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The vision of the
CHAP. XXXVII.

two sticks united. A. M. cir. 3417. then take another stick, and write more with their idols, nor with A. M. cir. 3417. 01. XLVIII. 2. upon it, For Joseph, the stick of their detestable things, nor with Oi. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., Ephraim, and for all the house any of their transgressions : but R. Roman., cir, annum 30.

of Israel his companions : I will save them out of all their cir. annum 30. 17 And o join them one to another into one dwelling-places, wherein they have sinned, and stick; and they shall become one in thine hand will cleanse them : so shall they be my people,

18 And when the children of thy people sball and I will be their God. speak unto thee, saying, "Wilt thou not show 24 And · David my servant shall be king us what thou meanest by these?

over them; and bthey all shall have one shep 19 Say unto them, Thus saith the Lord herd : they shall also walk in my judgments, God; Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, and observe my statutes, and do them. which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes 25 . And they shall dwell in the land that I of Israel his fellows, and will put them with have given unto Jacob, my servant, wherein him, even with the stick of Judah, and make your fathers have dwelt ; and they shall dwell them one stick, and they shall be one in mine therein, even they, and their children, and their hand.

children's children for ever: and 'my servant 20 And the sticks whereon thou writest shall David shall be their prince for ever. be in thine hand u before their

eyes.

26 Moreover I will make a 8 covenant of 21 And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord peace with them; it shall be an everlasting God; Behold, I will take the children of Is- covenant with them : and I will place them, rael from among the heathen, whither they be and h multiply them, and will set my i sanctugone, and will gather them on every side, and ary in the midst of them for evermore. bring them into their own land :

27 My tabernacle also shall be with them: 22 And I w will make them one nation in the yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my land upon the mountains of Israel; and one people. king shall be king to them all: and they shall 28 m And the heathen shall know that I the be no more two nations, neither shall they be LORD do sanctify Israel, when my sancdivided into two kingdoms any more at all : tuary shall be in the midst of them for ever23 y Neither shall they defile themselves any more. 9 See ver. 22, 24.- Chap. xii. 9; xxiv. 19. - Zech. x. 6. Chap. xxxvi. 27.

-d Chap. xxxvi. 28. - Isa. Ix. 21; Joel Ver. 16, 17. · Chap. xii. 3. — Chap. xxxvi. 24.—w Isa. iii. 20; Amos ix. 15. - Ver. 24; John xii. 34.—Psa. xi. 13; Jer. ii. 18; 1. 4; Hos. i, 11,- - Chap. xxxiv. 23, 24 ; lxxxix. 3; Isa. lv. 3; Jer. xxxii. 40; chap. xxxiv. 25. John x. 16. -y Chap. xxxvi. 25. — Ch. xxxvi. 28, 29. Isa. xxxvi. 10, 37,--2 Cor. vi. 16. _k Lev. xxvi. 11, 12; chap. xl. 11 ; Jer. xxiii. 5; xxx. 9; chap. xxxiv. 23, 24 ; Hosea iü. 5; xliii. 7; John i. 14.- Chap. xi. 20;, xiv. 11 ; xxxvi. 28. Luke i. 32. Ver. 22; John X. 16.

m Chap. xxxvi. 23.— Chap. xx. 12. whole tribe ever returned to that kingdom. Common And one king shall be king to them all] Polítically Bufferings in their captịvity became the means of re- speaking, they never had a king from that day to this ; viving a kinder feeling; and to encourage this, God and the grand junction and government spoken of here promises that he will reunite them, and restore them must refer to another time--to that in which they shall to their own land; and that there shall no more be any be brought into the Christian Church with the fulness divisions or feuds among them. To represent this in of the Gentiles; when Jesus, the King of kings and such a way as would make it a subject of thought, re- Lord of lords, shall rule over all. flection, and inquiry, the prophet is ordered to take the Verse 24. And David my servant shall be King] two sticks mentioned above, to write on them the dis- That this refers to Jesus Christ, see proved, chap. tinguishing names of the divided kingdoms, and then xxxiv. 23. by a notch, dovetail, glue, or some such method, to Verse 25. The land that I have given unto Jacob unite them both before the people. He did so ; and my servant] Jacob means here the twelve tribes ; and on their inquiry, showed them the full meaning of this the land given to them was the whole land of Palessymbolical action.

tine ;, consequently, the promise states that, when they Verse 19. The stick of Joseph, which is in the hand return, they are to possess the whole of the Promised of Ephraim] Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes, Land. was an Ephraimile. Joseph represents the ten tribes Verse 26. Covenant of peace] See this explained in general : they were in the hand of Ephraim, that chap. xxxiv. 25. is, under the government of Jeroboam.

Verse 27. My tabernacle] Jesus Christ, the true Verse 22. I will make them one nation] There was tabernacle, in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godno distinction after the return from Babylon.

head bodily.

V

– Chap.

2

Gog, and the land of Magog,

EZEKIEL

enemies of God's people.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

The sublime prophecy contained in this and the following chapter relates to Israel's victory over Gog, and

is very obscure. It begins with representing a prodigious armament of many nations combined together, under the conduct of Gog, with the intention of overwhelming the Jews, after having been for some time resettled in their land subsequent to their return from the Babylonish captivity, 1-9. These enemies are farther represented as making themselves sure of the spoil, 10-13. But in this critical conjuncture when Israel, to all human appearance, was about to be swallowed up by her enemies, God most graciously appears, to execute by terrible judgments the vengeance threatened against these formidable adversaries of his people, 14-16. The prophet, in terms borrowed from human passions, describes, with awful emphasis, the fury of Jehovah as coming up to his face; and the effects of it so dreadful, as to make all the animate

and inanimate creation tremble, and even to convulse with terror the whole frame of nature, 17-23 B. C. cir: 3877 AND the word of the Lord great company with bucklers and A. M. cir. 3417

.

B. C. cir. 587. Ol. XLVIII. 2. came unto me, saying, shields, all of them handling 1. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 2 « Son of man, bset thy face swords :

R. Roman., cir. annum 30. against o Gog, the land of Magog, 5 Persia, Ethiopia, and b Libya

cir. annem 30. d the chief prince of • Meshech and Tubal, and with them; all of them with shield and helmet: prophesy against him,

6 i Gomer, and all his bands; the house of 3 And say, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of bands : and many people with thee. Meshech and Tubal :

7 Be thou prepared, and prepare for thyself, 4 And 'I will turn thee back, and put hooks thou, and all thy company that are assembled into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and unto thee, and be thou a guard unto them. all thine army, horses and horsemen, 8 all of 8 m After many days thou shalt be visited: them clothed with all sorts of urmour, éven a in the latter years thou shalt come into the * Chap. xxxix. 1. - Chap. xxxv. 2, 3.- Rev. xx. 8. h-Or, Phut ; chap. xxvii. 10; xxx. 5.- Gen. x. 2.

Ch. a Or, prince of the chief.- Chap. xxxii. 26. 12 Kirgs xix. xxvii. 14. — Like Isa. viii. 9, 10; Jer. xlvi 3, 4, 14; li. 12. 28; chap. xxix. 4; xxxix. 2. - Chap. xxi. 12.

m Gen. xlix. I; Deut. iv. 30; ver. 16. - Isa. xxix. 6. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVIII.

concludes, after examining all previous opinions, that Verse 2. Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the Antiochus Epiphanes, the great enemy of the Israelland of Mago:) This is allowed to be the most diffi- ites, is alone intended here; and that Gog, which sigcult prophecy in the Old Testament, It is difficult to nifies covered, is an allusion to the well-known character us; because we know not the king nor people intended of Antiochus, whom historians describe as an artful, by it: but I am satisfied they were well known by cunning, and dissembling man. See Dan. viii. 23, these names in the time that the prophet wrote. 25 ; xi. 23, 27, 32. Magog he supposes to mean the

I have already remarked in the introduction to this country of Syria. Of this opinion the following quobook that there are but two opinions on this subject that tation from Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. v., c. 23, seems a appear to be at all probable : 1. That which makes proof; who, speaking of Cæle-Syria, says : Cæle ha"Gog Cambyses, king of Persia ; ånd, 2. That which bet Apamiam Marsyia amne divisam a Nazarinorum makes him ANTIOCHUS EPIPHanes, king of Syria. And Tetrarchia. Bambycem quam alio nomine Hierapolis between these two (for one or other is supposed to be vocatur, Syris vero Magog. “Cæle-Syria has Apathe person intended) men are much divided.

mia separated from the tetrarchy of the Nazarenes by Calmet, one of the most judicious commentators that the river Marsýia ; and Bambyce, otherwise called Hieever wrote on the Bible, declares for Cambyses ; and rapolis ; but by the Syrians, Magog." supports his opinion, in opposition to all others, by many, I shall at present examine the text by this latter arguments.

opinion. Mr. Mede supposes the Americans are meant, who Chief prince of Meshech and Tubal] These probably were originally colonies of the Scythians, who were mean the auxiliary forces, over whom Antiochus was descendants of Magog, son of Japheth. Houbigant supreme ; they were the Muscovites and Cappadocians. declares for the Scythians, whose neighbours were the Verse 4. I will turn thee back] Thy enterprise shall fail. people of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, that is the Rus- Verse 5. Persia). That a part of this country was sians, Muscovites, and Tybareni or Cappadocians. tributary to Antiochus, see 1 Macc. iii. 31. Several eminent critics espouse this opinion. Rabbi Ethiopia, and Libya That these were auxiliaries David Kimchi says the Christians and Turks are of Antiochus is evident from Dan. xi. 43 : “ The Limeant : and of later opinions there are several, founded byans and Ethiopians shall be at his steps." in the ocean of conjecture. Calmet says expressly, Verse 6. Gomer, and all his bands; the house of that Gog is Cambyses, king of Persia, who on his re- Togarmah] The Cimmerians and Turcomanians, and turn from the land of Egypt, died in Judea. The Rev. other northern nations. —Calmet. David Martin, pastor of the Waloòn church at Utrecht, Verse 8. In the latter years thou shall come] This

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R. Roman., cir. annum 30.

R. Roman., cir. annum 30.

Judgments threatened against CHAP. XXXVIII. the enemies of God's people A: M. cir

. 3817. lând that is brought back from unto Gog, Thus saith the Lord 4. M. cir. 3417. 01. XLVII. 2. the sword, and is gathered out God; In that day when my Oi. XLVIII. 2: Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, of many people, against othe people of Israel dwelleth safely,

mountains of Israel, which have shalt thou not know it? been always waste: but it is brought forth 15 8 And thou shalt come from thy place out out of the nations, and they shall Pdwell safely of the north parts, thou, hand many people with all of them.

thee, all of them riding upon horses, a great 9 Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm, company, and a mighty army: thou shalt be ' like a cloud to cover the land, 16 And thou shalt come up against my peothou, and all thy bands, and many people with ple of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; kit thee.

shall be in the latter days, and I will bring thee 10 Thus saith the Lord God; It shall also against my land, that the heathen may know come to pass that at the same time shall things me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog, come into thy mind, and thou shalt s think an before their-eyes. evil thought:

17 Thus saith the Lord God; Art thou he 11 And thou shalt say, I will go up to the of whom I have spoken in old time, - by my land of unwalled villages; I will go to them servants the prophets of Israel, which prophethat are at rest," that dwell "safely, all of them sied in those days many years that I would dwelling without walls, and having neither bars bring thee against them ? nor gates,

18. And it shall come to pass at the same 12 w To take a spoil, and to take a prey, to time when Gog shall come against the land of turn thine hạnd upon the desolate places that Israel, saith the Lord God, that my fury shall are now inhabited, Yand upon the people that come up in my face. are gathered out of the nations, which have 19 For " in my jealousy " and in the fire of gotten cattle and goods, that dwell in the 2 midst my wrath have I spoken, P Surely in that day of the land.

there shall be a great shaking in the land of 13 a Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants Israel ; of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof, 20 So that 9 the fishes of the sea, and the shall say unto thee, Art thou 'come to take a fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, spoil ? hast thou gathered thy company to take and all creeping things that creep upon the a prey? to carry away silver and gold, to take earth, and all the men that are upon the-face away cattle and goods, to take a great spoil ? .of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and

14 Therefore, son of man, prophesy and say the mountains shall be thrown down, and the

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» Ver. 12; chap. xxxiv, 13.-0 Chap. xxxvi. I, 4, 8. P Jer. a Chap. xxvii. 22, 23. Chap. xxvii. 15, 20.- -c Chap. xxvii. xxii. 6; chap. xxvii. 26 ; xxxiv. 25, 28; ver. 11.- -9 Isa. 12. - See chap. x. 3,5. Le Isa. iv. 1.- Ver. 8. Chap. xxviii. 2.- Jer. iv. 13; ver. 16.—__ Or, conceive a mischiev. xxxix. 2.- Ver. 6. i Ver. 9. Ver. 8. Exod. xiv. 4; ous purpose.

-1 Jer. xlix. 31. - Ver. 8.- Or, confidently. chap. xxxvi. 23 ; xxxix. 21. m Heb. by the hands. Chap. * Heb. To spoil the spoil, and to prey the prey; ehap. xxix. 19. xxxvi. 5, 6; xxxix. 25. Psa. lxxxix. 46.—Hag. ii. 6,7; Chap. xxxvi. 34, 35. Ver, 8. - Heb. navel ; Judg. ix. 37. Rev. xvi. 18.- -Hos. iv. 3. Jer. iv. 24; Nah. i. 5, 6.

was fulfilled about four hundred years after.-Martin. his soldiers, and spoiled the temple of its riches, which The expedition of Cambyses against Egypt was about were immense. See Joseph. War, B, i. c. 1. twelve years after the return of the Jews from Baby- Verse 13. Sheba, and Dedan} The Arabians, anlon.—Calmet.

ciently great plunderers; and Tarshish, the inhabitants Verse g. Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm) of the famous isle of Tartessus, the most noted merIt is observable that Antiochus is thus spoken of by chants of the time. They are here represented as Daniel, chap. xi. 40 : The king of the northAntio- coming to Antiochus before he undertook the expedi.. chus, shall come against him (the king of the south is tion, and bargaining for the spoils of the Jews. Art the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind.

thou come to take a spoil, to carry away silver and Verse 10. Shall things come into thy mind, and thou gold, cattle and goods ? shalt think an evil thought] Antiochus purposed to Verse 16. When I shall be sanctificd in hee, o invade and destroy Egypt as well as Judea ; see Dan. Gog] By the defeat of his troops under Lysias, his xi. 31, 32, 36. This Calmel interprets of Cambyses, general. 1 Mac. iii. 32, 33, &c., and chap. vi. 6. his cruelties in Egypt, and his evil design to destroy Verse 17. Art thou he of whom I have spoken in the Israelites.

old time] This prophecy concerning Antiochus and the Verse 12. To take a spoiland a prey] When Jews was delivered abont four hundred years before Antiochus took Jerusalem he gave the pillage of it to the events took place.—Martin. Calmet maintains

cir. annum 30.

cir. annum 30.

Prophecy against

EZEKIEL:

Gog and his army. 4. M. cir. 3417; * steep places shall fall

, and every | hiin, and upon his bands, and upon B. C. cit. 537. oi. XLVIII: 2: wall shall fall to the ground: the many people that are with him, Ol. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisoi,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman,

21 And I will call for ua an overflowing rain, and ? great. R. Roman.,

sword against him throughout all hailstones, fire, and brimstone. my mountains, saith the Lord God: every 23 Thus will I magnify myself

, and · sanctify man's sword shall be against his brother. myself; and I will be known in the eyes of

22 And I will w plead against him with * pes- many nations, and they shall know that I am
tilence and with blood; and y I will rain upon the Lord.
* Or, towers, or stairs. i Psa cv. 16. Chap. xiv. 17.

Chap. v. 17. - Psa. xi. 6; Isa. xxix. 6; xxx. 30. Chap.
Judg. vii. 22; 1 Sam. xiv. 20; 2 Chron. XX. 23. Isa. lxvi. xi. 17; Rev. xvi. 21.- Chap. xxxvi. 23.

—Psa. ix, 16; 16; Jer. xxv. 31.

chap. xxxvii. 28 ; xxxix. 7; ver. 16. : that Cambyses is spoken of, and refers to ancient pro- Verse 22. Great hailstones, fire, and brimstone.} phecies, especially Isa. xiv., XV., xvi. 20, 21. These are probably figurative expressions, to signify

Verse 21. I will call for a sword against him] that the whole tide of the war should be against him, Meaning Judas Maccabeus, who defeated his army and that his defeat and slaughter should be great. ander Lysias, making a horrible carnage.-Mar- Abp. Newcome supposes all the above prophecy relin. Cambyses had no wars in the mountains of mains yet to be fulfilled. Where such eminent scribes Israel.

are divided, who shall decide!

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CHAPTER XXXIX.

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The prophet goes on to denounce the Divine judgments against Gog and his army, 1-7; and describes their

dreadful slaughter, 8-10, and burial, 11-16, in terms so very lofty and comprehensive, as must certainly denote some very extraordinary interposition of Providence in behalf of the Jews. And to' amplify the matler still more, the prophet, with peculiar art and propriety, delays the summoning of all the birds and beasts of prey in nature to feast on the slain, (in allusion to the custom of feasting on the remainder of sacrifices,) till after the greater multitudes are buried; to intimate that even the remainder, and as it were the stragglers of such mighty hosts, would be more than sufficient to satisfy their utmost rapacity, 17-20. The remaining verses contain a prediction of the great blessedness of the people of God in Gospel times, and of the stability of the kingdom of Christ, 21-29. It will be proper to remark that the great northern expedition against the natural Israel, described in this and the preceding chapter, is, from ils striking resemblance in the main particulars, put by the writer of the Apocalypse, (chap. xx. 7-10,) for a much more formidable armament of a multitude of nations in the four quarters of the earth against the pure Christian Church, the mystICAL Israel; an event still extremely remote, and which it is thought shall immediately

precede the destruction of the world by fire, and the general judgment. 13.MC. cir. 3477 THEREFORE, " thou son of hand, and will cause thine arrows A. M. cit

. 3117.

B. C. cir. 587.
Ol. XLVIII. 2. man, prophesy against Gog, to fall out of thy right hand. Ol. XLVIII. 2.
Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman.,

Tarquinii Prisci, and say, Thus saith the Lord 4 . Thou shalt fall upon the R. Roman., cir. annum 30. God; Behold, I am against thee, mountains of Israel, thou, and all cir. annum 30. O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and thy bands, and the people that is with thee : Tubal ;

I will give thee unto the ravenous birds of 2 And I will turn thee back, and " leave but every 8 sort, and to the beasts of the field 1 to the sixth part of thee, cand will cause thee to be devoured. come up from the north parts, and will bring 5 Thou shalt fall upon the open field : for thee upon the mountains of Israel :

I have spoken it, saith the Lord God. 3 And I will smite thy bow out of thy left 6 And I will send a fire on Magog, and

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a Chap. xxxviii. 2, 3. - Or, strike thee with sir plagues ; or, Chap. xxxviii. 21 ; ver. 17. --Chap. xxxiii. 27.draw thee back with a hook of six teeth, as chap. xxxviii. 4.— < Ch. wing. - Heb. to devour. - Heb. the face of the field. Xxxviii. 15. _d Heb. the sides of the north.

xxxviii. 22; Amos i. 4.

* Heb.
Ch.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXIX.

Xxxviii. 5, were famous as archers, and they may be
Verse 2. And leave but the sixth part of thee] The intended here. :: The bow is held by the left hand; the
margin has, strike thee with six plagues ; or, draw thee arrow is pulled and discharged by the right.
back with a hook of six teeth.

Verse 6. I will send a fire on Magog) On Syria.
Verse 3. I will smite thy bow out of thy left hand] I will destroy the Syrian troops.
The Persians whom Antiochus had in his army, chap. And

among them that dwell carelessly in the isles)
530

( 34* :)

1

cir. annum 30.

у

S

W

The total defeat of
CHAP. XXXIX.

Gog and his army. A. M. cir. 3417.

them that dwell among

careB. C. cir. 587.

10 So that they shall take no A. M. cir. 3417. Ol. XLVIII. 2: lessly in the isles; and they wood out of the field, neither 01. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

shall know that I am the cut down any out of the forests ; R. Roman., cir, annum 30. LORD.

for they shall burn the weapons 7 So will I make my holy name known in with fire : "and they shali spoil those that the midst of my people Israel; and I will not spoiled them, and rob those that robbed them, let them pollute my holy name any more : saith the Lord God.' P and the heathen shall know that I am the 11 And it shall come to pass in that day, LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

that I will give unto Gog a place there of 8 Behold, it is come, and it is done, saith graves in Israel, the valley of the passengers the Lord God; this is the day 'whereof I on the east of the sea; and it shall stop the have spoken.

noses of the passengers : and there shall 9 And they that dwell in the cities of Israel they bury Gog and all his multitude: and they shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn shall call it The valley of Hamon-gog. the weapons, both the shields and the buck- 12 And seven months shall the house of lers, the bows and the arrows, and the hand- Israel be burying of them, " that they may staves, and the spears, and they shall burn cleanse the land. them with fire seven years :

13 Yea, all the people of the land shall 1 Or, confidently. Psa. lxxii. 10.- - Ver. 22. Lev. * Or, javelins.- Or, make a fire of them. Isa. xiv. 2. xrui. 21 ; chap. xx. 39.- -p Chap. xxxvji. 16, 23. -4 Rev. xvi. Or, mouths. That is, The multitude of Gog:

* Deut. 17; xxi. 6. -- Chap. xxxviii. 17.

xxi. 23 ; ver. 14, 16. The auxiliary troops that came to Antiochus from the of lances, javelins, and such like, that they served them borders of the Euxine Sea.-Martin.

for four years for fuel. And probably these instruVerse 7. In the midst of my people Israel] This ments obtained by the Israelites were used in general defeat of Gog is to be in Israel : and it was there ac- for culinary firewood, and might literally have served cording to this propheey, that the immense army of them for seven years; so that during that time they Antiochus was so completely defeated.

should take no wood out of the fields, nor out of the And I will not let them pollute my holy name any forests for the purpose of fuel, ver. 10. more) See ón 1 Macc. i. 11, &c., how Antiochus had Verse 11. The valley of the passengers on the east profaned the temple, insulted Jehovah and his worship, of the sea] That is, of Gennesareth, according to the &c. God permitted that as a scourge to his disobedient Targum. The valley near this lake or sea is-called the people ; but now the scourger shall be scourged, and Valley of the Passengers, because it was a great road he shall pollute the sanctuary no more.

by which the merchants and traders from Syria and Versė 9. And shall set on firethe weapons] The other eastern countries went into Egypt; see Gen. Israelites shall make bonfires and fuel of the weapons, xxxvii. 17; 25. See Calmet here. tents, &c., which the defeated Syrians shall leave be- There shall they bury Gog and all his multitude)

hind them, as expressive of the joy which they shall Some read, “There shall they bury Gog, that is, all feel for the destruction of their enemies; and to keep his multitude.” Not Gog, or Antiochus himself, for he up, in their culinary consumption, the memory of this was not in this battle; but his generals, captains, and great event.

soldiers, by whom he was represented. As to HamonThey shall burn them with fire seven years] These gog, we know no valley of this name but here. But may be figurative expressions, after the manner of the we may understand the words thus : the place where Asiatics, whose language abounds with such descrip- this great slaughter was, and where the multitudes of tions. They occur every where in the prophets. As the slain were buried, might be better called Hamon, to the number seven, it is only a certain for an indeter- 1 gog, the valley of the multitude of Gog, than the valminate number. But as the slaughter was great, and ley of passengers ; for so great was the carnage there, the bows, arrous, quivers, shields, bucklers, handstaves, that the way of the passengers shall be stopped by it. and spears were in vast multitudes, it must have taken See the text. a long time to gather them up in the different parts of Verse 12. And seven months) It shall require a long the fields of battle, and the roads in which the Syrians time to bury the dead. This is another figurative exhad retreated, throwing away their arms as they pro- pression ; which, however, may admit of a good deal ceeded; so there might have been a long time em- of literal meaning. Many of the Syrian soldiers had ployed in collecting and burning them. And as all secreted themselves in different places during the pur: seem to have been doomed to the fire, there might have suit after the battle, where they died of their wounds, been some found at different intervals and burned, du- of hunger, and of fatigue ; so that they were not all ring the seven years here mentioned. Mariana, in his found and buried till seven months after the defeat of History of Spain, lib. xi., c. 24, says, that after the the Syrian army. This slow process of burying is disSpaniards had given that signal overthrow to the Sa- tinctly related in the three following verses, and ex. raceps, A. D. 1212, they found such a vast quantity tended even to a bone, ver. 15; which, when it was

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