, either that Promise of


the Messiah. A. M. cir. 3202. 16 w For before the child shall | 17 y The Lord shall bring

A. M. cir. 3262. B. C. cir. 742.

B. C. cir. 742. Anno Olymp. know to refuse the evil, and upon thee, and upon thy peo- Anno Olymp. Nona 3

Nona 3 Ante Urbem choose the good, the land that ple, and upon thy father's house, Ante Urbem Conditam 12.

Conditam 12. thou abhorrest shall be forsaken days that have not come from of both her kings.

the day that. 2 Ephraim departed from " See chap. viii. 4.-_*2 Kings xv. 30; xvi. 9.

y 2 Chron. xxviii. 19.-1 Kings xii. 16. he may know,' or 'till he know.' It is capable of as a mark of peace restored to it. Indeed, in ver. 22 either version, without doubt; but either of these ver. it expresses a plenty arising from the thinness of the sions makes ver. 15 incoherent and inconsistent with people ; but that it signifies, ver. 15, a plenty arising ver. 16. For ver. 16 plainly means to give a reason from deliverance from war then present, is evident ; for the assertion in ver. 15, because it is subjoined to because otherwise there is no expression of this deliit by the particle '3 ki, for. But it is no reason why verance. And that a deliverance was intended to be a child should eat butter and honey till he was at an here expressed is plain, from calling the child which age to distinguish, that before that time the land of his should be born Immanuel, God with us. It is plain, nativity should be free from its enemies. This latter also, because it is before given to the prophet in supposition indeed implies what is inconsistent with the charge to make a declaration of the deliverance, ver. preceding assertion. For it implies, that in part of 3–7; and it is there made ; and this prophecy must that time of the infancy spoken of the land should not undoubtedly, be conformable to that in this matter."be free from enemies, and consequently these species Dr. Jubb. of delicate food could not be attainable, as they are in The circumstance of the child's eating butter and times of peace. The other version, that he may honey is explained by Jarchi, as denoting a state of know,' has no meaning at all; for what sense is there plenty : “ Butter and honey shall this child eat, bein asserting, that a child shall eat butter and honey that cause our land shall be full of all good.” Comment he may know to refuse evil and choose good? Is there in locum. The infant Jupiter, says Callimachus, was any such effect in this food ? Surely not. Besides, tenderly nursed with goat's milk and honey. Hymn. the child is thus represented to eat those things, which in Jov. 48. Homer, of the orphan daughters of Panonly a state of peace produces, during its whole in- dareus :: fancy, inconsistently with ver. 16, which promises a

Κομισσε δε δι' Αφροδιτη relief from enemies only before the end of this infan

Τυρω, και μελιτι γλυκερω, και ηδει oινω. cy: implying plainly, that part of it would be passed

68. in distressful times of war and siege, which was the state of things when the prophecy was delivered.

Venus in tender delicacy rears “But all these objections are éut off, and a clear,

With honey, milk, and wine, their infant years." coherent sense is given to this passage, by giving an

Pope. other sense to the particle 5 le, which never occurred Tpvons eoTLV EVDELFIS ; " This is a description of delicate to me till I saw it in Harmer's Observat., vol. i., p. food,” says Eustathius on the place. 299. See how coherent the words of the prophet run, Agreeably to the observations communicated by the with how natural a connection one clause follows an- learned person above mentioned, which perfectly well other, by properly rendering this one particle : · Behold explain the historical sense of this much disputed this Virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and thou passage, not excluding a higher secondary sense, the shalt call his name Immanuel ; butter and honey shall obvious and literal meaning of the prophecy is this : he eat, when he shall know to refuse evil, and choose " that within the time that a young woman, now a good. For before this child shall know to resuse evil virgin, should conceive and bring forth a child, and and choose good, the land shall be desolate, by whose that child should arrive at such an age as to distinguish two kings thou art distressed.' Thus ver. 16 subjoins between good and evil, that is, within a few years, a plain reason why the child should eat butter and (compare chap. viii. 4,) the enemies of Judah should honey, the food of plentiful times, when he came to a be destroyed.” But the prophecy is introduced in so distinguishing age ; viz., because before that time the solemn a manner; the sign is so marked, as a sign secountry of the two kings, who now distressed Judea, lected and given by God himself, after Ahaz had reshould be desolated; and so Judea should recover that jected the offer of any sign of his own choosing out plenty which attends peace. That this rendering, which of the whole compass of nature; the terms of the progives perspicuity and rational connection to the passage, phecy are so peculiar, and the name of the child so is according to the use of the Hebrew particle, is cer- expressive, containing in them much more than the tain. Thus pa nies liphnoth boker, ' al the appear- circumstances of the birth of a common child required, ing of morning, or when morning appeared,' Exod. xiv. or even admitted ; that we may easily suppose that, in 27; 517 nys leeth haochel, at meal-time, or when minds prepared by the general expectation of a great it was time to eat,' Ruth ii. 14. In the same manner, Deliverer to spring from the house of David, they inyah ledato, at his knowing, that is, when he knows.' raised hopes far beyond what the present occasion sug

Harmer (ibid.) has clearly shown that these 'arti- gested; especially when it was found, that in the subcles of food are delicacies in the East, and, as such, sequent prophecy, delivered immediately afterward, this denote a state of plenty. See also Josh. v. 6. They child, called Immanuel, is treated as the Lord and therefore naturally express the plenty of the country, Prince of the land of Judah, Who could this be,

Odyss. XX.,

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